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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 202 2019 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Education and Training Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation Stephanie Ward Courtney Beard Sondra Retzlaff Mead & Hunt, Inc. Middleton, WI i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Maria Muia Woolpert, Inc. Dayton, OH Paul Snyder Leslie Martin dubuque-Snyder avIatIon conSultIng Grand Forks, ND Kim Kenville KIM KenvIlle conSultIng Grand Forks, ND Dave Gordon gordon conSultIng group, Inc. Broomfield, CO

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 202 Project 01-34 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48053-6 Library of Congress Control Number 2019943864 © 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photo: Great Lakes Group, located in one of the FAA regions. Cover photo credit: Great Lakes Chapter of Women in Aviation NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 202 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Joseph D. Navarrete, Senior Program Officer Hana Vagnerova, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Linda A. Dziobek, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 01-34 PANEL Field of Administration Jennifer Maples, City of Phoenix Aviation Department, Phoenix, AZ (Chair) Lorena de Rodriguez, SSi, Inc., Tucson, AZ Kenneth Gibson, Project Takeoff, Taunton, MA James Stephens, South Carolina Aeronautics Commission, West Columbia, SC Sherwood “Woody” Williams, U.S. Air Force Auxiliary (Civil Air Patrol), De Pere, WI Donna Wilt, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL Michel Hovan, FAA Liaison Alex Gertsen, National Business Aviation Association Liaison Adam Williams, Aircraft Owners & Pilots Association Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison

ACRP Research Report 202: Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation provides the aviation industry with resources to help promote interest in aviation among younger populations ranging from 10 years old to 25 years old. The report helps educators and aviation enthusiasts understand the need for encouraging interest in aviation, offers guidance on developing a program of activities to fit particular needs, and provides activities for developing a program that can be scaled and tailored for various age groups and resource availability. The aviation industry is a vital sector of the U.S. economy, yet participation in aviation as a career, for business, as an extracurricular activity, as a sport, and as recreation has declined over the last decade. There are many causes for the decline, including a reduced interest in aviation among younger populations and other demographics and a lack of industry promotion. State and local aviation agencies are in a unique position to support the industry, and while some states have established robust outreach and educational pro- grams, other states lack the resources necessary to promote this important transportation asset. Industry groups also engage in educational and promotional programs. Yet there has not been a single-source report summarizing those efforts, nor has there been guidance to help state and local agencies develop and implement such efforts. Research was needed to provide guidance and supporting material for state agencies and local airports to promote interest and participation in the aviation industry. The ACRP Project 01-34 research team, led by Mead & Hunt, featured outreach to more than 100 groups and organizations engaged in some type of aviation education activity, including state and federal agencies, schools and universities, STEM-related groups, avia- tion industry associations, and museums. Through this engagement, the team collected numerous innovative activities and focused on a series of case studies that showcased a diversity of approaches and programs. Based on this research, the team prepared a report and an interactive collection of “landing pages” of activities targeted by type, age group, and general cost. The collection of the landing pages is a valuable resource to those wishing to engage young people in aviation. The collection includes more than 100 activities that can be adapted to any particular situation. The report is designed to help develop intentional pathways for promoting interest in aviation. These pathways are seen as the process for engaging students at an early age to pursue aviation at some level and then have them, in turn, continue the cycle by promoting aviation to others. The report addresses the challenges to establishing and maintaining these pathways—such as resource limitations, lack of programming or curriculum, competing interests for kids, and administrative or organizational issues—and identifies opportunities F O R E W O R D By Joseph D. Navarrete Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

to overcome them. The report also provides support for developing and executing single events and activities when they are the most practical means for exposing young people to the aviation industry. Finally, the report includes three summary listings of the landing pages, sorted by activity type, target age group, and cost per person. A searchable list, by keyword, of these landing pages can be found in the Presorted Tables PDF. There is also an individual activity landing pages PDF, which is an alphabetical listing of organizations and the types of activities they offer. The PDF User Guide explains how to use and search the PDFs. A microsite with supporting materials may be found on TRB’s website at http://www.trb.org/acrp/acrpreport202.aspx.

1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Purpose of the Research and Report 4 1.2 Reason for Development 5 1.3 Intended Audience for This Resource 5 1.4 Contents of This Resource 6 1.5 How This Resource Was Developed 7 1.6 Summary 8 Chapter 2 Importance of Aviation Education and Activities 8 2.1 Overview of Education Practices 11 2.2 Overview of Aviation Activities 18 2.3 Summary 19 Chapter 3 Careers in the Aviation Industry 19 3.1 Flight 23 3.2 Control 23 3.3 Manage 25 3.4 Maintain 27 3.5 Design 28 3.6 Operate 30 3.7 Other Aviation Careers 30 3.8 Workforce Development 31 3.9 Summary 32 Chapter 4 Pathway to Establishing an Aviation Career Program 33 4.1 Importance of an Intentional Pathway 36 4.2 Summary 37 Chapter 5 Sample of Organizations Involved in Aviation Education 37 5.1 Federal Agencies 38 5.2 National Industry and Trade Organizations 48 5.3 National Youth Organizations 50 5.4 Summary 51 Chapter 6 Selected Case Studies of Entities Involved in Aviation Education 51 6.1 Purpose of the Case Studies 52 6.2 How the Case Studies Were Chosen 52 6.3 Summary of Challenges and Opportunities from Review of the Case Studies C O N T E N T S

53 6.4 Case Studies 54 Case Study 1: Richland County School District One Challenger Learning Center 57 Case Study 2: Pima Air & Space Museum 60 Case Study 3: Insitu RoboFlight Academy 62 Case Study 4: West Michigan Aviation Academy 64 Case Study 5: Gaetz Aerospace Institute and Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University 66 Case Study 6: Basic and Advanced Aerospace Educator Courses, Middle Tennessee State University 68 Case Study 7: Wings Over the Rockies Air & Space Museum 71 Chapter 7 Summary of Landing Pages 72 7.1 How to Use the PDFs 73 7.2 Explanation of Categories and Keywords 77 7.3 Presorted Tables 78 References and Bibliography 79 Appendix A Landing Pages Sorted by Activity, Target Age Group, and Cost per Person Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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Resources to help promote interest in aviation among younger populations ranging from 10 years old to 25 years old are detailed in TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 202.

The report is designed to help educators and aviation enthusiasts understand the need for encouraging interest in aviation. It offers guidance on developing a program of activities to fit particular needs and provides activities for developing a program that can be scaled and tailored for various age groups and resource availability.

The report is designed to help develop intentional pathways for promoting interest in aviation. These pathways are seen as the process for engaging students at an early age to pursue aviation at some level and then have them, in turn, continue the cycle by promoting aviation to others.

The report addresses the challenges to establishing and maintaining these pathways—such as resource limitations, lack of programming or curriculum, competing interests for kids, and administrative or organizational issues—and identifies opportunities to overcome them.

The report also provides support for developing and executing single events and activities when they are the most practical means for exposing young people to the aviation industry. Finally, the report includes three summary listings of the landing pages. The landing pages are a collection of activities that can engage young people in aviation and be adapted to any particular group or organization. They are sorted by activity type, target age group, and cost per person. A searchable list, by keyword, of these landing pages can be found in the Presorted Tables PDF.

There is also an individual activity landing pages PDF, which is an alphabetical listing of organizations and the types of activities they offer. The PDF User Guide explains how to use and search the PDFs. A microsite with the Presorted Tables PDF, the Individual Activity Landing Pages PDF, and the PDF User Guide may be found at http://www.trb.org/acrp/acrpreport202.aspx.

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