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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics: Lethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25475.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics: Lethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25475.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics: Lethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25475.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics: Lethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25475.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics: Lethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25475.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics: Lethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25475.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics: Lethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25475.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics: Lethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25475.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics: Lethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25475.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics: Lethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25475.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics: Lethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25475.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics: Lethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25475.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics LETHALITY AT RISK Unclassified Summary Steven Darbes and Joan Fuller, Editors Committee on a Strategy for Acquiring Secure and Reliable Electronic Components for Air Force Weapon Systems Air Force Studies Board Intelligence Community Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences A Consensus Study Report of

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, NW  Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by Contract 2014-14041100003-016 between the Office of the Director of National Intelligence and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organiza- tion or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13:  978-0-309-49390-1 International Standard Book Number-10:  0-309-49390-0 Digital Object Identifier:   https://doi.org/10.17226/25475 Limited copies of this report may be available through the Air Force Studies Board, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001; (202) 334-3111. Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www. nap.edu. Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics: Lethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25475.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on i ­ssues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for out- standing contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the n ­ ation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineer- ing. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contribu- tions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceed- ings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

COMMITTEE ON A STRATEGY FOR ACQUIRING SECURE AND RELIABLE ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS FOR AIR FORCE WEAPON SYSTEMS ROBERT H. LATIFF, Independent Consultant, Chair KEITH R. HALL, Independent Consultant, Co-Chair MICHAEL J. BEAR, BAE Systems’ Electronics System Sector JOHN C. BROCK, Independent Consultant BRIAN HOLMES, National Intelligence University CRAIG L. KEAST, MIT Lincoln Laboratory RANDAL W. LARSON, MITRE Corporation TERRY P. LEWIS, Raytheon Company AARON OKI, Northrop Grumman Corporation THOMAS E. ROMESSER, NAE,1 Independent Consultant Liaison CHRIS BOZADA, Air Force Research Laboratory Staff JOAN FULLER, Study Director STEVEN DARBES, Research Associate 1  Member, National Academy of Engineering. v

INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY STUDIES BOARD FREDERICK R. CHANG, NAE, Southern Methodist University, Co-Chair ROBERT C. DYNES, NAS, University of California, San Diego, Co-Chair JULIE BRILL, Microsoft Corporation ROBERT A. BRODOWSKI, MITRE Corporation TOMAS DIAZ DE LA RUBIA, Purdue University ROBERT A. FEIN, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School MIRIAM E. JOHN, Independent Consultant ANITA K. JONES, NAE, University of Virginia ROBERT H. LATIFF, U.S. Air Force (retired), R. Latiff Associates RICHARD H. LEDGETT, JR., Institute for Defense Analyses MARK LOWENTHAL, Intelligence & Security Academy, LLC MICHAEL A. MARLETTA, NAS/NAM,1 University of California, Berkeley L. ROGER MASON, JR., Peraton JASON MATHENY, Georgetown University CARMEN L. MIDDLETON, Central Intelligence Agency (retired) ELIZABETH RINDSKOPF PARKER, State Bar of California (retired) WILLIAM H. PRESS, NAS, University of Texas, Austin DAVID A. RELMAN, NAM, Stanford University SAMUEL S. VISNER, MITRE Corporation; Georgetown University Staff ALAN SHAW, Director CARYN LESLIE, Senior Program Officer CHRIS JONES, Financial Manager MARGUERITE SCHNEIDER, Administrative Coordinator DIONNA ALI, Research Associate ADRIANNA HARGROVE, Financial Assistant NATHANIEL DEBEVOISE, Senior Program Assistant 1  Member, National Academy of Medicine. vi

