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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Continuous Improvement of NASA's Innovation Ecosystem: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25505.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Continuous Improvement of NASA's Innovation Ecosystem: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25505.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Continuous Improvement of NASA's Innovation Ecosystem: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25505.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Continuous Improvement of NASA's Innovation Ecosystem: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25505.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Continuous Improvement of NASA's Innovation Ecosystem: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25505.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Continuous Improvement of NASA's Innovation Ecosystem: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25505.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Continuous Improvement of NASA's Innovation Ecosystem: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25505.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Continuous Improvement of NASA's Innovation Ecosystem: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25505.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Continuous Improvement of NASA's Innovation Ecosystem: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25505.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Continuous Improvement of NASA's Innovation Ecosystem: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25505.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Continuous Improvement of NASA's Innovation Ecosystem: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25505.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Continuous Improvement of NASA's Innovation Ecosystem: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25505.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Prepublication Copy – Subject to Further Editorial Correction Continuous Improvement of NASA’s Innovation Ecosystem PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP Robert Pool, Rapporteur Planning Committee on the Continuous Improvement of NASA’s Innovation —A Workshop and Meetings of Experts Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Space Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This study is based on work supported by Contract NNH16CE01B with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any agency or organization that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: XXX-X-XXX-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: X-XXX-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25505 Cover design by ???. Copies of this publication are available free of charge from Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Keck Center of the National Academies 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Continuous Improvement of NASA’s Innovation Ecosystem: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25505. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON THE CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT OF NASA’S INNOVATION ECOSYSTEM—A WORKSHOP AND MEETINGS OF EXPERTS DANIEL L. DUMBACHER, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Chair STEVEN J. BATTEL, NAE,1 Battel Engineering MARTIN J. CURRAN, Corning, Inc. JANICE L. FRASER, Bionic LINDA A. HILL, Harvard University FRED KENNEDY, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ANNE S. MINER, University of Wisconsin, Madison MONA M. VERNON,2 Fidelity Investments DANIEL B. WARD, MITRE Corporation Staff SANDRA GRAHAM, Senior Program Officer, Study Director SARAH CHRISTAN BROTHERS, Associate Program Officer DIONNA WISE, Program Coordinator COLLEEN N. HARTMAN, Director, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board and Space Studies Board (August 2018) MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board and Space Studies Board (until April 2018) RICHARD ROWBERG, Interim Director, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board and Space Studies Board (April through August 2018) 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Ms. Vernon was employed at Thomson Reuters Labs at the time of the workshop. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION v

AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ENGINEERING BOARD ALAN H. EPSTEIN, NAE,1 Pratt & Whitney, Chair BRIAN M. ARGROW, University of Colorado, Boulder STEVEN J. BATTEL, NAE, Battel Engineering MEYER J. BENZAKEIN, NAE, Ohio State University EILEEN M. COLLINS, Space Presentations, LLC EDWARD F. CRAWLEY, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MICHAEL P. DELANEY, Boeing Commercial Airplanes KAREN FEIGH, Georgia Institute of Technology ILAN KROO, NAE, Stanford University ANDREW R. LACHER, MITRE Corporation NICHOLAS D. LAPPOS, Sikorsky, a Lockheed Martin Company MARK J. LEWIS, IDA Science and Technology Policy Institute VALERIE MANNING, Airbus RICHARD MCKINNEY, RWMckinney, LLC PAMELA A. MELROY, Melroy & Hollett Technology Partners, LLC PARVIZ MOIN, NAS2/NAE, Stanford University JOHN M. OLSON, Polaris Industries ELLEN M. PAWLIKOWSKI, NAS, Independent Consultant ROBIE I. SAMANTA ROY, Lockheed Martin Corporation WANDA A. SIGUR, NAE, Independent Consultant ALAN M. TITLE, NAS/NAE, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center DAVID M. VAN WIE, NAE, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory SHERRIE L. ZACHARIUS, Aerospace Corporation Staff COLLEEN N. HARTMAN, Director TANJA PILZAK, Manager, Program Operations CELESTE A. NAYLOR, Information Management Associate MARGARET A. KNEMEYER, Financial Officer RADAKA LIGHTFOOT, Financial Associate 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vi

