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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 200 2019 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation â¢ Design and Information Technology â¢ Planning and Forecasting Using GIS for Collaborative Land Use Compatibility Planning Near Airports Arora Engineers, Inc. Chadds Ford, PA
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 200 Project 03-37 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48027-7 Library of Congress Control Number 2019938098 Â© 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 200 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Acting Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Joseph D. Navarrete, Senior Program Officer Hana Vagnerova, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Margaret B. Hagood, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 03-37 PANEL Field of Policy and Planning Daniel P. Bartholomew, Reno-Tahoe Airport Authority, Reno, NV (Chair) Ataa Aly, San Diego County Regional Airport Authority, San Diego, CA Scott R. Brummond, Wisconsin DOT, Madison, WI Andrew Taylor, Cubic Transportation Systems Inc., Alexandria, VA Diana Umpierre, Pembroke Pines, FL Daniel White, Fairfax Co. Dept. of Planning & Zoning, Fairfax, VA Michael Lawrance, FAA Liaison Christopher J. Oswald, Airports Council InternationalâNorth America Liaison Thomas Palmerlee, TRB Liaison
ACRP Research Report 200: Using GIS for Collaborative Land Use Compatibility Planning Near Airports offers guidance for using GIS as a collaboration tool to encourage compatible land use around airports. The report will be of particular interest to airport and community planners seeking to work together to protect existing and future airport development as well as maintain safety and improve quality of life for those living and working near airports. A key element to ensuring safe and efficient aircraft operations and the safety and well-being of people on the ground is maintaining compatible land use around airports. Aircraft noise and hazards, such as obstructions, navigational aid radio communication interference, and wildlife, are common issues that can often be mitigated through sound land use compatibility practices. However, there are often challenges to compatibility planning efforts, including the need for significant amounts of data and technical analysis and the fact that there are often multiple stakeholders with differing, and sometimes con- flicting priorities. GIS is a proven powerful tool for addressing not only the technical and analytical aspects of land use planning, but also for enhancing collaborative planning among stakeholders. While some airports have realized these benefits, others have yet to discover the capabilities and are unaware of their potential. Research was needed to assist airports, local governments, and other stakeholders in using GIS to help protect safety, health, quality of life, and public investments related to airports in or near their jurisdictions. The research used to develop the guidebook was led by Aurora Engineers, Inc. The team used a case study approach that incorporated interviews and focus groups with both airports and local planning agencies. Key topics covered included GIS data and functional specifications, regulatory factors, and organizational considerations. To facilitate engagement, the guidebook opens with a description of the perspectives, goals, responsibilities, and concerns of the federal government, airports, and local commu- nities to ensure that each has a good understanding of the othersâ missions and priorities. It then introduces the potential benefits that GIS might have on fostering collaboration. The remainder of the report offers guidance on initiating and maintaining collaboration, and for developing, sharing, and using data. A key feature of the guidebook is examples of how GIS was used collaboratively to address various land use compatibility issues, including aircraft noise, obstructions, wildlife hazards, and solar glare. A set of appendices supplements the guide by summarizing the role of government, providing a brief history of FAA aeronautical surveys, case studies, and example data sharing agreements. A presentation template for stakeholder outreach is available on the TRB website (www.trb.org) by searching for âACRP Research Report 200.â F O R E W O R D By Joseph D. Navarrete Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Introduction 2 Research Objective and Approach 2 Intention of this Guidebook 3 Target Audience 3 Document Organization 5 Chapter 1 Government, Airport Planning, and GIS Touchpoints 5 Federal Government 6 Community Planning 8 Airports 9 Airport Planning 11 Chapter 2 Airport Land Use Compatibility Concerns 11 Understanding the Concern 17 Administering Land Use Compatibility 23 Chapter 3 Benefits of GIS for Land Use Compatibility Planning 25 Benefits of GIS Example: Aircraft Noise and its Relationship to Land Use 27 Chapter 4 Using GIS 27 Initiating Collaboration 29 Acknowledged Limitations 31 Effective Practices 33 Example of Using GIS for Aircraft Noise and Land Use Compatibility 34 Using GIS Collaboration for Obstructions and Land Use Compatibility 36 Using GIS Collaboration for Fauna that is Hazardous to Aircraft Operations 38 Chapter 5 Data Development Guidelines 38 Principles of Data Development 41 The Data Development Process 43 Application: Aircraft Noise Data Sources 44 Application: Aircraft Noise Data Analysis 45 Application: Land Use Data in Relation to Aircraft Noise 46 Application: Aircraft Noise GIS Feature Type/Layer List 48 Application: Aircraft Noise Symbology 52 Application: Obstructions to Navigable Airspace Data Sources 53 Application: Obstructions to Navigable Airspace Data Analysis 55 Application: Land Use Data Related to Obstructions to Navigable Airspace 55 Application: Obstructions to Navigable Airspace GIS Feature Type/Layer List 55 Application: Obstructions to Navigable Airspace Symbology 58 Application: Fauna that is Hazardous to Aircraft Operations 58 Application: Interference: Solar Glare and Glint GIS Feature Type/Layer List C O N T E N T S
61 Chapter 6 Software Specifications 61 Software Selection 65 Software Configuration 66 Chapter 7 Dissemination Methods 66 Maps and Exhibits 66 Desktops 67 Client-Server Applications 67 Cloud Applications and Services 68 Mobile Devices 68 Crowd Sourcing Applications 69 Conclusions 71 References and Bibliography 74 Appendix A Role of Government 84 Appendix B A Brief History of FAA Aeronautical Surveys 86 Appendix C Case Studies 119 Appendix D Data Sharing Agreements 121 Endnotes Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.