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Page 127
Suggested Citation:"Appendix M - Signage and Symbols." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix M - Signage and Symbols." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Page 129
Suggested Citation:"Appendix M - Signage and Symbols." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Page 129
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix M - Signage and Symbols." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
×
Page 130
Page 131
Suggested Citation:"Appendix M - Signage and Symbols." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
×
Page 131
Page 132
Suggested Citation:"Appendix M - Signage and Symbols." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
×
Page 132
Page 133
Suggested Citation:"Appendix M - Signage and Symbols." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
×
Page 133
Page 134
Suggested Citation:"Appendix M - Signage and Symbols." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Page 134

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M-1 A P P E N D I X M Signage and Symbols Principles of Universal Design To facilitate accessibility, signage and symbols/pictographs should adhere to the following Principles of Universal Design (Centre for Excellence in Universal Design 2014): • Principle 1: Equitable Use – The design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities. • Principle 2: Flexibility in Use – The design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities. • Principle 3: Simple and Intuitive Use – Use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the user’s experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level. • Principle 4: Perceptible Information – The design communicates necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user’s sensory abilities. • Principle 5: Tolerance for Error – The design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions. • Principle 6: Low Physical Effort – The design can be understood efficiently with minimum fatigue. • Principle 7: Size and Space for Approach and Use – Appropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of user’s body size, posture, or mobility. The newest and most comprehensive example of these principles in action is “Public Information Symbols,” also known as Standards 7001:2007 (most recently amended in 2017), from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)/American National Standards Institute (ANSI). ISO’s symbols “communicate crucial safety messages that can overcome lack of language fluency and the difficulty of fully understanding a warning using text” (My Safety Labels 2018). Overall design features of universally accessible signage “make appropriate use of font size, foreground/background color, and other visual attributes in image and text presentations” (World Wide Web Consortium [W3C] 2018).

M-2 Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs ATTRIBUTE BEST PRACTICE ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Signal Word Danger > Caution,* Warning, Alert https://www.osha.gov/Publications/OS HA3636.pdf Safety Alert Symbol Exclamation Mark within Equilateral Triangle http://www.ussafetysign.com/ansi.html Font Large Type, Bold, All Caps, Sans Serif http://www.afb.org/info/reading-and- writing/making-print-more-readable/35 Color Reverse Type (White Lettering on High-Contrast Background), Thick Border https://www.fonts.com/content/learning /fontology/level-2/display- typography/reverse-display-type Size Signal Word Height = Symbol Height https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent .cgi?article=2326&context=etd (p. 17) * DANGER is rated as a signal word more likely to draw attention than CAUTION (Roe 2010). The following sample signs (not to size) reflect best practices: Source: Manualise (2017) Source: https://signlanguageconnection.com/

Signage and Symbols M-3 Source: State of Rhode Island [Public domain]: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:International _Symbol_for_Deafness.jpg Sign indicating access for individuals with hearing loss. Source: https://www.mydoorsign.com/ accessible-signs/tty-symbol-sign/sku- se-1968

M-4 Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs Signage Color When used consistently, color can be a helpful indicator of the imminence and type of message being conveyed (International Organization for Standardization [ISO] 2013; My Safety Labels 2018). The image on this page demonstrates common applications of color in emergency signage. Unfortunately, no single, universal standard currently exists for warning, safety, and emergency informational messages in public spaces. For example, a red danger sign may not be specifically for fire, or a warning or hazard symbol may be orange instead of yellow. For this reason, efforts should be made to ensure that all signage can be easily understood in the context where it appears. Source: International Organization for Standardization [ISO] 2013; My Safety Labels 2018

