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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Training Program Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Training Program Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Training Program Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Training Program Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Training Program Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Training Program Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Training Program Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Training Program Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Training Program Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Training Program Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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G-1 A P P E N D I X G Training Program Resources Organizations are encouraged to partner with local experts and advocacy groups to help further customize training to fit the unique needs of the area. Disability Equity Training (DET) Empathy Exercises Ideally, one or more individuals with one or more disabilities or access and functional needs would facilitate or co-facilitate all discussion and training activities. In preparation for the activity, the facilitator can print and cut out the cards on the following pages. Cut around the dotted lines, and then fold on the solid line. There are three types of cards: • Function cards (for TONE, EYE CONTACT, BODY LANGUAGE, and SERVICE ANIMAL) • Question cards (e.g., “Would you like help?” and “Do you need assistance?”) • HELP cards What Is a Disability? Discussion prompt (read aloud by facilitator or participant): “As a society, we have mistakenly adopted a mindset that divides us into two groups: ‘able- bodied’ people and ‘disabled’ people. In fact, we all will be part of the disability community at some time in our lives. If we recognize that all of us will need accommodations at some point in our lives, we will learn to be more compassionate and understanding of individuals with disabilities, people with access and functional needs, and people with limited English proficiency.” (5 minutes) Facilitator: Ask participants to provide their own definitions of disability. Remind volunteers that there is no perfect answer. Encourage and model respectful, creative candor. (2–3 minutes) Facilitator: “If we think of disability as a conditional state of any duration that can make it difficult for a person to do activities or perform functions that keep him or her safe and healthy, how does that change your definition?”

G-2 Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs (5 minutes) Facilitator: Have participants brainstorm types of disabilities using sticky notes (one per note). If participants have difficulty with brainstorming, share a few prompts from the following list: Prompts (as needed): • Infant or child without verbal communication or literacy • Individual with visible mobility aids and hearing aids • Individual with service animals • Visible markers of surgery, injury, and/or illness • Any person without verbal communication or literacy in a particular language • Invisible effects of surgery, injury, and/or illness • Differences in cognition (e.g., differences related to depression, grief, or neurodivergence, such as people with autism, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (1 minute) Facilitator: Have participants place their notes along the continuum. Variation: decide on the placement of each note as a group. Facilitator (reads aloud): “Identifying groups or individuals with specific needs who require assistance (for example, unaccompanied and separated children and adults with mobility disabilities) is not a simple or straightforward task. While there may be cues or clues that signal a person in need of assistance (such as unfocused or “dazed” eye movements, a visible injury, or not heeding warning sounds or signals), the majority of disabilities are not immediately visible.” Role-Play: Communicating with People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs Set-Up: Two chairs side by side in front of the room, with a table or third chair available from which participants will pick up cards during the activity. Facilitator: (1) Divide the group into pairs. Within each pair, ask the participants to determine who will be Player A and who will be Player B. (2) Place the Function playing cards (i.e., TONE, EYE CONTACT, BODY LANGUAGE, SERVICE ANIMAL) with the colored side up in a single pile on a table or chair where players will be able to pick them up as they come to the front of the room. Place the Question playing cards in a separate pile. Hold the HELP playing cards for distribution to participants in the audience after the role-play has begun. (3–5 minutes) Facilitator: (1) Ask participants to share a time or situation when they were or would have been considered “disabled” according to the definition. Remind volunteers that states of disability may be invisible or visible and highly situational. (2) After participants have shared, write or place the written definition of disability on the top center of a whiteboard, chalkboard, or wall, and read it aloud: “Disability: a conditional state of any duration that can make it difficult for a person to do activities or perform functions that keep them safe and healthy.” Draw a continuum from “Visible” to “Invisible” just below the definition, or mark columns with sticky notes. )

