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142 A P P E N D I X C Detailed Analysis of Select Survey Questions Schedule Creation Overview For each fixed-route mode, indicate who operates service. Table C-1. Transit agency distribution of operations models (directly operated or purchased transportation) across modes. Mode Directly Operated by Transit Agency Purchased Transportation from a Service Provider Bus Commuter bus Trolleybus Bus rapid transit Heavy rail Commuter rail Light rail Streetcar rail Other - please describe: Hybrid rail Ferryboat Total checks % of Total checks 30 17 6 8 2 0 2 1 6 0 1 5 4 1 3 1 3 1 0 1 0 2 57 37 61% 39% Note: Respondents could select more than one option.
Detailed Analysis of Select Survey Questions 143 Using Data and Software for Scheduling How are sources of data used? Indicate which schedule components REGULARLY utilize data from each different data source. Table C-2. Number of agencies using different data sources in selected schedule creation steps. Data Source Running Times and Layovers Headways Route Patterns or Alignments Blocking and Deadheads Vehicle Assignments Route Study or Service Improvement APC 13 15 13 4 12 23 CAD/AVL 25 12 11 11 8 17 Farebox 6 3 6 1 7 14 Customer feedback 18 19 26 4 9 28 Customer surveys 9 14 16 3 3 18 Vehicle operator feedback 30 21 27 23 15 29 Vehicle operator surveys 7 8 8 6 7 9 External data sources 9 4 9 6 2 10 Others 5 4 5 3 4 6 Total count 122 100 121 61 67 154 % of total responses 19% 16% 19% 10% 11% 25% Note: Values in the table represent the number of transit agencies that use a given data source in the schedule creation step. Transit agencies could select more than one option. A total of 625 uses of data were recorded by transit agencies; the percentages in the last row represent what percent of the responses were in each column.
144 Managing the Transit Scheduling Workforce Who prepares the data collected from the various data sources so that transit schedulers can use the data to make better scheduling decisions? Figure C-1. Resources and staff used to prepare data for scheduler use. Note: Respondents could select more than one option. After data are prepared for use, how are recommendations made for schedule changes based on the data? Figure C-2. Processes for making recommendations from data and implementing changes to the schedule. Note: Respondents could select more than one option. 58% 45% 29% 24% 21% 21% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Planning staff Transit schedulers Off-the-shelf reports or visualizations from the data system Specialized analysts (e.g., operations data analyst) Consultants Others Percent of Responses R es po ns e O pt io ns 66% 49% 46% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Transit schedulers review the data or reports and make recommendations that require upper-level approval Transit schedulers are provided with recommendations from other staff (e.g., an analyst or manager) Transit schedulers review the data or reports and take action (within certain limitations) Percent of Responses R es po ns e O pt io ns
Detailed Analysis of Select Survey Questions 145 What are other software programs REGULARLY used by transit schedulers when creating transit schedules? Figure C-3. Other software regularly used by transit schedulers during schedule creation. Note: Respondents could select more than one option. Organization and Labor At what level of your agencyâs organizational structure does the scheduling department reside? Figure C-4. Organizational level in which the scheduling department resides. 20 14 6 2 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 Microsoft Excel (or similar) No other software is regularly used Others ESRI ArcGIS Proprietary software related to summarizing or visualizing transit data Number of Responses R es po ns e O pt io ns 1 3 11 11 7 4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Level 6 Level 5 Level 4 Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 Number of Responses O rg an iz at io n L ev el
146 Managing the Transit Scheduling Workforce List the different job titles of transit schedulers. Figure C-5 represents the count of job titles provided by each respondent. Figure C-5 . Number of agencies with different transit scheduler job title counts. Processes for Obtaining and Using Feedback for Scheduling What departments or groups are given a regular opportunity to provide input to the creation of transit schedules? 10 14 8 6 0 5 10 15 One Two Three Four Number of Agencies N um be r o f J ob T itl es 35 32 31 26 21 19 17 13 13 12 8 7 4 1 0 10 20 30 40 Operations management Bus or rail supervisors Bus or rail operators Short-range planning or bus/rail planning Dispatch/control room personnel Community members and general public Customer service agents Long-range or capital planning Transit agency oversight body or board Union representatives or leaders Maintenance management Maintenance employees Others None of the above Number of Responses D ep ar tm en t o r G ro up Figure C-6. Departments or groups that are given a regular opportunity to provide input to the creation of transit schedules.
