Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
6 ATTACHMENT TOP SEVEN EMERGING TOPICS DEVELOPED AT THE FORUM 1. TOTAL CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE Background Statement Customer service for airports is a constantly evolv- ing moving target. A passengerâs experience is influ- enced at many touch points, from visiting an airportâs website, traveling to the airport, being processed by security, and visiting concessions, to boarding the flight. There are also other customers [i.e., meeter/ greeters, tenants, general aviation (GA) users]; yet airports often have limited influence on many of their touchpoints. A positive customer experience is the goal of airport communities and can result in increased spending at the airport. ACRP Report 157: Improving the Airport Customer Experience offers comprehensive guidance to help airports address many topics related to improving and maintaining customer experience. However, the evolving expectations of air- port customers, combined with the emergence of new technologies and social issues, suggest an update and broadened scope for ACRP Report 157 is needed. Research Ideas Update ACRP Report 157. The following topics are important to improving the airport experience and addressing the needs of customers, tenants, and GA users. â¢ Keeping track of ever-changing expectations. â¢ Identifying demographic trends. â¢ Focusing not only on technology but funda- mentals. â¢ Identifying core touchpoints (and responsi- bility). â¢ Improving wayfinding and electronic signage. â¢ Managing the diurnal peaks, e.g., Transporta- tion Security Administration (TSA) staffing, concession staffing. â¢ Setting expectations for tenants. â¢ Monitoring and measuring performance. â¢ Geographic spread of destinations within airport service area (e.g., move to suburbs and ground access implications). â¢ Airports collaborating with airlines regarding what they see and hear from their customers. â¢ Getting all stakeholders to work together. â¢ Focusing on front-facing staff, regardless of who they work for (airport, airlines, etc.). â¢ Implementing mandatory or voluntary customer service training. â¢ Developing a unified approach to the experi- ence from the customersâ perspective. â¢ Learning techniques to turn around a bad experience in real time. â¢ How can we affect the âauraâ of an airport? â¢ Determining which improvements would really matter. â¢ Challenges: How does an airport know what people want? How do they meet that need? How do they prioritize? How much will it cost? â¢ How can airports create a feeling of safety? â¢ How do airports keep abreast of what other airports are doingâin the U.S. and inter- nationally? â¢ How do airports get data? How do airports identify customers? (Are there customers we havenât defined?) â¢ Can airports do concierge service like âper- sonalizedâ emails? For example, send a mes- sage âI see youâre using the airport at a busy time; you might want to leave early.â â¢ Implementing new technologies like beacons and apps. â¢ An airport is a âbrand.â How do airports develop and promote the brand? How do airports mobilize multiple stakeholders to maintain brand? Promotion of the airport brand versus airline brands versus other brands (e.g., retail)? Airports creating their own âfrequent flyerâ program (e.g., Groupe ADP in Paris)? â¢ What is a good timeframe for concession leases, particularly food and beverage? Per- formance measures? â¢ Can airports individualize the customer expe- rience? How do airports tailor experiences to meet unique needs of the customer? 2. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE AIRPORT BUSINESS MODEL Background Statement Airports are facing numerous challenges regard- ing technology, revenue, and governance that impact how airports are operated and maintained. Airports
7 need to consider new business models to address those challenges. Research Ideas â¢ Explore differences between Europe and U.S. management models and organizationsâ commercialized or privatized. What can we learn [i.e., TNC access fees (Europe); new revenue sources such as charging a road toll to access the airport; airports cre- ating/operating transportation services to the airport (e.g., downtownâairport buses, rail services); airports creating joint ventures for operating retail businesses and benefits of out- sourcing, and airport functions and missions (e.g., airfield ground lighting and pavement maintenance)]? â¢ In the European model, are airline charges significantly higher at privatized airports than at nonprivatized airports? In this model, how is the leadership transitioned when air- ports are privatized and how does that impact the compensation levels for senior airport officials? â¢ Financial and management considerations in project delivery. This could include con- sideration of alternative project delivery methods such as publicâprivate partnerships (P3s) and the lack of management bandwidth to oversee large development programs [state laws prevent certain methods; provide infor- mation for a public entity to educate airports on how to take it to their state legislatures (i.e., NYS P3 laws)]. â¢ Find new revenue generators. How to better utilize big data and targeting advertisements (thereâs so much data to be