SPACE STUDIES BOARD MARGARET G. KIVELSON, NAS,1 University of California, Los Angeles, Chair JAMES H. CROCKER, NAE,2 Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Vice Chair GREG P. ASNER, NAS, Carnegie Institution for Science JEFF M. BINGHAM, Consultant ADAM BURROWS, NAS, Princeton University MARY LYNNE DITTMAR, Coalition for Deep Space Exploration JEFF DOZIER, University of California, Santa Barbara JOSEPH FULLER, JR., Futron Corporation SARAH GIBSON, National Center for Atmospheric Research VICTORIA HAMILTON, Southwest Research Institute ANTHONY C. JANETOS, Boston University CHRYSSA KOUVELIOTOU, NAS, George Washington University DENNIS P. LETTENMAIER, NAE, University of California, Los Angeles ROSALY M. C. LOPES, Jet Propulsion Laboratory STEPHEN J. MACKWELL, American Institute of Physics DAVID J. MCCOMAS, Princeton University LARRY PAXTON, Johns Hopkins University ELIOT QUATAERT, University of California, Berkeley BARBARA SHERWOOD LOLLAR, University of Toronto HARLAN E. SPENCE, University of New Hampshire MARK H. THIEMENS, NAS, University of California, San Diego ERIKA B. WAGNER, Blue Origin, LLC PAUL D. WOOSTER, Space Exploration Technologies EDWARD L. WRIGHT, NAS, University of California, Los Angeles Staff COLLEEN N. HARTMAN, Director TANJA PILZAK, Manager, Program Operations CELESTE A. NAYLOR, Information Management Associate MARGARET A. KNEMEYER, Financial Officer RADAKA LIGHTFOOT, Financial Associate 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 2 Member, National Academy of Engineering. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vii

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: Steven J. Battel, NAE,1 Battel Engineering, Michael Ku, Pfizer, Inc., Robie I. Samanta Roy, Lockheed Martin Corporation, and Mona M. Vernon,2 Fidelity Investments. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings, nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Wesley L. Harris, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteur and the National Academies. 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Ms. Vernon was employed at Thomson Reuters Labs at the time of the workshop. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION ix

Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1 Organization and Structure, General Caveats, 2 SETTING THE STAGE 2-1 Innovation at NASA, The Challenges Ahead, A History of Successful Innovation, The Changing Innovation Environment, What NASA Has Been Doing to Meet the Challenge, NASA’s Goals for the Workshop, 3 WHAT SHOULD NASA’S FUTURE LOOK LIKE? 3-1 The Future to be Avoided, The Future to be Sought, Culture, Leadership, Partnerships, Talent, Work Processes, 4 THE CHALLENGES 4-1 The Innovator’s Experience, Dealing with the Bureaucracy, Fear of Failure, Organizational Issues, 5 STRATEGIES AND TACTICS FOR CREATING THE DESIRED FUTURE 5-1 Career and Talent Management, Four Pillars of Organizational Innovation, Career Paths and Advancement, Panel Discussion, Question-and-Answer Period, Ideation Session, Portfolio Management, The Innovation Portfolio at Pfizer, Innovative Success at Polaris, Pruning the Innovation Portfolio, The Key Lessons, Ways to Improve Portfolio Management, Program Leadership and Management, Program Leadership Influence on Innovation, Program Leadership at Procter & Gamble, PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION x

Actionable Items, Classical Enablers and Impediments to Innovation Vision, Process, Isolation and Autonomy, People, Useful Thoughts, Suggested Actions, 6 THE PATH FORWARD 6-1 Common Themes, Planning the Next Steps, APPENDIXES A Statement of Task A-1 B Meeting Agendas B-1 C Workshop Participant List C-1 D Planning Committee and Staff Bios D-1 E Acronyms E-1 PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xi

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