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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Table of Surveillance Systems." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
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Appendix D

Table of Surveillance Systems

This appendix provides a tabulated overview of surveys and systems that currently contribute to or, in the future, could contribute to physical activity surveillance in the United States. This table provides a compilation of key resources and, for each resource, a concise description is provided.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Table of Surveillance Systems." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
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Surveillance Survey, System, or Partnership Measures Frequency of Data Collection
American Time Use Survey (ATUS) https://www.bls.gov/tus Provides nationally representative estimates of how, where, and with whom Americans spend their time Annually
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) https://www.cdc.gov/brfss/index.html Measures non-occupational physical activity that is self-reported as exercise Annually
Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (CLASS) https://class.cancer.gov/download.aspx State-level codified laws for physical education and nutrition in schools Two sets of data compiled from 2003–2015 and 2008–2015 data
Employer Measures of Productivity, Absence and Quality (EMPAQ®) http://www.empaq.org Measures employer health, productivity, and absence programs; four distinct categories: overall absence, non-occupational absence, occupational absence and health, employee assistance programs Tool collects 1 year of data
Environmental Protection Agency Smart Location Database https://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/smart-location-mapping#SLD Measures location efficiency (e.g., housing density, diversity of land use, transit service) Two versions have been released, Smart Location Database in 2011 and version 2.0 in 2013
Form-Based Code Institute https://formbasedcodes.org Library of form-based codes from U.S. and international communities Not applicable
Health Care Systems Research Network (HCSRN) http://www.hcsrn.org/en Network of health care system research departments; houses a Virtual Data Warehouse (VDW) of electronic health record (EHR) data used to facilitate research Infrequent collection dependent on approved research
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Table of Surveillance Systems." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
×
Integrated Benefits Institute (IBI) https://www.ibiweb.org Measures employer benefits programs, including workplace health and productivity; publishes original research using benchmarking and analysis Not applicable
National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO) https://nacto.org North American association of cities and transit agencies that facilitates the exchange of transportation practices (e.g., publishes design guides) Not applicable
National Complete Streets Coalition https://smartgrowthamerica.org/program/national-complete-streets-coalition Repository of resources supporting the development and implementation of Complete Streets policies and practices Not applicable
National Environmental Database (NED) http://ned.ud4htools.com/about Repository of built, natural, and social environmental indicators at the Census block group level related to physical activity and health Not applicable
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/index.htm Measures health and nutritional status of U.S. adults and children Annually
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nnyfs/about_nnyfs.htm National survey that collected data in 2012 on U.S. children and adolescent physical activity and fitness levels Data collected in 2012
National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis/index.htm National in-person household health survey with special topics including adult physical activity data Annually
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Table of Surveillance Systems." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
×
Surveillance Survey, System, or Partnership Measures Frequency of Data Collection
National Household Travel Survey https://nhts.ornl.gov Measures national travel behavior, including characteristics of people traveling, their household, and daily non-commercial travel by all modes Data collected in 1983, 1990, 1995, 2001, 2009, 2017
National Quality Forum (NQF) https://www.qualityforum.org/home.aspx Not-for-profit consensus-standard setting organization, endorses and maintains rigorously set health care measures Not applicable
National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) http://www.childhealthdata.org/learn-about-the-nsch/NSCH Measures children’s physical and mental health, access to health care, and family, neighborhood, school, and social context Data collected in 2016, 2017, 2018
School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS) https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/shpps/index.htm Periodically conducted national survey assessing school health policies and practices at the state, district, school, and classroom levels Data collected in 2012, 2014, 2016
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics – Occupational Requirements Survey https://www.bls.gov/ors Provides summary of the working, standing, and sitting time across different occupations Annually
U.S. Census Bureau https://www.census.gov/data.html Federal agency responsible for collecting data on the American people, including health, fatality, and demographic information Annually
Vision Zero Network https://visionzeronetwork.org National campaign focused on eliminating traffic fatalities and severe injuries Not applicable
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Table of Surveillance Systems." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
×
Workplace Health in America survey https://www.cdc.gov/workplacehealthpromotion/datasurveillance/index.html National survey of U.S. employers’ workplace health programs and practices Collected in 2016, 2017
Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/index.htm National survey of U.S. 9th–12th grade students, measures include adequacy of physical activity behaviors Collected in 1991, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Table of Surveillance Systems." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Table of Surveillance Systems." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Table of Surveillance Systems." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Table of Surveillance Systems." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Table of Surveillance Systems." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
×
Page 130
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Table of Surveillance Systems." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
×
Page 131
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Table of Surveillance Systems." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25444.
×
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Physical activity has far-reaching benefits for physical, mental, emotional, and social health and well-being for all segments of the population. Despite these documented health benefits and previous efforts to promote physical activity in the U.S. population, most Americans do not meet current public health guidelines for physical activity.

Surveillance in public health is the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of outcome-specific data, which can then be used for planning, implementation and evaluation of public health practice. Surveillance of physical activity is a core public health function that is necessary for monitoring population engagement in physical activity, including participation in physical activity initiatives. Surveillance activities are guided by standard protocols and are used to establish baseline data and to track implementation and evaluation of interventions, programs, and policies that aim to increase physical activity. However, physical activity is challenging to assess because it is a complex and multidimensional behavior that varies by type, intensity, setting, motives, and environmental and social influences. The lack of surveillance systems to assess both physical activity behaviors (including walking) and physical activity environments (such as the walkability of communities) is a critical gap.

Implementing Strategies to Enhance Public Health Surveillance of Physical Activity in the United States develops strategies that support the implementation of recommended actions to improve national physical activity surveillance. This report also examines and builds upon existing recommended actions.

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