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Suggested Citation:"Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Management of Legionella in Water Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25474.
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Page 285
Suggested Citation:"Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Management of Legionella in Water Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25474.
×
Page 286
Suggested Citation:"Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Management of Legionella in Water Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25474.
×
Page 287
Suggested Citation:"Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Management of Legionella in Water Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25474.
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Page 288

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Acronyms AIHA American Industrial Hygiene Association ANSI American National Standards Institute AOC assimilable organic carbon APHA American Public Health Association ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATCC American Type Culture Collection ATP adenosine triphosphate AWWA American Water Works Association BAL bronchoalveolar BCYE buffered charcoal yeast extract BDOC biodegradable dissolved organic carbon BMP best management practice CAPNETZ Competence Network for Community-Acquired Pneumonia CCL Candidate Contaminant List CCR consumer confidence reports CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CFR Code of Federal Regulations CFU Colony forming units CMS Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services CSTE Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists CT computed tomography DALY Disability-adjusted life years DFA direct fluorescent antibody testing DNA deoxyribonucleic acid DOHMH Department of Health and Mental Hygiene DVA Department of Veterans Affairs DWSD Detroit Water and Sewerage Department ECDC European Centers for Disease Control EEA European Economic Area 285 Prepublication Version - Subject to further editorial revision

286 Management of Legionella in Water Systems ELAP NYS Environmental Laboratory Approval Program ELITE Environmental Legionella Isolation Techniques Evaluation EMA ethidium monoazide EPA Environmental Protection Agency EU European Union EWGLI European Working Group for Legionella Infections FDA Food and Drug Administration FY fiscal year GAC granular activated carbon GC gene copy GCHD Genesee County Health Department HHS Department of Health and Human Services HIV human immunodeficiency virus HPC heterotrophic plate count HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning IAPMO International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials ICU intensive care unit IHC immunohistochemistry ISO International Organization for Standardization LD Legionnaires’ disease LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Lp Legionella pneumophila LPS lipopolysaccharide MCLG maximum contaminant level goal MIF mature infectious form MIP macrophage infectivity potentiator MPN most-probable-number NIAID National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NNDSS National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System NOM natural organic matter NORS National Outbreak Reporting System NSF National Science Foundation NSFI National Sanitation Foundation International NYC New York City NYS New York State PCR polymerase chain reaction PEX cross-linked polyethylene PFGE pulsed field gel electrophoresis PHB polyhydroxybutyrate PMA propodium monoazide POE point of entry POU point of use PSPC Public Service and Procurement Canada PVC polyvinyl chloride PWGSC Public Works and Government Services Canada QMRA quantitative microbial risk assessment Prepublication Version - Subject to further editorial revision

Acronyms 287 qPCR quantitative PCR RNA ribonucleic acid RO reverse osmosis SLDSS Supplemental Legionnaires’ Disease Surveillance System SQI Société Québécoise des Infrastructures ST sequence type S/V surface-to-volume SDWA Safe Drinking Water Act SWTR Surface Water Treatment Rule TDS total dissolved solids TLR toll-like receptors TNTC too numerous to count TOC total organic carbon UAT urinary antigen test UCMR Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule USGBC U.S. Green Building Council UV ultraviolet VBNC viable-but-not-culturable VHA Veterans Health Administration VSP Vessel Sanitation Program WHO World Health Organization Prepublication Version - Subject to further editorial revision

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Legionnaires’ disease, a pneumonia caused by the Legionella bacterium, is the leading cause of reported waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States. Legionella occur naturally in water from many different environmental sources, but grow rapidly in the warm, stagnant conditions that can be found in engineered water systems such as cooling towers, building plumbing, and hot tubs. Humans are primarily exposed to Legionella through inhalation of contaminated aerosols into the respiratory system. Legionnaires’ disease can be fatal, with between 3 and 33 percent of Legionella infections leading to death, and studies show the incidence of Legionnaires’ disease in the United States increased five-fold from 2000 to 2017.

Management of Legionella in Water Systems reviews the state of science on Legionella contamination of water systems, specifically the ecology and diagnosis. This report explores the process of transmission via water systems, quantification, prevention and control, and policy and training issues that affect the incidence of Legionnaires’ disease. It also analyzes existing knowledge gaps and recommends research priorities moving forward.

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