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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the CNA Analyses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25490.
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Page 85
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the CNA Analyses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25490.
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Page 86
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the CNA Analyses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25490.
×
Page 87
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the CNA Analyses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25490.
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Page 88

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Appendix B Overview of the CNA Analyses The information gathering and analyses carried out by the CNA investigators is presented in the following references, also shared directly online at https://www.cna.org/research/hurricane- supply-chain.  Palin, P. J. 2018. Learning from H.I.M. (Harvey, Irma, Maria): Preliminary impressions for supply chain resilience. Homeland Security Affairs 14, Article 7. https://www.hsaj.org/articles/14598 (accessed November 21, 2019)  Palin, P. J., L. S. Hanson, D. Barton, and A. Frohwein. 2018. Supply Chains and the 2017 Hurricane Season: A collection of case studies about Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria and their impact on supply chain resilience. Arlington, VA: CNA Analysis and Solutions This work includes a detailed time line of the three hurricanes and their impacts in each of the main study areas, and a helpful overview of the basic supply chain dynamics for motor fuels, public water supply, retail food (see Figure B.1). Based on investigations and on-site field research in Texas (Houston and the Coastal Bend), Florida (Jacksonville, Orlando, and South Florida), Puerto Rico (San Juan, Comerio, and Yabucoa), and the U.S. Virgin Islands (Saint Croix), the CNA team then presents a series of case studies about key supply chains of interest (summarized in Table B.1). These include:  Case study 1, “Retail Resilience in Puerto Rico,” which examines the surprising resilience of the retail sector supplying food and fuel after Hurricane Maria.  Case study 2, “Static on the Relief Channel,” which investigates how food deliveries from the federal government created both real and perceived impacts on the retail food sector in Puerto Rico and caused spillover effects into other supply chains.  Case study 3, “Resupplying Metro Miami,” which examines Florida during Hurricane Irma, specifically, how fuel availability affected the transportation of food and other goods before, during, and after the hurricane.  Case study 4, “Harvey Turns On (and Then Turns Off) the Tap,” which looks at how Hurricane Harvey affected water suppliers, and what hindered and helped their ability to recover.  Case study 5, “Constraints in Optimized Networks,” which looks at bottlenecks in supply chains in a variety of forms, using four examples from Florida and Puerto Rico. An additional Case study 6, “External Factors—Debris and Donations,” is online only (not in the full report) and examines of how specific local factors (post-storm debris management, unrequested donations) can influence the resilience of lifeline supply chains by changing the response environment and imposing burdens on local resources needed for disaster response. PREPUBLICATION COPY 85

86 STRENGTHENING POST-HURRICANE SUPPLY CHAIN RESILIENCE Figure B.1. Generalized supply chains schematics for motor fuels (top), food products (middle), and public water systems (bottom). SOURCE: Palin et al., 2018. PREPUBLICATION COPY

APPENDIX B 87 Table B.1 CNA Case Studies’ Subjects, Hurricanes Involved, Affected Areas, and Supply Chains of Concern Case Study Subject Storm Area Supply Chains Retail resilience Maria Puerto Rico Food, fuel Static on the relief channel Maria Puerto Rico Food Resupplying metro Miami Irma Florida Fuel, food Water networks after Harvey Harvey Texas Water Box: Irma and the Florida Keys Irma Florida Keys Water Constraints in optimized networks Retail cross-dock Irma Florida Food Fuel networks Irma Florida Fuel Ports Irma, Maria Puerto Rico General Manufacturing of intravenous fluids Irma, Maria Puerto Rico Medical PREPUBLICATION COPY

Next: Appendix C: Resources and Tools to Support Information Sharing »
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Resilient supply chains are crucial to maintaining the consistent delivery of goods and services to the American people. The modern economy has made supply chains more interconnected than ever, while also expanding both their range and fragility. In the third quarter of 2017, Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria revealed some significant vulnerabilities in the national and regional supply chains of Texas, Florida, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico. The broad impacts and quick succession of these three hurricanes also shed light on the effectiveness of the nation's disaster logistics efforts during response through recovery.

Drawing on lessons learned during the 2017 hurricanes, this report explores future strategies to improve supply chain management in disaster situations. This report makes recommendations to strengthen the roles of continuity planning, partnerships between civic leaders with small businesses, and infrastructure investment to ensure that essential supply chains will remain operational in the next major disaster. Focusing on the supply chains food, fuel, water, pharmaceutical, and medical supplies, the recommendations of this report will assist the Federal Emergency Management Agency as well as state and local officials, private sector decision makers, civic leaders, and others who can help ensure that supply chains remain robust and resilient in the face of natural disasters.

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