AIR FORCE STUDIES BOARD DOUGLAS M. FRASER, Douglas Fraser, LLC, Chair ALLISON ASTORINO-COURTOIS, National Security Innovations, Inc. KEVIN G. BOWCUTT, NAE,1 The Boeing Company TED F. BOWLDS, U.S. Air Force (retired) CRAIG R. COONING, The Boeing Company BLAISE J. DURANTE, U.S. Air Force (retired) STEPHEN R. FORREST, NAE/NAS,2 University of Michigan BRENDAN B. GODFREY, University of Maryland, College Park MICHAEL A. HAMEL, U.S. Air Force (retired) JAMES E. HUBBARD, JR., NAE, Texas A&M University CHARLES H. JACOBY, JR., Capitol Peak Asset Management RAYMOND E. JOHNS, JR., FlightSafety International ALEX MILLER, University of Tennessee OZDEN OCHOA, Texas A&M University HENDRICK RUCK, Edaptive Computing, Inc. JULIE J.C.H. RYAN, National Defense University (retired) ZACHARY TUDOR, Idaho National Laboratory STARNES WALKER, ANDE Corporation DEBORAH WESTPHAL, Toffler Associates DAVID A. WHELAN, NAE, Independent Consultant MICHAEL YARYMOVYCH, NAE, Sarasota Space Associates Staff ELLEN CHOU, Director JOAN FULLER, Director (until September 2018) GEORGE COYLE, Senior Program Officer RYAN MURPHY, Program Officer ADRIANNA HARGROVE, Financial Assistant MARGUERITE SCHNEIDER, Administrative Coordinator STEVEN DARBES, Research Associate CATHERINE PUMA, Research Assistant 1  Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2  Member, National Academy of Sciences. vii

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this indepen- dent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Iain Boyd, University of Michigan, William Hix, U.S. Army (retired), Lester L. Lyles, NAE,1 U.S. Air Force (retired), John Szymanski, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Donald C. Winter, NAE, University of Michigan. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommenda- tions of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Robert F. Sproull, NAE, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination 1  Member, National Academy of Engineering. ix

x Acknowledgment of Reviewers of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 DISCUSSION OF SELECTED TOPICS FROM THE RESTRICTED REPORT 8 USAF Capabilities Requiring Secure and Reliable Microelectronics, 8 Threats to the Supply Chain of Microelectronics in USAF Weapon Systems, 9 Supply Chain Risk Management Policy, 11 Supply Chain Vulnerabilities Are a U.S. Achilles Heel, 14 The Role of Cyber, 19 Sustainment—A Soft Target of Opportunity, 21 Maintenance and Sustainment Considerations, 25 Technology Approaches to Secure and Reliable Electronics, 27 The SCRM Challenge in the Acquisition Life Cycle, 35 The Need for an Enterprise Approach Within the USAF, 39 Best Practices Within the Supply Chain Risk Management Community, 41 CONCLUSIONS48 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 50 Lead Supply Chain Risk Management from the Top, 50 Capitalize on U.S. Government-Level Modernization Efforts, 51 Develop USAF-Level Sustainment Process, 52 xi

xii Contents Employ System-Level Operational Security, 52 Expand Supply Chain Monitoring, 53 Implement Program Information Protection Program (SystemSecure), 54 APPENDIXES A Statement of Task 57 B Summary from the Workshop Proceedings 60 C SCRM Policy, Guidance, and Standards 63 D SCRM-Specific NDAA/Public Laws (2009-2019) 68 E Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement Subparts Addressing SCRM 71 F Industry Test Standards for Component Integrity and Counterfeit Detection 74 G Summarization of Relevant Past Reports on USAF and DoD Microelectronic Supply Chain 75 H Acronyms 86 I Committee and Liaison Biographical Information 90

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High-performance electronics are key to the U.S. Air Force’s (USAF’s) ability to deliver lethal effects at the time and location of their choosing. Additionally, these electronic systems must be able to withstand not only the rigors of the battlefield but be able to perform the needed mission while under cyber and electronic warfare (EW) attack. This requires a high degree of assurance that they are both physically reliable and resistant to adversary actions throughout their life cycle from design to sustainment.

In 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop titled Optimizing the Air Force Acquisition Strategy of Secure and Reliable Electronic Components, and released a summary of the workshop. This publication serves as a follow-on to provide recommendations to the USAF acquisition community.

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