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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 201 2019 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation â¢ Operations and Traffic Management â¢ Security and Emergencies Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs IEM Research Triangle Park, NC
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 201 Project 04-21 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48049-9 Library of Congress Control Number 2019942016 Â© 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 201 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Megan A. Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Sharon Lamberton, Editor ACRP PROJECT 04-21 PANEL Field of Safety Meaghan Smalley, Jacksonville Aviation Authority (JAA), Jacksonville, FL (Chair) Frank A. Ciaccio, Houston Airport System, Houston, TX Wesley Major, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Heather McKee, Denver International Airport, Denver, CO Michael Nonnemacher, North Perry Airport, Ft. Lauderdale, FL Pamela Pflueger, Pamela Pflueger & Associates, Inc., Scottsdale, AZ Lillian Miller, FAA Liaison Paul Beatty, U.S. Access Board Liaison
ACRP Research Report 201: Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs provides guidance and tools for airports to aid in effective communication with passengers and persons with disabilities, including those with cultural and language differences. The guidance incorporates a primer that discusses issues, techniques, and the unique requirements and challenges of communicating with people with disabilities and others who have access or functional needs. It discusses uses of technology and other methods that incorporate ADA considerations and communication challenges with airport stake- holders, and training programs for airport personnel, including templates for development of curricula. There are case study examples of methods of emergency communication at airports and in other industries, and for universal messaging for emergency communi- cations. Included are templates for airport emergency plans specifically addressing indi- viduals with limited English proficiency, step-by-step tools that include a needs assessment tool that airports can use to determine what steps must to be taken to comply with ADA requirements concerning communications, and templates/worksheets/checklists for plan- ning tabletop exercises that focus on communicating with people with disabilities and access or functional needs during emergency events. Emergency situations place demands on airports to communicate effectively with pas- sengers and airport personnel. These challenges increase when communicating with persons with disabilities and language differences. Airports of all types and sizes, especially Part 139 airports, need guidance, technological solutions, and practical models for making emer- gency communications more effective. Airport operators and their stakeholders can benefit from practical guidance to assist populations with disabilities and people with access or functional needs (DAFN) in emergencies. The foundation for the management guide, developed under ACRP Project 04-21, was extensive research including interviews, case studies, and surveys. Innovative Emergency Management (IEM) was the research agency, with assistance from Smith-Woolwine and Rock Park, Inc. Additional worksheets and checklists are described in the appendices and can be found on the report web page at www.trb.org by searching for âACRP Research Report 201.â They include inventory checklists, an Accessibility Walkthrough Worksheet, the FAA Airport Accessibility checklist, an Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide, and an Emergency Communications Concept of Operations (CONOPS) template, among other resources. F O R E W O R D By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 Guidebook Objectives 2 Intended Audience 2 Guidebook Overview and Contents 4 Chapter 2 Understanding Airport Accessibility 5 Compliance and Accessibility 6 Respectful Communication 6 Whole-Community Planning 8 Community Partnerships 8 DAFN Advisory Group 9 Universal Design 10 Communication Methods and Limitations for Emergencies 15 Chapter 3 Identifying the Emergency Communications Needs of People with DAFN 15 Inventory Existing Emergency Management Communications Programs and Services 18 Accessibility Self-Assessment 21 Identify Gaps 22 Chapter 4 Developing Emergency Communications Strategies That Include People with DAFN 22 Core Techniques 27 Enhanced Techniques 32 Emerging Techniques 35 Technique Evaluation 36 Common Challenges to Implementation 38 Chapter 5 Incorporating the Strategies into an Emergency Preparedness Program 38 Emergency Planning 40 Training 42 Exercises 44 Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations 46 Abbreviations 49 References and Suggested Reading C O N T E N T S
A-1 Appendix A Inventory Checklists B-1 Appendix B Accessibility Walkthrough Worksheet C-1 Appendix C FAA Airport Accessibility Checklist D-1 Appendix D Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide E-1 Appendix E Potential Solutions F-1 Appendix F Emergency Communications CONOPS Template G-1 Appendix G Training Program Resources H-1 Appendix H Sample Staff Training Flyer and Brochure I-1 Appendix I Exercise Toolkit J-1 Appendix J Emergency Preparedness Scenario Vignettes K-1 Appendix K Example Full-Scale Exercise Notes L-1 Appendix L Sample Mass Notification System Requirements M-1 Appendix M Signage and Symbols Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.