mined, i.e., pop- up advertisements); for being the source of data for Google; and marketing partnerships between parking and airports. â¢ How to use big data and data analytics to drive increased revenues and reduce operat- ing expenses. With the increasing availability of data collection and management technolo- gies, there is a ton of airport operating data, but much of it is not being collected by air- ports and leveraged for business and financial planning purposes. How to partner with dif- ferent vendors (TNCs and concessionaires) to access the data? How to best utilize the information? What is the investment to be made? What are the most substantive risks? How to analyze the data that is most impactful to airports? â¢ What is the benefit of technology, i.e., use of biometrics? â¢ Opportunities and threats from disruptive technologies. What technologies are going to play a significant role in the future and how can airports adapt? â¢ Guidebook for development activity and land use opportunities. â¢ Business models and use of revenues. â¢ Is the independent authority the best gover- nance model to run airports? â¢ Repurposing facilities. What do we do with excess space in existing consolidated rental car facilities and parking garages? How can they be used for other purposes as well as for autonomous vehicles? (ACRP 03-47) â¢ Current practices for different rates and charges for common use facilities. â¢ The pros and cons of airportâairline consor- tiums for traditional and potential new ways to manage an operation or an entity. â¢ How can airports be more efficient in proj- ect delivery to meet budget and schedule constraints? â¢ What are innovative ways to reduce and con- trol operating expenses to address reduction in revenues? â¢ Block chain technology and the implications on airport financial operations. â¢ What is the impact of roboticsâautomation advances and SMART Solutions on facility requirements and resiliency? â¢ Tools and methods for managing ongoing legacy costs throughout facility asset life cycleâincluding maintenance, operations, utilities, and component renewal; identify quantitative tools and methods for airports to manage these costs throughout the life cycle; apply capital expenditure and operat- ing expense approaches. Related ACRP Research â¢ Nichol, C. ACRP Synthesis of Airport Prac- tice 1: Innovative Finance and Alternative Sources of Revenue for Airports. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies,
8 Washington, D.C., 2007. http://www.trb.org/ Publications/Blurbs/158669.aspx â¢ Kramer, L.S. ACRP Synthesis of Airport Practice 19: Airport Revenue Diversification. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2010. http:// www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/163650.aspx â¢ Molar, B. ACRP Synthesis of Airport Prac- tice 24: Strategies and Financing Opportu- nities for Airport Environmental Programs. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2011. http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/165852.aspx â¢ Demkovich, P. ACRP Synthesis of Airport Practice 31: Airline and AirlineâAirport Con- sortiums to Manage Terminals and Equip- ment. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2011. http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/166364.aspx â¢ Mandle, P., and S. Box. ACRP Synthesis of Airport Practice 84: Transportation Net- work Companies: Challenges and Opportu- nities for Airport Operators, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2017. http://www.trb.org/ Main/Blurbs/176493.aspx â¢ Touran, A., D.D. Gransberg, K.R. Molenaar, P. Bakhshi, and K. Ghavamifar. ACRP Report 21: A Guidebook for Selecting Airport Capital Project Delivery Methods. Transpor- tation Research Board of the National Acad- emies, Washington, D.C., 2009. http://www. trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/162449.aspx â¢ Ward, S.A.D., R.A. Massey, A.E. Feldpausch, Z. Puchacz, C.J. Duerksen, E. Heller, N.P. Miller, R.C. Gardner, G.D. Gosling, S. Sarmiento, and R.W. Lee. ACRP Report 27: Enhancing Airport Land Use Compatibility, Volume 2: Land Use Survey and Case Study Summaries. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2010. http://www.trb.org/Publications/ Blurbs/163344.aspx â¢ Faulhaber, J.M., J.J. Schulthess, A.C. Eastmond, S.P. Lewis, and R.W. Block. ACRP Report 36: Airport/Airline Agreementsâ Practices and Characteristics. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2010. http://www.trb.org/ Publications/Blurbs/164482.aspx â¢ Cullen, L., A. dâAmato, N. LaFarge, and H-A. Park. ACRP Report 49: Collaborative Airport Capital Planning Handbook. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2011.http://www.trb.org/ Publications/Blurbs/165584.aspx â¢ Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. ACRP Report 58: Airport Industry Familiarization and Training for Part-Time Airport Policy Makers. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2011. http://www.trb.org/ACRP/Blurbs/ 166244.aspx â¢ Ernico, S., B. Boudreau, D. Reimer, and S. Van Beek. ACRP Report 66: Considering and Evaluating Airport Privatization. Trans- portation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2012.http:// www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/167156.aspx â¢ Ricondo & Associates, Inc. ACRP Report 68: Guidebook for Evaluating Terminal Renewal Versus Replacement Options. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2012. http://www.trb.org/ Publications/Blurbs/167299.aspx â¢ Aviation Management Consulting Group, Inc. ACRP Report 77: Guidebook for Develop- ing General Aviation Airport Business Plans. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2012. http:// www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/168114.aspx â¢ Defant Jr., T.A., N. LaFarge, P. Denitz, and G.W. Ridsdale. ACRP Report 87: Procur- ing and Managing Professional Services for Airports. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2013. http://www.trb.org/Publications/ Blurbs/169112.aspx â¢ Evaluation and Training Institute, Kvistad Design, and B.C. Parrella. ACRP Report 98: Understanding Airline and Passenger Choice in Multi-Airport Regions. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2013. http://www.trb.org/ main/blurbs/170194.aspx â¢ Demkovich, P.B., J.J. Crosby, D.L. Muchow, G.G. Bender, and J.A. Copelan. ACRP Report 111: A Guidebook for AirportâAirline Consortiums. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington,
9 D.C., 2014. http://www.trb.org/Publications/ Blurbs/171247.aspx â¢ Coogan, M., D. Brand, M. Hansen, H. Kivett, J. Last, R. Marchi, M.S. Ryerson, M.J. Taylor, and L. Thompson. ACRP Report 118: Inte- grating Aviation and Passenger Rail Plan- ning. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2015. http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/172409.aspx â¢ Karlsson, J., S. Allard, R. Viswanathan, R. Furey, and J. McCredie. ACRP Report 120: Airport Capital Improvements: A Business Planning and Decision-Making Approach. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2014. http:// www.trb.org/main/blurbs/171584.aspx â¢ Kramer, L.S., S. Landau, J. Letwin, and M. Moroney. ACRP Report 121: Innovative Revenue StrategiesâAn Airport Guide. Trans- portation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2015. http:// www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/172699.aspx â¢ Ward, S., L. Wilson, R. Schnug, T. Thatcher, D. Fainberg, and K. Yodice. ACRP Report 176: Generating Revenue from Commercial Devel- opment On or Adjacent to Airports, 2017. http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/ 176413.aspx â¢ Dempsey, P.S. ACRP Legal Research Digest 2: Theory and Law of Airport Revenue Diver- sion. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2008. http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/ 159962.aspx â¢ Waite, J.K. ACRP Legal Research Digest 6: The Impact of Airline Bankruptcies on Air- ports. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2009. http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/ 161948.aspx â¢ ACRP Project 03-46, âImplementing Airport Privatization: Guidance for Airport Decision Makers,â 2018. http://apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/ TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=4425 â¢ ACRP Project 03-47, âRethinking Airport Parking Facilities to Protect and Enhance Non-Aeronautical Revenue,â 2018. http://apps. trb.org/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp? ProjectID=4426 3. IMPACTS OF EMERGING AND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES Background Statement Near-term technology advancements could offer efficiency and effectiveness improvement to the airport operation. In the long-term, technology will have an even greater impact on airports and the aviation system. Technology will likely also have a counter impact by disrupting current operations, behavior, or traditional processes. Moreover, the technology changes are largely coming from out- side the airport and are independent of the airport. The operational and social implications of many of these technologies are relevant to the airport/ aviation system because society will have expecta- tions for how these technologies will meet societal needs and demand their implementation. Research in this topic is needed because the list of potential threats or problems that arise from ignoring emerging technology is growing and soon will surpass the list of potential opportunities and solutions it offers. Airports need to prepare for both eventualities by addressing the strengths, weak- nesses, opportunities, and threats of emerging tech- nologies or risk obsolescence in the future. Research Ideas â¢ A periodic (biennial) transformative technol- ogy report to the airport industry. â¢ A report that defines impact of technology on future facilities, workforce, operations, and the entire system. â¢ Utilizing autonomous ground transportation vehicles for passenger and delivery services transport to/from the airport. â¢ Utilizing UAS for airfield inspection or proj- ect delivery. â¢ How can airports adapt outside innovative technologies for airport use and prepare for future emergence of technologies? (Proactive preparation for future implementation.) â¢ Using virtual reality for facility design, air- field and equipment service, maintenance, and inspection. â¢ Defining needs or potential solutions that technology offers to airport operations and/or functions. The private sector can develop
