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Data-Driven Modeling for Additive Manufacturing of Metals PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP Janki Patel,Â Rapporteur Board on Mathematical Sciences and Analytics National Materials and Manufacturing Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESSâ500 Fifth Street, NWâWashington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Tech- nology (Contract No. SB134117CQ0017), the Department of Energy, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessar- ily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-49420-5 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-49420-6 Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25481 Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Acad- emies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Â edicine. M 2019. Data-Driven Modeling for Additive Manufacturing of Metals: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi. org/10.17226/25481.
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PLANNING COMMITTEE ON THE WORKSHOP ON THE FRONTIERS OF MECHANISTIC DATA-DRIVEN MODELING FOR ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING CAROLIN KÃRNER, Friedrich-Alexander UniversitÃ¤t Erlangen- NÃ¼rnberg, Co-Chair WING KAM LIU, Northwestern University, Co-Chair TAHANY EL-WARDANY, United Technologies Research Center ADE MAKINDE, General Electric Global Research Center MUSTAFA MEGAHED, ESI Group CELIA MERZBACHER, SRI International NANCY REID, NAS,1 University of Toronto JENS TELGKAMP, Airbus Operations GmbH KAREN E. WILLCOX, University of Texas, Austin Staff MICHELLE SCHWALBE, Director, Board on Mathematical Sciences and Analytics, Workshop Co-Director ERIK SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer, National Materials and Manufacturing Board, Workshop Co-Director BETH DOLAN, Financial Manager JANKI PATEL, Research Associate 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. v
BOARD ON MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES AND ANALYTICS MARK L. GREEN, University of California, Los Angeles, Chair HÃLÃNE BARCELO, Mathematical Sciences Research Institute JOHN R. BIRGE, NAE,1 University of Chicago W. PETER CHERRY, NAE, Independent Consultant DAVID S.C. CHU, Institute for Defense Analyses RONALD R. COIFMAN, NAS,2 Yale University JAMES (JIM) CURRY, University of Colorado, Boulder SHAWNDRA HILL, Microsoft Research LYDIA KAVRAKI, NAM,3 Rice University TAMARA KOLDA, Sandia National Laboratories JOSEPH A. LANGSAM, University of Maryland DAVID MAIER, Portland State University LOIS CURFMAN McINNES, Argonne National Laboratory JILL C. PIPHER, Brown University ELIZABETH A. THOMPSON, NAS, University of Washington CLAIRE J. TOMLIN, NAE, University of California, Berkeley LANCE A. WALLER, Emory University KAREN E. WILLCOX, University of Texas, Austin Staff MICHELLE SCHWALBE, Director TYLER KLOEFKORN, Program Officer LINDA CASOLA, Associate Program Officer ADRIANNA HARGROVE, Financial Manager SELAM ARAIA, Program Assistant 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 3 Member, National Academy of Medicine. vi
NATIONAL MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING BOARD BEN WANG, Georgia Institute of Technology, Chair THERESA KOTANCHEK, Evolved Analytics, LLC, Vice Chair RODNEY C. ADKINS, NAE,1 IBM Corporate Strategy (Retired) CRAIG ARNOLD, Princeton University JIM C.I. CHANG, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan THOMAS M. DONNELLAN, The Pennsylvania State University STEPHEN R. FORREST, NAS2/NAE, University of Michigan ERICA R.H. FUCHS, Carnegie Mellon University DAVID C. LARBALESTIER, NAE, Florida State University MICHAEL MAHER, Maher and Associates, LLC ROBERT D. MILLER, NAE, IBM Almaden Research Center EDWARD MORRIS, Consequence Consulting, LLC NICHOLAS A. PEPPAS, NAE/NAM,3 University of Texas, Austin TRESA M. POLLOCK, NAE, University of California, Santa Barbara GREGORY TASSEY, University of Washington HAYDN WADLEY, University of Virginia STEVEN J. ZINKLE, NAE, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Staff JAMES LANCASTER, Director ERIK SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate AMISHA JINANDRA, Research Associate JOSEPH PALMER, Senior Project Assistant 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 3 Member, National Academy of Medicine. vii
Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by indi- viduals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineer- ing, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review com- ments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: Bianca Maria Colosimo, Politecnico di Milano; Joseph M. DeSimone, NAS1/NAE2/NAM,3 University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; and John Turner, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 2 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 3 Member, National Academy of Medicine. ix
x ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF REVIEWERS review of this proceedings was overseen by Mark C. Hersam, North- western University. He was responsible for making certain that an inde- pendent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review com- ments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteur and the National Academies.
Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Organization of This Proceedings, 2 2 PROCESS MONITORING AND CONTROL 3 Measurements and Modeling for Process Monitoring and Control, 4 Measurement Science for Process Monitoring and Control, 9 Simulations: A Chance for Knowledge-Based Improvement of Additive Manufacturing, 11 Discussion, 13 References, 15 3 MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION, ALLOY DESIGN, AND PART SUITABILITY 19 Measurements for Additive Manufacturing of Metals, 19 Predicting Material State and Performance of Additively Manufactured Parts, 22 Discussion, 24 References, 27 xi
xii CONTENTS 4 PROCESS AND MACHINE DESIGN 28 Modeling Phases of Process and Machine Design, 29 Current State of Commercial Powder-Bed Additive MachinesâAM Machine Design Issues Impacting Build-to-Build and Part-to-Part Variability, 33 Modeling Challenges and Opportunities at the Part Level, 35 Discussion, 39 References, 39 5 PRODUCT AND PROCESS QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION 41 Process Qualification and Technological Validation, from Casting to Additive, 41 Modeling and Simulation, 43 Discussion, 44 Reference, 46 6 SUMMARY OF CHALLENGES FROM SUBGROUP DISCUSSIONS AND PARTICIPANT COMMENTS 47 Measurements and Modeling for Process Monitoring and Control, 48 Developing Models to Represent Microstructure Evolution, Alloy Design, and Part Suitability, 50 Modeling Aspects of Process and Machine Design, 52 Accelerating Product and Process Qualification and Certification, 54 Individual Response Results, 56 References, 56 APPENDIXES A Registered Workshop Participants 59 B Workshop Agenda 61 C Workshop Statement of Task 66