National Academies Press: OpenBook

Seismic Design of Non-Conventional Bridges (2019)

Chapter: Front Matter

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Seismic Design of Non-Conventional Bridges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25489.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Seismic Design of Non-Conventional Bridges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25489.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Seismic Design of Non-Conventional Bridges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25489.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Seismic Design of Non-Conventional Bridges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25489.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Seismic Design of Non-Conventional Bridges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25489.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Seismic Design of Non-Conventional Bridges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25489.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Seismic Design of Non-Conventional Bridges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25489.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Seismic Design of Non-Conventional Bridges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25489.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Seismic Design of Non-Conventional Bridges A Synthesis of Highway Practice David Goodyear Hans Lund T.Y. Lin inTernaTionaL Olympia, WA 2019 Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration Subscriber Categories Bridges and Other Structures N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP SYNTHESIS 532

Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP SYNTHESIS 532 Project 20-05, Topic 49-12 ISSN 0547-5570 ISBN 978-0-309-48039-0 Library of Congress Control Number 2019941101 © 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photo credit: T.Y. Lin International NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRB’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRB’s relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the Federal Highway Administration. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&I’s recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these top- ics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP SYNTHESIS 532 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Jo Allen Gause, Senior Program Officer Deborah Irvin, Program Coordinator Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Kami Cabral, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 20-05 PANEL Brian A. Blanchard, HDR, Tallahassee, FL (Chair) Socorro “Coco” Briseno, California DOT, Sacramento, CA Anita K. Bush, Nevada DOT, Carson City, NV Joseph D. Crabtree, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY Mostafa “Moe” Jamshidi, Nebraska DOT, Lincoln, NE David M. Jared, Georgia DOT, Forest Park, GA Cynthia L. Jones, Ohio DOT, Columbus, OH Jessie X. Jones, Arkansas DOT, Little Rock, AR Brenda Moore, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh, NC Ben T. Orsbon, South Dakota DOT, Pierre, SD Randall R. “Randy” Park, Avenue Consultants, Bluffdale, UT Joyce N. Taylor, Maine DOT, Augusta, ME Jack Jernigan, FHWA Liaison Stephen F. Maher, TRB Liaison TOPIC 49-12 PANEL Ian Buckle, University of Nevada—Reno, Reno, NV Xiaohua Hannah Cheng, New Jersey DOT, Trenton, NJ Lee Marsh, BergerABAM, Federal Way, WA Lucero E. Mesa, South Carolina DOT, Columbia, SC Thomas A. Ostrom, California DOT, Sacramento, CA Richard A. Pratt, Alaska DOT and Public Facilities, Juneau, AK Anne M. Rearick, Indiana DOT, Indianapolis, IN Sheila Rimal Duwadi, FHWA Liaison Jia-Dzwan “Jerry” Shen, FHWA Liaison Stephen F. Maher, TRB Liaison

ABOUT THE NCHRP SYNTHESIS PROGRAM Highway administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This infor- mation may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to highway administrators and engineers. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day- to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evalu ating such useful information and to make it available to the entire highway community, the American Association of State High- way and Transportation Officials—through the mechanism of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program—authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, NCHRP Project 20-05, “Synthesis of Information Related to Highway Problems,” searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an NCHRP report series, Synthesis of Highway Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. FOREWORD By Jo Allen Gause Staff Officer Transportation Research Board The objective of this synthesis is to document seismic design approaches and criteria used for “non-conventional” bridges, such as long-span cable-supported bridges, bridges with truss tower substructures, and arch bridges. Information used in this study was gathered through a literature review, a survey of state departments of transportation (DOTs), and an analysis of design criteria documents provided by agencies that have recent experience with seismic design of non-conventional bridges. Seismic design criteria for 11 bridge projects provides additional information on the subject. David Goodyear and Hans Lund, T.Y. Lin International, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable with the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 3 Problem Statement 4 Objective of the Study 4 The Wind Conundrum 6 Chapter 2 Literature Review and Survey 7 Survey Results 11 Survey Summary 12 Chapter 3 State of Practice Based on Project Criteria 12 Project-Specific Seismic Design Criteria 16 Review of Criteria Documents 16 Strain-Based Criteria in Current Practice 17 Means by Which Nonlinearity Is Considered 19 Limited Ductility and Capacity Protection 20 Other Elements of Practice 21 Chapter 4 Evaluation and Case Examples 22 Case Example 1—Cable-Stayed Bridge with Single Pylon 23 Case Example 2—Concrete Arch Bridge 26 Chapter 5 Conclusions 27 Research Needs 28 References 29 Glossary of Terms 31 Appendix A Design Criteria Documents 32 Sixth Street Bridge Replacement Project (California) 38 New Benicia Martinez Bridge (California) 43 Tacoma Narrows Parallel Suspension Bridge (Washington) 53 Gerald Desmond Bridge Replacement Project (California) 66 Hoover Dam Bypass Colorado River Bridge (Nevada/Arizona) 73 I-74 Bridge (Iowa) 85 Port Mann Bridge Highway 1 Project (Vancouver, BC) 92 San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge Self-Anchored Suspension Bridge (California) 104 San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge Skyway Structures (California) 113 Tappan Zee Hudson River Crossing Project (New York) 119 Willamette River Transit Bridge (Tilikum Crossing Bridge) (Oregon) 122 Appendix B State DOT Survey C O N T E N T S Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 532: Seismic Design of Non-Conventional Bridges documents seismic design approaches and criteria used for “non-conventional” bridges, such as long-span cable-supported bridges, bridges with truss tower substructures, and arch bridges.

Design of conventional bridges for seismic demands in the United States is based on one of two American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO) documents: the AASHTO Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Bridge Design Specifications (AASHTO BDS) (1) or the AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design (Guide Spec) (2). The stated scope of these documents for seismic design is limited to conventional bridges.

Non-conventional bridges outside the scope of these two AASHTO documents, such as cable-supported bridges and long-span arch bridges, are typically high value investments designed with special project criteria. There is no current AASHTO standard seismic design criteria document specific to these non-conventional bridges. Seismic design criteria for these non-conventional bridges are typically part of a broader project-specific criteria document that addresses the special character of the bridge type.

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