10 technology applications and bring them to the market to meet these needs. â¢ Passengers using seamless automated bag- gage check-in and delivery or an automated boarding pass. â¢ Airport workforce using technology to accom- modate their expectations, facilitate training and development, and provide for rapid input and feedback. â¢ What is the impact of rapidly evolving tech- nology on regulations? â¢ How can the safety/security of the airport be addressed by technology? â¢ What screening technologies will TSA use in the future and how will they impact airport facilities and operations? â¢ What are the future airline passenger process- ing technologies and how will they impact airport facilities and operations? â¢ What technology are retail operators using to speed transaction processing, customize ser- vices, and improve customer experience? How can airports collaborate with those operators to use this data/technology to improve the cus- tomer experience in the terminal as a whole? â¢ How will technology improve and/or enhance project delivery, BIM, and operations/ maintenance? â¢ What are the implications of big data? What are the opportunities and threats? â¢ Define cybersecurity and blockchain and edu- cate airports. â¢ How will bitcoin impact airports? â¢ How can airports use technology to manage behavior and recognize individual expecta- tions so services can be customized? â¢ How much should local governments, state departments of transportation (DOTs), and airports engage new technology and how much development support should they pro- vide? What lessons are learned in the United States and abroad [e.g., Space Florida, North Carolina DOT and UAS, AVINOR (Norway) and electric aviation, Groupe ADP (France) investing in various new tech and big data startups]? Related ACRP Research â¢ Stocking, C., J. DeLong, V. Braunagel, T. Healy, and S. Loper. ACRP Report 13: Inte- grating Airport Information Systems. Trans- portation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2009. http:// www.trb.org/main/blurbs/161613.aspx â¢ Purnell, J., R. Hough, R. White, S. Gonzalez, F. Haley, M. Hyde, J. Willis, G. de Grandis, and J. Walfish. ACRP Report 59: Informa- tion Technology Systems at AirportsâA Primer. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2012. http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/166592.aspx â¢ Elizer Jr., R.M., D.H. Squier, R.E. Brydia, and C.P. Beaty. ACRP Report 70: Guide- book for Implementing Intelligent Transpor- tation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2012. http://www.trb.org/ main/blurbs/167644.aspx â¢ Barich, Inc. ACRP Report 128: Alternative IT Delivery Methods and Best Practices for Small Airports. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2015. http://www.trb.org/Publications/ Blurbs/172180.aspx â¢ Murphy, R.J., M. Sukkarieh, J. Haass, and P. Hriljac. ACRP Report 140: Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineer- ing, and Medicine, Washington, D.C., 2015. http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/172854.aspx â¢ Stocking, C., J. DeLong, V. Braunagel, T. Healy, and S. Loper. ACRP Web-Only Docu- ment 1: Analysis and Recommendations for Developing Integrated Airport Information Systems. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2008. http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/161614.aspx â¢ Barrett, S.B. and P.M. Devita. ACRP Syn- thesis of Airport Practice 28: Investigat- ing Safety Impacts of Energy Technologies on Airports and Aviation. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2011. http://www.trb.org/ main/blurbs/166099.aspx â¢ ACRP Project 03-42, âAirports and UASâ: Interim Report, Managing Unmanned Air- craft Systems in the Vicinity of Airports, 2018. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/ acrp/docs/ACRP03-42_TopicAreaA_ GuidanceDocument.pdf
11 4. AIRPORT SUSTAINABILITY Background Statement Airport sustainability has many multidisciplinary definitions, including operational efficiency. The airline system is national and an airport is a commu- nity facility. Sustainability reports are often among an airportâs communication outreach goals (e.g., the Southwest Airlines One Report to increase transpar- ency). The meat of a sustainability report is not just environmental but also encourages smart practices in the normal course of business. The struggle is how to make a sustainable activity a financially smart move, prioritized correctly. Research Ideas â¢ Identify interactions between airline and airport sustainability activities. Airlines typically have 12- to 18-month return-on- investment (ROI) requirements and airports typically operate with longer ROI require- ments. How do airports and airlines align their differing ROI requirements and life- cycle calculation mechanics? â¢ How can airports concisely communicate/ convey messages around sustainability? â¢ How can airports integrate tenant and conces- sionaire sustainability programs into airport program reporting? â¢ Create airport-specific sustainability metrics from current national and international air- port best practices to complement appropriate master plan timelines. â¢ How do you tell the story, collect the data, develop constituencies, and provide what it takes to enhance airport capacity to support the communities airports serve? â¢ Where should sustainability staff reside in the airport organization? â¢ Develop a guidebook on implementing the âLicense to Growâ concept. Key activities in this strategy consist of proactive engage- ment with diverse stakeholders, including working with competitors in a precompeti- tive framework and integrating environmen- tal and social sustainability strategies into business strategies. This new way of think- ing about growth is a departure from a more traditional risk mindset (social license to operate). Related ACRP Research â¢ Haseman, Z. ACRP Synthesis of Airport Prac- tice 42: Integrating Environmental Sustain- ability into Airport Contracts. