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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Effects of Incarceration and Reentry on Community Health and Well-Being: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Effects of Incarceration and Reentry on Community Health and Well-Being: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Effects of Incarceration and Reentry on Community Health and Well-Being: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Effects of Incarceration and Reentry on Community Health and Well-Being: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Effects of Incarceration and Reentry on Community Health and Well-Being: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Effects of Incarceration and Reentry on Community Health and Well-Being: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Effects of Incarceration and Reentry on Community Health and Well-Being: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25471.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Effects of Incarceration and Reentry on Community Health and Well-Being: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Effects of Incarceration and Reentry on Community Health and Well-Being: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Effects of Incarceration and Reentry on Community Health and Well-Being: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Effects of Incarceration and Reentry on Community Health and Well-Being: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Effects of Incarceration and Reentry on Community Health and Well-Being: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25471.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

The Effects of Incarceration and Reentry on Community Health and Well-Being PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP Steve Olson and Karen M. Anderson, Rapporteurs Roundtable on the Promotion of Health Equity Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice Health and Medicine Division PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS   500 Fifth Street, NW   Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of S ­ ciences and Aetna Foundation, The Colorado Trust, Health Resources and Ser- vices Administration, Kaiser Permanente, The Kresge Foundation, U.S. Depart- ment of Veterans Affairs’ Office of Health Equity, and the National Academy of Medicine. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25471 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The effects of incarceration and reentry on community health and well-being: ­ roceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https:// P doi.org/10.17226/25471. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institu- tion to advise the nation on issues related to science and ­ echnology. Members t are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the char- ter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was estab­ished in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of ­ ciences to l S advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, E ­ ngineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and a ­ dvice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in ­ atters of science, engineering, and medicine. m Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engi­eering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the n study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typi- cally include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opin- ions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON THE IMPACT OF INCARCERATION AND REENTRY ON COMMUNITY HEALTH AND WELL-BEING1 FRANCISCO GARCÍA, Director and Chief Medical Officer, Pima County Department of Health TOORJO GHOSE, Associate Professor, University of Pennsylvania School of Social Policy and Practice MELENIE O. MAGNOTTA, Chief Operating Officer, Aetna Foundation CHRISTINE RAMEY, Deputy Director, Office of Health Equity, Health Resources and Services Administration UCHENNA S. UCHENDU, Office of Health Equity, Veterans Health Administration, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs WINSTON F. WONG, Community Benefit Disparities Improvement and Quality Initiatives, Kaiser Permanente National Program Office Health and Medicine Division Staff KAREN M. ANDERSON, Roundtable Director and Senior Program Officer ANNA MARTIN, Senior Program Assistant (until August 2018), Administrative Assistant (from August 2018) ROSE MARIE MARTINEZ, Senior Board Director, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice HOPE HARE, Administrative Assistant (until July 2018) 1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s planning commit- tees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing s ­ peakers. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. v PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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ROUNDTABLE ON THE PROMOTION OF HEALTH EQUITY1 ANTONIA VILLARRUEL (Chair), University of Pennsylvania PATRICIA BAKER, Connecticut Health Foundation JULIE A. BALDWIN, Center for Health Equity Research, Northern Arizona University GILLIAN BARCLAY, Nevada Governor’s Office of Economic Development B. NED CALONGE, The Colorado Trust KENDALL M. CAMPBELL, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University LUTHER T. CLARK, Merck & Co., Inc. FRANCISCO GARCÍA, Pima County Department of Health JEFFREY A. HENDERSON, Black Hills Center for American IndianHealth EVE J. HIGGINBOTHAM, University of Pennsylvania CARA V. JAMES, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services CHRIS KABEL, The Kresge Foundation MELENIE MAGNOTTA, Aetna Foundation OCTAVIO N. MARTINEZ, Hogg Foundation for Mental Health, The University of Texas at Austin CHRISTINE RAMEY, Health Resources and Services Administration MELISSA A. SIMON, Northwestern University PATTIE TUCKER, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention UCHENNA S. UCHENDU, Office of Health Equity, Veterans Health Administration, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs ROHIT VARMA, University of Southern California WINSTON F. WONG, Kaiser Permanente 1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s forums and round- tables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the pub- lished Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. vii PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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Reviewers This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by indi- viduals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineer- ing, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review com- ments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: SHREYA KANGOVI, University of Pennsylvania DAVID M. YOUNG, Montana State University NICKOLAS D. ZALLER, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by DEIDRA CREWS, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies. ix PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 THE EXPERIENCE OF INCARCERATION AND REENTRY 5 3 MASS INCARCERATION AS A PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE 11 4 WOMEN’S HEALTH IN JAILS AND PRISONS 21 5 REENTRY: EFFECTS ON THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE COMMUNITY 29 6 PROMISING PRACTICES AND MODELS FOR REENTRY 43 7 THE PERSPECTIVE FROM THE DISTRICT ATTORNEY’S OFFICE 55 8 WRAP-UP SESSION 61 APPENDIXES A REFERENCES 63 B WORKSHOP AGENDA 65 C SPEAKER BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 69 D STATEMENT OF TASK 75 xi PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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The high rate of incarceration in the United States contributes significantly to the nation’s health inequities, extending beyond those who are imprisoned to families, communities, and the entire society. Since the 1970s, there has been a seven-fold increase in incarceration. This increase and the effects of the post-incarceration reentry disproportionately affect low-income families and communities of color. It is critical to examine the criminal justice system through a new lens and explore opportunities for meaningful improvements that will promote health equity in the United States.

The National Academies convened a workshop on June 6, 2018 to investigate the connection between incarceration and health inequities to better understand the distributive impact of incarceration on low-income families and communities of color. Topics of discussion focused on the experience of incarceration and reentry, mass incarceration as a public health issue, women’s health in jails and prisons, the effects of reentry on the individual and the community, and promising practices and models for reentry. The programs and models that are described in this publication are all Philadelphia-based because Philadelphia has one of the highest rates of incarceration of any major American city. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions of the workshop.

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