Detailed Analysis of Select Survey Questions 147 Are transit schedulers expected to directly discuss scheduling issues with transit agency staff (e.g., meeting face-to-face with bus operators or street supervisors)? AND Are transit schedulers expected to directly discuss scheduling issues with members of the general public and transit customers? Table C-3. Percentage of transit agencies responding whether transit schedulers are expected to discuss scheduling issues with agency staff or the public. Group Yes Sometimes No Transit agency staff 49% 40% 11% Members of the public 19% 49% 32% Recruitment Are new transit schedulers MAINLY hired from outside or inside your agency? Figure C-7. Main source of new transit schedulers: Inside the agency, outside the agency, or both. 19 10 7 0 5 10 15 20 Inside the transit agency An even mix of both Outside the transit agency Number of Responses Tr an si t S ch ed ul er H iri ng P oo l
148 Managing the Transit Scheduling Workforce From what departments or positions do candidates typically come when hired from INSIDE your agency? Figure C-8. New schedulersâ typical previous departments or positions within the transit agency. Note: Respondents could select more than one option. 16 12 9 6 5 5 3 1 1 0 5 10 15 20 Bus or rail operators Operations management Dispatch/control room personnel Short-range planning Bus or rail supervisors Customer service agents Maintenance employees Long-range or capital planning Maintenance management Number of Responses T ra ns it A ge nc y D ep ar tm en ts
Detailed Analysis of Select Survey Questions 149 From what industries or occupations do candidates typically come when hired from OUTSIDE your agency? Figure C-9. New schedulersâ typical previous industries or occupations. Note: Respondents could select more than one option. 11 10 7 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 1 1 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Transit scheduling at other transit agencies Transit operations at other transit agencies Transit planning at other transit agencies Recent undergraduate student Recent graduate student Business Public administration Transportation, warehousing, and logistics Geography Information systems or Information technology Recent community college graduate Mathematics or Statistics Recent high school graduate Computer science Number of Responses O ut si de In du st ri es o r O cc up at io ns
150 Managing the Transit Scheduling Workforce Does your agency have strategies to encourage people in certain industries or occupations who are NOT transit schedulers to become schedulers? If so, for what industries or occupations? Figure C-10. Occupations or industries for which respondents had a strategy to encourage people to become transit schedulers. Note: Respondents could select more than one option. Does your agency have any strategies to encourage employees within certain transit agency departments or positions to become transit schedulers? If so, for which departments or positions? Figure C-11. Transit agency job areas for which respondents had a strategy to encourage employees to become transit schedulers Note: Respondents could select more than one option. 4 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Transit operations Undergraduate students Transit planning High school students Community college students Others Public administration Information systems or Information technology Number of Responses R es po ns e O pt io ns 5 5 5 3 3 2 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Bus or rail operators Dispatch/control room personnel Operations management Bus or rail supervisors Short-range planning Customer service agents Maintenance employees Others Number of Responses In te rn al C an di da te S tr at eg ie s
Detailed Analysis of Select Survey Questions 151 Rate each recruiting method on how effective it is for recruiting GOOD candidates for new transit schedulers. If your agency does not REGULARLY use the method, please answer Do not use. Table C-4. Effectiveness ratings of transit scheduler recruitment tools. Recruitment Tool 1 â Completely Ineffective 2 â Somewhat Ineffective 3 â Neutral 4 â Somewhat Effective 5 â Extremely Effective Do Not Use Printed ads in newspapers or periodicals 3 2 7 5 0 21 Ads in transit vehicles, stops, or stations 2 1 5 4 1 25 Transit industry periodicals or websites 0 0 7 6 9 16 Digital internal job board or newsletter 0 3 8 11 4 12 Online ads in news or media sites 0 2 7 5 4 20 Online job boards 0 1 5 9 5 18 Posting openings on the transit agency website 0 2 5 14 5 12 Social media 0 0 8 6 3 21 Note: Respondents could select more than one option.