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2013. http://www.trb.org/ main/blurbs/169023.aspx â¢ Martin-Nagle, R. and A. Klauber. ACRP Syn- thesis of Airport Practice 66: Lessons Learned from Airport Sustainability Plans. Transporta- tion Research Board of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Washington, D.C., 2015. http://www.trb.org/ main/blurbs/172887.aspx â¢ Prather, C.D. ACRP Synthesis of Airport Prac- tice 69: Airport Sustainability Practicesâ Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Transporta- tion Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2016. http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/174223.aspx â¢ Malick, A. ACRP Synthesis of Airport Prac- tice 77: Airport Sustainability Practices. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2016. http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/ 174993.aspx â¢ Ricondo and Associates. ACRP Report 42: Sustainable Airport Practices, 2011. Trans- portation Research Board of the National Academies, 2011. http://www.trb.org/main/ blurbs/164240.aspx â¢ Landrum & Brown, Inc., Environmental Con- sulting Group, Inc., Primera Engineers, Ltd., and Muller & Muller, Ltd. ACRP Report 80: Guidebook for Incorporating Sustainability into Traditional Airport Projects. Transpor- tation Research Board of the National Acad- emies, Washington, D.C., 2012. http://www. trb.org/main/blurbs/168044.aspx â¢ Salerno, J., G. Raiffa, and C. Lurie. ACRP Report 110: Evaluating Impacts of Sustain- ability Practices on Airport Operations and Maintenance: Userâs Guide and Research Report. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2014. http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/170580.aspx â¢ Lurie, C., E. Humblet, C. Steuer, and K. Lemaster. ACRP Report 119: Proto type Airport Sustainability Rating Systemâ Characteristics, Viability, and Implementa- tion Options. Transportation Research Board
12 of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2014. http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/ 171840.aspx â¢ Barrett, S.B., P.M. DeVita, J.E. Kenfield, B.T. Jacobsen, and D.Y. Bannard. ACRP Report 151: Developing a Business Case for Renewable Energy at Airports, 2016. http:// www.trb.org/main/blurbs/173592.aspx â¢ Jolley, J.W., M.E. Tuccillo, M.L. Young, M. Barrett, and A. Lantin. ACRP Research Report 174: Green Stormwater Infras- tructure, Volume 1: Primer. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2017. http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/176182.aspx â¢ Jolley, J.W., M.E. Tuccillo, M.L. Young, M. Barrett, and A. Lantin. ACRP Research Report 174: Green Stormwater Infrastruc- ture, Volume 2: Guidebook. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2017. http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/176183.aspx 5. ENHANCING RESILIENCY OF AIRPORTS AND INTERRELATED SYSTEMS Background Statement Several recent incidents have highlighted the serious consequences of disruptive events in the airport community. These include the Hartsfieldâ Jackson Atlanta International Airport power out- age (December 2017), the shooting at Los Angeles International Airport (November 2013) and Fort LauderdaleâHollywood International Airport (January 2017); hurricane damage in Houston, Florida, and Puerto Rico (2017); terminal flooding at John F. Kennedy International Airport (January 2018); and many other examples. It is imperative for airports to have resources and measures to ensure continuity, contain damage, and maintain or resume operations as quickly as possible. Research Ideas â¢ Emergency operations planning. How do air- ports fit within citywide or regionwide emer- gency management systems? â¢ Case studies. Document previous successes and failures [i.e., organize an Insight Event, with potential participants from airports abroad with specific experience in resiliency and crisis situations (ACI-Europe, etc.)]