Training Program Resources G-3 Participant (reads aloud): “Diagnoses and labels are not relevant when helping someone in an emergency. What is important is performing the functions necessary to maintain safety and security (with or without assistance).” Facilitator (reads aloud): “You can’t tell a person’s needs just by looking at them. If a particular access and functional need is identified, it does not mean that the person doesn’t have additional needs. Just because you have worked with someone with an access and functional need does not mean that every person with that need will want, request, or require the same accommodations.” Facilitator (shares the following instructions): 1. Each pair will have a chance to participate in the role-play. 2. Player A will choose a Question card (either “Would you like any help?” or “Do you need assistance?”), and Player B will pick a Function card. 3. Player A and Player B may consult with each other briefly before moving to the front of the room to enact the role-play. 4. During the role-play, Player A will approach Player B, ask the question on the Question card, and perform the action according to the Function card. The players may interact however they like with the chairs. Differing approaches are encouraged. 5. After each role-play, I will ask for feedback from the audience. The audience will try to guess the type of function or action being modeled, describe what “worked,” or share ideas for how the speaker or helper could improve. Facilitator: Ask if participants have any questions. When all participants understand the process, ask for the first volunteer pair to begin the role-play activity. Once players get the hang of the activity (after two or three rounds), introduce the HELP cards. Explain that you will hand a HELP card to any audience participant who raises their hand, and encourage audience members to request a HELP card as needed to help performers. Remind participants that their goals are to guess the type of function or action being modeled and identify both what “worked” or how the speaker/helper can improve. Continue the role-play until all participant pairs have had a turn and received feedback. Facilitator (reads aloud): “There are a growing number of people with multiple access and functional needs. Every person and every disability is unique—respect his or her independence to the greatest extent possible. Don’t make assumptions about the person’s abilities. Ask if he or she would like help or needs assistance. Always ask if and how you can help before attempting any assistance. The person may not agree with the type of help you wish to offer; remember, it is their choice how they wish to use or accept assistance.” Facilitator: Select a participant to read aloud.

Training Program Resources G-5

G-6 Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs

Training Program Resources G-7

G-8 Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs

Training Program Resources G-9

Next: Appendix H - Sample Staff Training Flyer and Brochure »
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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 201 provides guidance and tools for airports to aid in effective communication with passengers and persons with disabilities, including those with cultural and language differences.

The report includes a primer that discusses issues, techniques, and the unique requirements and challenges of communicating with people with disabilities and others who have access or functional needs.

The report explores uses of technology and other methods that incorporate ADA considerations and communication challenges with airport stakeholders, and training programs for airport personnel, including templates for development of curricula.

There are case study examples of methods of emergency communication at airports and in other industries, and for universal messaging for emergency communications.

The project that produced the report also produced templates in support of airport emergency plans specifically addressing individuals with limited English proficiency, step-by-step tools that include a needs assessment tool that airports can use to determine what steps must to be taken to comply with ADA requirements concerning communications, and templates/worksheets/checklists for planning tabletop exercises that focus on communicating with people with disabilities and access or functional needs during emergency events. These resources are described and linked to below.

  • The Inventory Checklists (from Appendix A) list plans, reports, documents, programs, and services that are helpful in emergency communications for DAFN. The checklists make it easy to review what the airport has in place, what needs to be developed or updated, etc.
  • The Accessibility Walkthrough Worksheet (from Appendix B) is a tool to structure evaluations (ideally conducted by members of a DAFN Advisory Group, as discussed in the report) that identify and assign accessibility ratings to existing communications modes and resources from curbside through baggage claim, and identify modes or resources that can be added or improved.
  • The FAA Airport Accessibility Checklist (from Appendix C) is reproduced online in PDF for convenience; a url is provided that directs users to the FAA source.
  • The Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide (from Appendix D) summarizes key aspects of core, enhanced, and emerging strategies described in the report.
  • The CONOPS Template (from Appendix F) provides generic text for an Emergency Communications Concept of Operations document that airports can edit to meet their needs and those of the communities they serve.
  • The Disability Equity Training document provides training content, including empathy exercises, from Appendix G in a format that can be adapted and customized for use by practitioners.
  • The 1-Minute Read Poster (from Appendix H) provides a reproducible, one-page reference on how to offer and provide assistance respectfully to people with DAFN.
  • The Outreach Brochure (also from Appendix H) is provided in a separate downloadable file for use and distribution by practitioners.
  • The Exercise Toolkit (from Appendix I), with checklists and materials to support a discussion-based exercise and a full-scale, operational exercise, is reproduced in Word to facilitate adaptation and use by practitioners.
  • The Prepared Scenario Vignettes (from Appendix J), which can be used to lay the foundation of a discussion-based or tabletop exercise.
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