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M-1 A P P E N D I X M Signage and Symbols Principles of Universal Design To facilitate accessibility, signage and symbols/pictographs should adhere to the following Principles of Universal Design (Centre for Excellence in Universal Design 2014): â¢ Principle 1: Equitable Use â The design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities. â¢ Principle 2: Flexibility in Use â The design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities. â¢ Principle 3: Simple and Intuitive Use â Use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the userâs experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level. â¢ Principle 4: Perceptible Information â The design communicates necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the userâs sensory abilities. â¢ Principle 5: Tolerance for Error â The design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions. â¢ Principle 6: Low Physical Effort â The design can be understood efficiently with minimum fatigue. â¢ Principle 7: Size and Space for Approach and Use â Appropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of userâs body size, posture, or mobility. The newest and most comprehensive example of these principles in action is âPublic Information Symbols,â also known as Standards 7001:2007 (most recently amended in 2017), from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)/American National Standards Institute (ANSI). ISOâs symbols âcommunicate crucial safety messages that can overcome lack of language fluency and the difficulty of fully understanding a warning using textâ (My Safety Labels 2018). Overall design features of universally accessible signage âmake appropriate use of font size, foreground/background color, and other visual attributes in image and text presentationsâ (World Wide Web Consortium [W3C] 2018).
M-2 Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs ATTRIBUTE BEST PRACTICE ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Signal Word Danger > Caution,* Warning, Alert https://www.osha.gov/Publications/OS HA3636.pdf Safety Alert Symbol Exclamation Mark within Equilateral Triangle http://www.ussafetysign.com/ansi.html Font Large Type, Bold, All Caps, Sans Serif http://www.afb.org/info/reading-and- writing/making-print-more-readable/35 Color Reverse Type (White Lettering on High-Contrast Background), Thick Border https://www.fonts.com/content/learning /fontology/level-2/display- typography/reverse-display-type Size Signal Word Height = Symbol Height https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent .cgi?article=2326&context=etd (p. 17) * DANGER is rated as a signal word more likely to draw attention than CAUTION (Roe 2010). The following sample signs (not to size) reflect best practices: Source: Manualise (2017) Source: https://signlanguageconnection.com/
Signage and Symbols M-3 Source: State of Rhode Island [Public domain]: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:International _Symbol_for_Deafness.jpg Sign indicating access for individuals with hearing loss. Source: https://www.mydoorsign.com/ accessible-signs/tty-symbol-sign/sku- se-1968
M-4 Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs Signage Color When used consistently, color can be a helpful indicator of the imminence and type of message being conveyed (International Organization for Standardization [ISO] 2013; My Safety Labels 2018). The image on this page demonstrates common applications of color in emergency signage. Unfortunately, no single, universal standard currently exists for warning, safety, and emergency informational messages in public spaces. For example, a red danger sign may not be specifically for fire, or a warning or hazard symbol may be orange instead of yellow. For this reason, efforts should be made to ensure that all signage can be easily understood in the context where it appears. Source: International Organization for Standardization [ISO] 2013; My Safety Labels 2018
Signage and Symbols M-5 Additional references for symbols and other information regarding signage and symbols may be found at the following websites: â¢ ANSI WebStore: https://webstore.ansi.org (includes signage and symbols for sale) â¢ âThe International Language of ISO Graphical Symbolsâ: https://www.iso.org/files/live/sites/isoorg/files/archive/pdf/en/graphical- symbols_booklet.pdf â¢ ISO Warning Stickers: https://www.mysafetylabels.com/iso-warning-labels â¢ Safety Labels: http://www.safetysign.com/safety-labels â¢ U.S. Geological Survey: https://www.usgs.gov/media/images/drop-cover-hold-0 Depicting Individuals with Disabilities The Accessible Icon Project (n.d.a.) explains: âThe old International Symbol of Access, while a milestone in ADA history, displays people with disabilities as passive, robotic and with more of an emphasis on the chair than the person. The updated icon in contrast presents people with disabilities as active, in motion, and under their own power.â Whenever and wherever possible, the updated icon should be used. Source: Accessible Icon Project (n.d.a.)
Abbreviations and acronyms used without definitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACIâNA Airports Council InternationalâNorth America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing Americaâs Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TDC Transit Development Corporation TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S. DOT United States Department of Transportation
TRA N SPO RTATIO N RESEA RCH BO A RD 500 Fifth Street, N W W ashington, D C 20001 A D D RESS SERV ICE REQ U ESTED ISBN 978-0-309-48049-9 9 7 8 0 3 0 9 4 8 0 4 9 9 9 0 0 0 0 N O N -PR O FIT O R G . U .S. PO STA G E PA ID C O LU M B IA , M D PER M IT N O . 88 A irport Em ergency Com m unications for D A FN A CRP Research Report 201 TRB