. â¢ Research best practices for redundancies in the power grid. â¢ Airport collaborative decision-making (A-CDM). Share information in real time among all stakeholders of airport opera- tions and prepare with them the procedures for addressing adverse conditions. A-CDM is a reality in Europe. It has been listed among future developments to be considered in the United States by the FAA/Industry CDM Stakeholders Group. â¢ Expand the aviation safety risk management function to include the full scope of resiliency concerns and issues (with more focus than previous ACRP Reports 74 and 131). â¢ Explore how to mitigate the effects of a cri- sis while maintaining compliance with Occu- pational Safety and Health Administration requirements. â¢ Explore how to get sufficient personnel onsite quickly to deal with emergency situations, especially when adverse conditions (e.g., weather conditions) degrade accessibility. â¢ What elements of the Family Assistance Plans could be adapted for other crisis situations? â¢ Explore coordinated response of diversion airports when a nearby hub airport is closed. For example, a fire at Miami International Airportâs fuel farm in 2011 required coordi- nation between the airport, air carriers, and airports in South Florida, with flights stopped at nearby airports for refueling. Are there research issues? How are they identified? â¢ Emergency response systems (e.g., 911). A higher level of diligence is needed to verify authenticity of a reported incident (e.g., a bomb on a plane, an active shooter). â¢ What can we learn from terrorist incidents in Europe and other airports? â¢ Evaluate exposure to climate change and inte- grate the findings into risk management and emergency planning. [Review and apply results of ACRP Report 147: Climate Change Adap- tion PlanningâRisk Assessment for Airports pilot test. Check methodology developed abroad, e.g., French Civil Aviation Technical Center (STAC).] â¢ Financial planning for resilience, including benefitâcost analysis of equipment, staff, etc. â¢ Contingency plans for retail and other airport businesses. Look at practices in marine ports for best practices?
13 â¢ Impact of airport closures on cargo passing through airports. How to include economic impacts to shippers in resilience planning? â¢ After-action reviews. Identify lessons learned and update procedures as necessary. Can airports learn from the military? Develop guidelines for airports. â¢ Review and update or build on ACRP Report 112: Airport Terminal Incident Res- ponse Planning. â¢ Best practices for engagement with the local communities that are impacted by airport disruptions. â¢ Collaborate with highway departments and transit agencies to identify common needs and practices? â¢ How are rural communities with smaller airports affected if a major carrier decides to suspend services to them? Find innova- tive approaches/incentives to maintain air services. (Is it worthwhile for a community to directly organize/contract air services as in some case studies in Europe?) â¢ When airports shut down for weather reasons, what are the opportunities for the use of other modes? Could airports rebook/transfer pas- sengers between modes, like air carriers (e.g., Delta and American) have been doing between them? â¢ Meeting customer needs when online systems are compromised or closed? What if only one airlineâs systems close? â¢ What backup systems are in place in the event of a cyberattack? â¢ Use of UAS/drone technology to assist with identification, reporting, and response. Inter- face with off-airport response, emergency operations, military, and other agencies. â¢ How do airports cope with or prevent panic spreading via social media during such crisis situations? Related ACRP Research â¢ Baglin, C. ACRP Synthesis of Airport Prac- tice 33: Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2012. http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/ 167238.aspx â¢ Smith, J.F., K. Kenville, and J.M. Sawyer. ACRP Synthesis of Airport Practice 60: Air- port Emergency Post-Event Recovery Prac- tices. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2015. http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/172539.aspx â¢ NIMS Incident Command System Field Guide, Second Edition, 2008. https://www.idahoares. info/_downloads/FEMA/NIMS_ICSFG.pdf 6. AIRPORT WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT Background Statement Workforce development from the sector per- spective focuses on what skills the airport indus- try needs and then embraces strategies that help to Attract, Engage, Equip, and Sustain a talent pipe- line that will meet airportsâ capacity needs now and in the future. Research Ideas Attract This refers to building workforce development strategies that will improve awareness and interest of the labor market in airport jobs. This spans from creating awareness that airport jobs exist, position- ing airports as âemployers of choice,â and increasing applicant pools to developing recruitment, hiring, and employment practices and programs that result in the hiring of workers that fit well in the industry and seek to maintain a long tenure there. Continued research needed in this area includes: â¢ Exploring cultural differences among potential employees and its role in meeting workforce development needs, diversity, and inclusion. â¢ Developing branding and awareness about airport occupations. â¢ Exploring employment benefits that todayâs workforce is attracted to. â¢ Exploring partnerships for recruiting work- force at the local level and to capture diversity. â¢ Including a discussion on attracting future airport workforce at a young age through the local school system. Promoting trade schools. Considering ways airports should engage and partner with local institutions (such as K-12 schools) to design curriculum that promotes interest in airport jobs and presents different opportunities for future education for students who may not be college bound.