Signage and Symbols M-5 Additional references for symbols and other information regarding signage and symbols may be found at the following websites: • ANSI WebStore: https://webstore.ansi.org (includes signage and symbols for sale) • “The International Language of ISO Graphical Symbols”: https://www.iso.org/files/live/sites/isoorg/files/archive/pdf/en/graphical- symbols_booklet.pdf • ISO Warning Stickers: https://www.mysafetylabels.com/iso-warning-labels • Safety Labels: http://www.safetysign.com/safety-labels • U.S. Geological Survey: https://www.usgs.gov/media/images/drop-cover-hold-0 Depicting Individuals with Disabilities The Accessible Icon Project (n.d.a.) explains: “The old International Symbol of Access, while a milestone in ADA history, displays people with disabilities as passive, robotic and with more of an emphasis on the chair than the person. The updated icon in contrast presents people with disabilities as active, in motion, and under their own power.” Whenever and wherever possible, the updated icon should be used. Source: Accessible Icon Project (n.d.a.)

Abbreviations and acronyms used without definitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACI–NA Airports Council International–North America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TDC Transit Development Corporation TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S. DOT United States Department of Transportation

TRA N SPO RTATIO N RESEA RCH BO A RD 500 Fifth Street, N W W ashington, D C 20001 A D D RESS SERV ICE REQ U ESTED ISBN 978-0-309-48049-9 9 7 8 0 3 0 9 4 8 0 4 9 9 9 0 0 0 0 N O N -PR O FIT O R G . U .S. PO STA G E PA ID C O LU M B IA , M D PER M IT N O . 88 A irport Em ergency Com m unications for D A FN A CRP Research Report 201 TRB

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 201 provides guidance and tools for airports to aid in effective communication with passengers and persons with disabilities, including those with cultural and language differences.

The report includes a primer that discusses issues, techniques, and the unique requirements and challenges of communicating with people with disabilities and others who have access or functional needs.

The report explores uses of technology and other methods that incorporate ADA considerations and communication challenges with airport stakeholders, and training programs for airport personnel, including templates for development of curricula.

There are case study examples of methods of emergency communication at airports and in other industries, and for universal messaging for emergency communications.

The project that produced the report also produced templates in support of airport emergency plans specifically addressing individuals with limited English proficiency, step-by-step tools that include a needs assessment tool that airports can use to determine what steps must to be taken to comply with ADA requirements concerning communications, and templates/worksheets/checklists for planning tabletop exercises that focus on communicating with people with disabilities and access or functional needs during emergency events. These resources are described and linked to below.

  • The Inventory Checklists (from Appendix A) list plans, reports, documents, programs, and services that are helpful in emergency communications for DAFN. The checklists make it easy to review what the airport has in place, what needs to be developed or updated, etc.
  • The Accessibility Walkthrough Worksheet (from Appendix B) is a tool to structure evaluations (ideally conducted by members of a DAFN Advisory Group, as discussed in the report) that identify and assign accessibility ratings to existing communications modes and resources from curbside through baggage claim, and identify modes or resources that can be added or improved.
  • The FAA Airport Accessibility Checklist (from Appendix C) is reproduced online in PDF for convenience; a url is provided that directs users to the FAA source.
  • The Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide (from Appendix D) summarizes key aspects of core, enhanced, and emerging strategies described in the report.
  • The CONOPS Template (from Appendix F) provides generic text for an Emergency Communications Concept of Operations document that airports can edit to meet their needs and those of the communities they serve.
  • The Disability Equity Training document provides training content, including empathy exercises, from Appendix G in a format that can be adapted and customized for use by practitioners.
  • The 1-Minute Read Poster (from Appendix H) provides a reproducible, one-page reference on how to offer and provide assistance respectfully to people with DAFN.
  • The Outreach Brochure (also from Appendix H) is provided in a separate downloadable file for use and distribution by practitioners.
  • The Exercise Toolkit (from Appendix I), with checklists and materials to support a discussion-based exercise and a full-scale, operational exercise, is reproduced in Word to facilitate adaptation and use by practitioners.
  • The Prepared Scenario Vignettes (from Appendix J), which can be used to lay the foundation of a discussion-based or tabletop exercise.
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