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Suggested Citation:"Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Management of Legionella in Water Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25474.
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Acronyms

AIHA American Industrial Hygiene Association
ANSI American National Standards Institute
AOC assimilable organic carbon
APHA American Public Health Association
ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
ATCC American Type Culture Collection
ATP adenosine triphosphate
AWWA American Water Works Association
BAL bronchoalveolar
BCYE buffered charcoal yeast extract
BDOC biodegradable dissolved organic carbon
BMP best management practice
CAPNETZ Competence Network for Community-Acquired Pneumonia
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CFR Code of Federal Regulations
CFU Colony forming units
CMS Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services
CSTE Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists
CT computed tomography
DALY Disability-adjusted life years
ddPCR digital droplet PCR
DFA direct fluorescent antibody testing
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
DOHMH Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
Suggested Citation:"Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Management of Legionella in Water Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25474.
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DVA Department of Veterans Affairs
DWSD Detroit Water and Sewerage Department
ECDC European Centers for Disease Control
EEA European Economic Area
ELAP NYS Environmental Laboratory Approval Program
ELITE Environmental Legionella Isolation Techniques Evaluation
EMA ethidium monoazide
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
EU European Union
EWGLI European Working Group for Legionella Infections
FDA Food and Drug Administration
FY fiscal year
GAC granular activated carbon
GC gene copy
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
HPC heterotrophic plate count
HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning
IAPMO International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials
ICU intensive care unit
IHC immunohistochemistry
ISO International Organization for Standardization
LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
Lp Legionella pneumophila
LPS lipopolysaccharide
MCLG maximum contaminant level goal
MIF mature infectious form
MIP macrophage infectivity potentiator
MPN most-probable-number
NNDSS National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System
NORS National Outbreak Reporting System
NSF National Science Foundation
NSFI National Sanitation Foundation International
NYC New York City
NYS New York State
PCR polymerase chain reaction
PEX cross-linked polyethylene
PHB polyhydroxybutyrate
PMA propodium monoazide
POE point of entry
POU point of use
Suggested Citation:"Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Management of Legionella in Water Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25474.
×
PSPC Public Service and Procurement Canada
PVC polyvinyl chloride
PWGSC Public Works and Government Services Canada
QMRA quantitative microbial risk assessment
qPCR quantitative PCR
RNA ribonucleic acid
SDWA Safe Drinking Water Act
SLDSS Supplemental Legionnaires’ Disease Surveillance System
SQI Société Québécoise des Infrastructures
ST sequence type
S/V surface-to-volume
SWTR Surface Water Treatment Rule
TDS total dissolved solids
TLR toll-like receptors
TNTC too numerous to count
TOC total organic carbon
UAT urinary antigen test
UCMR Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule
USGBC U.S. Green Building Council
UV ultraviolet
VBNC viable-but-not-culturable
VHA Veterans Health Administration
VSP Vessel Sanitation Program
WHO World Health Organization
Suggested Citation:"Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Management of Legionella in Water Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25474.
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Suggested Citation:"Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Management of Legionella in Water Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25474.
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Suggested Citation:"Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Management of Legionella in Water Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25474.
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Page 272
Suggested Citation:"Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Management of Legionella in Water Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25474.
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Page 273
Suggested Citation:"Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Management of Legionella in Water Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25474.
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Page 274
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Legionnaires’ disease, a pneumonia caused by the Legionella bacterium, is the leading cause of reported waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States. Legionella occur naturally in water from many different environmental sources, but grow rapidly in the warm, stagnant conditions that can be found in engineered water systems such as cooling towers, building plumbing, and hot tubs. Humans are primarily exposed to Legionella through inhalation of contaminated aerosols into the respiratory system. Legionnaires’ disease can be fatal, with between 3 and 33 percent of Legionella infections leading to death, and studies show the incidence of Legionnaires’ disease in the United States increased five-fold from 2000 to 2017.

Management of Legionella in Water Systems reviews the state of science on Legionella contamination of water systems, specifically the ecology and diagnosis. This report explores the process of transmission via water systems, quantification, prevention and control, and policy and training issues that affect the incidence of Legionnaires’ disease. It also analyzes existing knowledge gaps and recommends research priorities moving forward.

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