14 â¢ Discussing airports that have civil service jobs and the limitations involved in attracting and rewarding a workforce within this system. Identifying creative ways municipal systems have recruited, hired, and developed talent that map to the specific airport needs (versus generic civil service descriptions). This may include partnering with government. â¢ Considering the hiring process and providing the right tools and training to generate a work- force within the airport industry. â¢ Identifying strategies to improve diversity and inclusion in the workforce and address- ing underrepresentation relative to the popu- lations in which the airports reside. Engage This refers to assessing and determining where cultural change within airports and across the indus- try may be needed to improve employee engage- ment and ultimately result in positive outcomes such as increased employee commitment and pro- ductivity as well as improved perceptions of how the industry treats its employees (thereby resulting in more attraction of future workers and retention of current workers). This includes identifying strategies for successful cultural transformation. Continued research needed in this area includes: â¢ Influencing and changing the cultural organi- zation to meet the 20-year outlook. Develop- ing the workforce of the future. â¢ Identifying change management strategies that work well for airports in need of cultural transformation/improvement (e.g., turnover is high; recruitment is a challenge; press has been unfavorable; operations and productivity are suffering). Determining ways to evaluate employee engagement levels, identify drivers for low employee engagement, and imple- ment interventions for improvement. â¢ Assessing and improving workplace well- being and health. Focusing on stress and workplace demands particularly in light of the change nature of airport and new busi- ness models. Airports can be demanding places to workâurgent situations, unhappy customers, and safety concerns can cause stress and ultimately lower health and well- being. Airports could benefit from a focus on their employeesâ mental, physical, and emo- tional well-being. Research could determine what those common stressors are, the best ways to overcome it (e.g., training, work- place programsâsome of which could be applied across airports), and ways to limit or overcome stressors. â¢ Identifying ways to redesign work to create meaningful and enriching job opportunities. Researching strategies that help build con- nection between employeesâ work and the airport mission. â¢ Identifying effective ways to embrace a work model and approaches that are inclusive and attractive across generations. Identifying strategies that leverage the experiences and expertise of workers and address genera- tional needs as well as help create synchron- icity and collaboration between seasoned and new talent. â¢ Outlining training-related strategies that will help equip airport personnel with the required skills for the future (e.g., informa- tion technology). Equip This refers to building skill sets required to perform airport work of the future. This may also include upskilling or reskilling the current airport workforce. The strategies in this area should iden- tify developmental opportunities including educa- tion, training, and work experiences that will build capacity in both the current and future workforce. Continued research needed in this area includes: â¢ Generating career pathways to promotion and demonstrating how airports provide promis- ing career opportunities. This may include developing pathways that cross functional areas as well as dual pathways for those who donât want leadership roles. Learning from different industries on how theyâve advanced employees without having to promote to leadership/management role. For example, providing promotions within a technical skill set that doesnât need a leadership role. â¢ Identifying strategic partnerships with gov- ernment, across airports, with associations, community organizations, and training and education institutions that can be leveraged to grow and develop talent (e.g., shared training academies; shared leadership development courses; onsite airport education courses).