152 Managing the Transit Scheduling Workforce Does your agency have educational background requirements when hiring entry-level transit schedulers? Educational degrees are listed below; select any minimum and preferred qualifications for entry- level transit scheduler candidates. Table C-5. Minimum or preferred educational qualifications listed in new transit scheduler job postings. Qualification Type High School Diploma or GED Associateâs Degree Undergraduate Degree Graduate Degree No Educational Requirement Minimum qualification 21 3 11 0 4 Preferred qualification 4 8 18 2 3 Note: Respondents could select only one educational level as a minimum qualification and only one educational level as a preferred qualification.
Detailed Analysis of Select Survey Questions 153 Does your agency have requirements for experience, knowledge, skills, and abilities when hiring entry-level transit schedulers? The table below contains several candidate qualifications that could be listed in your agencyâs job announcement for an entry-level transit scheduler. For each qualification, indicate whether the qualification is listed as a minimum qualification, a preferred (but not required) qualification, or is not listed on your agencyâs job announcement. If you ask for years of experience for the qualification, please indicate the years in the right column. Table C-6. Number of transit agencies requiring skills on new transit scheduler job descriptions. Type of Qualification Knowledge, Skill, or Ability Minimum Preferred Not Listed Average Years of Experience Median Years of Experience Experience in transit scheduling 10 16 11 2.8 2.0 Experience in transit 19 14 4 3.2 2.0 Experience in transportation/related field 14 12 10 3.1 2.0 Local geographical knowledge 12 10 14 3.2 1.5 Transit system knowledge 17 11 9 2.8 1.0 Knowledge of a particular scheduling software 4 17 13 1.7 1.0 Microsoft Excel skills (or similar) 25 10 2 3.6 3.0 Microsoft Access skills (or similar) 9 6 20 6.0 5.0 Microsoft Word skills (or similar) 22 8 6 2.7 1.5 Data analysis skills 19 10 7 4.0 3.5 Organizational skills 20 6 10 3.4 2.0 Public speaking skills 8 5 22 4.4 3.0 Written communication skills 25 5 6 3.6 2.5 Verbal communication skills 25 6 6 3.6 2.0 Note: Respondents could only select one of the three options (not listed, minimum qualification, or preferred qualification) for each listed knowledge, skill, or ability.
154 Managing the Transit Scheduling Workforce Selection Rate the effectiveness of the following tools or protocols for selecting HIGH QUALITY transit schedulers. If your agency does not CURRENTLY use a tool in the list, please select Do not use. Table C-7. Effectiveness ratings of scheduler selection tools. Selection Tool 1 â Completely ineffective 2 â Somewhat ineffective 3 â Neutral 4 â Somewhat effective 5 â Extremely effective Do not use Viewing transcripts 1 4 7 5 0 20 Standardized job application 0 1 9 17 4 5 Contacting references 0 2 9 10 8 9 Phone or web conference interview 1 0 6 11 3 17 In-person interview 1 0 1 7 24 5 Standard test 1 1 5 11 5 15 Performance during scheduling internships or apprenticeships 0 1 0 6 12 19 Note: Thirty-eight responses were received for all selection tools except for viewing transcripts (37 responses) and standardized job application (36 responses).
