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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
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Implementing Strategies to Enhance
Public Health Surveillance of
Physical Activity in the United States

Committee on Strategies for Implementing Physical Activity
Surveillance

Food and Nutrition Board

Health and Medicine Division

A Consensus Study Report of

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by a contract between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Health and Human Services (Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [#200-2011-38807/75D30118F00068]). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-49268-3
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-49268-8
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25444

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Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing strategies to enhance public health surveillance of physical activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25444.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
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Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
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COMMITTEE ON STRATEGIES FOR IMPLEMENTING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY SURVEILLANCE

RUSSELL R. PATE (Chair), Professor of Exercise Science, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina

GENEVIEVE FRIDLUND DUNTON, Associate Professor, Director, USC Real-Time Eating Activity and Children’s Health (REACH) Lab, Departments of Preventive Medicine and Psychology, University of Southern California

ELIZABETH A. JOY, Medical Director, Community Health, Health Promotion and Wellness, and Nutrition Services, Intermountain Healthcare

KESHIA M. POLLACK PORTER, Professor, Health Policy and Management, Bloomberg School of Public Health, John Hopkins University

DANIEL A. RODRIGUEZ, Chancellor’s Professor, City and Regional Planning, University of California, Berkeley

JAMES F. SALLIS, Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California, San Diego

LAURIE P. WHITSEL, Vice President, Policy Research and Translation, American Heart Association

Study Staff

HEATHER DEL VALLE COOK, Study Director

MEREDITH YOUNG, Research Assistant

ANN L. YAKTINE, Director, Food and Nutrition Board

Consultants

EMILY CALLAHAN, EAC Consulting

MATHEMATICA POLICY RESEARCH

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
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Reviewers

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
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Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by DIANE F. BIRT, Iowa State University, and MAXINE HAYES, Washington State Department of Health. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
×

Preface

Physical activity has long been recognized as a key component of a healthy lifestyle, and promotion of physical activity has been a longstanding priority in some societal sectors including education, health care, and recreation/parks. However, it is only in recent decades that physical activity has become a focus of the public health sector. Because physical activity is a relatively new element in public health, important components of a comprehensive public health strategy for promoting physical activity are still being developed. Surveillance, the systematic, ongoing collection and analysis of health-related data, is a core public health function. The existing public health system in the United States includes some important physical activity surveillance resources. But, many gaps remain to be filled. This report provides a comprehensive set of recommended actions that, when taken, will contribute importantly to filling those gaps and establishing a robust physical activity surveillance system in the United States.

This report builds on the products of two previous projects. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine convened an expert panel that identified priority areas for enhancing physical activity surveillance. This was followed by the work of a group of experts, convened in 2017 by the Physical Activity Innovation Collaborative, an entity affiliated with the Roundtable on Obesity Solutions of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. That group identified key strategies for enhancing physical activity surveillance. The work of the committee that produced the current report was informed by the products of the two previous projects. This Consensus

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
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Study Report extends the recommendations of those projects by identifying specific actions that should be taken to implement strategies for enhancement of physical activity surveillance.

The committee has many people to thank for their support in developing the strategies and recommended actions presented in this report. In particular, the committee expresses its gratitude to the experts who were convened to advise the committee on specific actions to enhance physical activity surveillance. That group’s thoughtful, thorough, and detailed input was critical to the successful production of this report. In addition, the committee acknowledges the many public health practitioners and researchers whose work has established the foundation of evidence on which the content of this report is based.

The committee also thanks Emily Callahan for copyediting, and the team from Mathematica Policy Research, Kelley Borradaile, Daniel Finkelstein, and Andrew Hurwitz, for their contributions to the committee’s work. Finally, the committee could not have done its work without the outstanding guidance and support of Heather Del Valle Cook, Senior Program Officer, and Meredith Young, Research Assistant, with the Health and Medicine Division of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. We are deeply appreciative of the skill, energy, and warmth with which they supported the committee’s efforts. Lastly, we thank Ann Yaktine, Director of the Food and Nutrition Board, for her wisdom and support.

Russell R. Pate, Chair
Committee on Strategies for Implementing
Physical Activity Surveillance

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
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Physical activity has far-reaching benefits for physical, mental, emotional, and social health and well-being for all segments of the population. Despite these documented health benefits and previous efforts to promote physical activity in the U.S. population, most Americans do not meet current public health guidelines for physical activity.

Surveillance in public health is the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of outcome-specific data, which can then be used for planning, implementation and evaluation of public health practice. Surveillance of physical activity is a core public health function that is necessary for monitoring population engagement in physical activity, including participation in physical activity initiatives. Surveillance activities are guided by standard protocols and are used to establish baseline data and to track implementation and evaluation of interventions, programs, and policies that aim to increase physical activity. However, physical activity is challenging to assess because it is a complex and multidimensional behavior that varies by type, intensity, setting, motives, and environmental and social influences. The lack of surveillance systems to assess both physical activity behaviors (including walking) and physical activity environments (such as the walkability of communities) is a critical gap.

Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States develops strategies that support the implementation of recommended actions to improve national physical activity surveillance. This report also examines and builds upon existing recommended actions.

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