15 Sustain This refers to the importance of retaining a strong workforce which preserves institutional knowledge and minimizes disruption in operations over time. To replace a departing worker, the airport can spend up to 150% of the salary of the individual leaving. This area includes strategies that decrease turnover and promote a positive culture and overall health of the organization. Continued research needed in this area includes: â¢ Identifying ways to build professional capac- ity across the workforce that is broader than focusing on skills required for immediate jobs. This helps to create an agile workforce that can easily flex and change as new demands emerge. â¢ Building strategies to support retention for mission-critical jobs (from executive down to the front line) to promote, enhance, and sustain execution of the mission. â¢ Identifying best practices in succession plan- ning including for municipally run systems. â¢ Determining the optimal retention rate for air- ports (of varying types) based on skill or job task requirements. â¢ Identifying approaches that increase career opportunities and reduce stove-piping that can lead to stagnant workforce. This can include strategies such as cross-functional skill devel- opment. â¢ Identifying knowledge management strate- gies across industries that could be effective for airports. Related ACRP Research â¢ Young, S.B. ACRP Synthesis of Airport Practice 18: Aviation Workforce Development Practices. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2010. http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/ 163380.aspx â¢ Cronin, C.B., A. Alexander, E. Majumdar, C. Riches, J. Jenkins, S. Van Beek, A. Bisker, B. Heinen, and C. Lewis. ACRP Web-Only Document 28: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. Transporta- tion Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2016. http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/175503.aspx â¢ Young, S.B., M. Price, Columbus Regional Airport Authority, and HNTB Corporation. ACRP Report 75: Airport Leadership Devel- opment Program. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2013. http://www.trb.org/Publications/ Blurbs/168958.aspx â¢ ACRP Impacts on Practice: Preparing the Next Generation of Airport Leaders, 2016. http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/174818.aspx 7. ENHANCING THE AVIATION ECOSYSTEM Background Statement The airport community comprises many differ- ent stakeholders and their âsystemsâ that frequently interact with each other, and thus comprises the local aviation ecosystem. The opportunity for the ecosystem to thrive is abundant due to changing technologies, proliferation of big data, and chang- ing of expectations by customers. The benefits of an integrated ecosystem will allow stakeholders to remain resilient moving forward into the next century. Data and information sharing, as well as collabo- ration, has been proven to be effective when there are irregularities involved in the aviation ecosystem. These have been successfully implemented for very discrete events, such as snow operations, diversions, and emergency situations. However, there are many barriers to fully integrative collaboration regarding the daily operation of the system, such as trust, egos, politics, different missions, and proprietary pro- cesses and knowledge, proprietary ownership, dif- ferent data streams and ownership structures. The benefits that have occurred when responding to disruptive events can be applied to the daily course of business. This includes enhanced efficiencies, improved communications, cost savings, better use of resources for all stakeholders, and an engaged workforce. Research Ideas â¢ Identifying which âsystemsâ are interdepen- dent and which are symbiotic with each other. â¢ Selecting a systematic approach regarding the âsystemsâ on what needs to be done and when. â¢ Determining participants in the âsystemsâ discussion and how to increase the effective- ness of collaboration.
16 â¢ Identifying how to break down silos between industry sectors to increase collaboration and productivity. â¢ Defining basic data needs across the âsystemsâ and the commonalities among âsystems.â â¢ Assessing how to encourage joint inno- vative technologies that will serve airport passengers. â¢ Considering how to get all airport industry and âsystemsâ partners to understand their role in everyday situations. Related ACRP Research â¢ ACRP Research Results Digest 5: Current and Emerging Issues Facing the Airport Industry. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2009. http:// www.trb.org/main/blurbs/160631.aspx â¢ ACRP Research Results Digest 20: Taking Inventory of ACRP Research and the Next Challenges Facing the Airport Industry. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2014. http:// www.trb.org/main/blurbs/170068.aspx â¢ Vail, S., A. Churchill, J. Karlsson, T. McInerney, J. Domitrovich, and T. Phillips. ACRP Report 137: Guidebook for Advancing Col- laborative Decision Making (CDM) at Air- ports. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineer- ing, and Medicine, Washington, D.C., 2015. http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/ 172799.aspx
Transportation Research Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 These digests are issued in order to increase awareness of research results emanating from projects in the Cooperative Research Programs (CRP). Persons wanting to pursue the project subject matter in greater depth should contact the CRP Staff, Transportation Research Board, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Subscriber Categories: Aviation ISBN 978-0-309-48017-8 9 7 8 0 3 0 9 4 8 0 1 7 8 9 0 0 0 0