Detailed Analysis of Select Survey Questions 155 [For agencies who reported using a standard test for selecting new transit schedulers.] What does the standard test measure? Figure C-12. Skills and abilities measured by transit scheduler standard tests. Note: Respondents could select more than one option. 13 12 11 10 10 8 8 7 7 4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 General computer skills General knowledge, personality, or intelligence Software skills (other than scheduling software, e.g., Microsoft Excel) Knowledge of transit scheduling terms or practices Local geographical knowledge (e.g., local streets and points of interest) Organizational skills Written communications skills Transit scheduling ability Transit system knowledge (e.g., bus routes and service types) Transit scheduling software skills Number of Responses R es po ns e O pt io ns
156 Managing the Transit Scheduling Workforce Training How are NEWLY HIRED transit schedulers trained in their first year on the job? Please indicate the effectiveness of each training approach below. If your agency does not REGULARLY use the training approach, then answer Do not use. Table C-8. Effectiveness ratings of new transit scheduler training types. Training Type 1 â Completely ineffective 2 â Somewhat ineffective 3 â Neutral 4 â Somewhat effective 5 â Extremely effective Do not use Self-directed individual training (e.g., modules or scheduling simulations) 0 1 4 10 8 15 On-site one-on- one training led by experienced staff 1 0 1 6 25 5 On-site classroom- style 0 1 3 5 5 24 Off-site classroom-style 0 0 5 7 2 24 Coaching session by outside consultants 0 0 0 0 1 0 Who normally trains newly hired transit schedulers? Figure C-13. Responsibility for training newly hired transit schedulers. Note: Respondents could select more than one option. 23 19 19 7 5 1 0 10 20 30 Lead or senior transit schedulers Scheduling management Other transit schedulers in the same job classification or level Training is self-directed Contracted or external trainers Specialized in-house trainers Number of Responses N ew -H ir e T ra in in g In st ru ct or s
Detailed Analysis of Select Survey Questions 157 What in-house staff provide ongoing training and development to transit schedulers? Figure C-14. In-house staff who normally provide ongoing training to current schedulers. Note: Respondents could select more than one option. Excluding the use of TCRP Report 30 or 135, does your agency have a documented or standardized training program for newly hired or current transit schedulers? Figure C-15. Does the transit agency have a documented or standardized training program for new or current schedulers? 19 15 10 6 2 0 5 10 15 20 Lead or senior transit schedulers Schedule department management No in-house staff Others Specialized scheduling trainers Number of Responses R es po ns e O pt io ns 22 7 7 2 24 5 6 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 No Yes, and it is regularly used No, but we are currently developing one Yes, but it is outdated or not regularly used Number of Responses R es po ns e O pt io ns Current Scheduler Training New Hire Training
158 Managing the Transit Scheduling Workforce Managing Transit Scheduler Performance What practices does your agency regularly use to manage and improve an individual transit schedulerâs performance? Figure C-16. Strategies used to evaluate and manage scheduler performance. Note: Respondents could select more than one option. 22 20 19 17 15 12 10 10 6 5 4 4 0 5 10 15 20 25 Tracking schedule mistakes and corrective actions Seeking satisfaction feedback from schedule users Measuring total costs, vehicles, or operator requirements Measuring service performance metrics Providing training when requested Measuring schedule performance metrics Taking disciplinary measures for poor performance Providing recognition (without financial compensation) Other None Providing financial incentives for achieving goals or metrics Annual refresher courses on scheduling practices Number of Responses Pr ac ti ce s fo r E va lu at in g an d M an ag in g Sc he du le r Pe rf or m an ce
Detailed Analysis of Select Survey Questions 159 Which transit schedule performance metrics are measured when managing individual transit scheduler performance? Figure C-17. Schedule performance metrics tracked as a part of scheduler performance management. Note: Respondents could select more than one option. Which service performance metrics are measured when managing individual transit scheduler performance? Figure C-18. Service performance metrics tracked as part of scheduler performance management. Note: Respondents could select more than one option. 8 6 6 5 5 4 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Pay-to-platform ratio Penalty time (e.g., spread and overtime) Peak vehicle requirement Layover or recovery percentage or ratio Estimated labor cost per revenue hour Extraboard percentages Deadhead percentage or ratio Peak-to-base ratio Number of Responses Pe rf or m an ce M et ri cs 14 10 6 4 3 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 On-time performance or similar reliability metrics Customer complaints/compliments Ridership Safety (e.g., accidents and speeding occurrences) Other: Number of Responses Pe rf or m an ce M et ri cs
160 Managing the Transit Scheduling Workforce Scheduling Operations When Third Parties Create Transit Schedules How long has the service provider (or scheduling firm) been creating transit schedules for your agency? Table C-9. Duration for which transit agencies have used a service provider or scheduling firm to create transit schedules. Duration Service Provider Scheduling Firm Total Less than a year 1 1 2 1 to 2 years 3 to 4 years 5 to 6 years 1 1 7 to 10 years 1 1 More than 10 years 3 1 4 Why did your agency decide that the service provider (or scheduling firm) would create transit schedules? Figure C-19. Reasons why transit agencies use third parties to create transit schedules. Note: Respondents could select more than one option. 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 Transit agency wanted to change its scheduling process Transit agency does not have transit schedulers Other Transit agency has limited capacity or expertise in its transit schedulers Number of Responses R es po ns e O pt io ns Service Provider Scheduling Firm
Detailed Analysis of Select Survey Questions 161 What steps in the scheduling process is the service provider (or scheduling firm) responsible for? Figure C-20. Scheduling steps performed by third parties. Note: Respondents could select more than one option. Out of the usual number of schedule changes per year, how often does the service provider create the transit schedules? Figure C-21. Frequency of using third parties for schedule changes. 6 5 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 Rostering Runcutting Blocking Trip building Data collection and analysis Others Number of Responses R es po ns e O pt io ns Service Provider Scheduling Firm 2 2 3 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Service Provider Scheduling Firm Number of Responses 3r d Pa rty T yp e Contractor only creates transit schedules as-needed or as-requested All schedule changes
162 Managing the Transit Scheduling Workforce What components of the transit schedule [created by a service provider or scheduling firm] does your agency review? Figure C-22. Components of schedules created by third parties that are reviewed by transit agencies. Note: Respondents could select more than one option. Who reviews the quality of the transit schedules created by the service provider (or scheduling firm)? Figure C-23. Personnel responsible for reviewing third-party-created schedules. Note: Respondents could select more than one option. 3 3 3 2 2 1 3 3 3 3 3 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Running times Headways Spans Blocks Runcuts Rosters Number of Responses C om po ne nt s of T ra ns it Sc he du le s R ev ie w ed Service Provider Scheduling Firm 1 2 2 1 3 2 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Transit agency operations staff Transit agency planning or scheduling staff Operator or employee union Transit agency administrative or financial staff Transit agency oversight body or board A firm or consultant hired by the transit agency, separate from the scheduling firm Others Number of Responses R es po ns e O pt io ns Service Provider Scheduling Firm
Detailed Analysis of Select Survey Questions 163 Which transit schedule performance metrics are assessed or tracked as part of the schedule review process? Figure C-24. Transit schedule performance metrics assessed as part of the schedule review process for third-party-created schedules. Note: Respondents could select more than one option. 4 3 4 2 3 1 2 1 1 3 3 2 3 2 3 2 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Revenue hours or miles Peak vehicle requirements Platform hours or miles Layover or recovery time, percentages, or ratios Deadhead hours, percentages, or ratios Operator headcounts Estimated labor costs per revenue hour Penalty time (e.g., spread and overtime) Pay-to-platform ratios Peak-to-base ratios No performance metrics are assessed or tracked Number of Responses Pe rf or m an ce M et ric s Service Provider Scheduling Firm