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Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation (2019)

Chapter: Chapter 2 - Importance of Aviation Education and Activities

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Importance of Aviation Education and Activities." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Importance of Aviation Education and Activities." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Importance of Aviation Education and Activities." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Importance of Aviation Education and Activities." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Importance of Aviation Education and Activities." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Importance of Aviation Education and Activities." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Importance of Aviation Education and Activities." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Importance of Aviation Education and Activities." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Importance of Aviation Education and Activities." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Importance of Aviation Education and Activities." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Importance of Aviation Education and Activities." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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8 Student involvement in aviation ignites at a young age through active, intentional engagement. To propel the continued growth of aviation careers, the industry and industry enthusiasts must develop, deliver, and sustain educational activities aimed at students in K–12, college, and beyond. Activities can include nearly any type of interaction that sparks and reinforces a desire to engage in the aviation industry. The data collected show that student involvement in aviation ignites at a young age through active, intentional engagement. This engagement includes going to air shows, aviation museums, and camps; listening to influential speakers; and working with mentors who help students become involved in aviation. As stated on the FAA’s Aviation and Space Education (AVSED) website, AVSED has created a STEM program that targets future skilled professionals for the aviation and aerospace industry. The site also points out key facts about the general lack of awareness of aviation career oppor- tunities in contrast to the high demand for aviation professionals (FAA 2015), especially due to the vast number of aviation employees retiring (FAA 2016). This clearly shows the importance of offering aviation activities to young students and con- tinuing those efforts through high school and beyond. With endless possibilities available to design exciting and engaging aviation activities for students, the following sections describe important considerations as programs are developed. This chapter outlines the current educa- tion responsibilities in the United States as well as discusses some current practices and trends in the education industry. This chapter also covers the importance of creating aviation interest in young people and includes an outline of various activities linked to aviation. The chapter is organized as follows: there is an overview of education practices, followed by an overview of aviation activities, and then a summary. 2.1 Overview of Education Practices According to the U.S. Department of Education, all legislation, regulations, guidance, and other policy documents are available through the Every Student Succeeds Act signed into law by President Obama in 2015. This Act superseded the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002, which was an update of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. In the United States, “the federal role in education is limited,” so working at the state and local levels to initiate and implement aviation education is critical. 2.1.1 Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics STEM is a common acronym used to describe the disciplines of science, technology, engi- neering, and math. Jonathan Gerlach is an experienced elementary science educator who works on federal education policy. In a report for the National Science Teachers Association, Gerlach pointed out that educators are aware of the STEM term but do not necessarily know exactly C H A P T E R 2 Importance of Aviation Education and Activities

Importance of Aviation Education and Activities 9 what it means or how it affects their classrooms (Gerlach 2012). Gerlach quoted this common definition: “STEM education is an interdisciplinary approach to learning where rigorous aca- demic concepts are coupled with real-world lessons as students apply science, technol- ogy, engineering and mathematics in contexts that make connections between school, community, work and the global enterprise enabling the development of STEM literacy and with the ability to compete in the new economy” (Tsupros 2009). According to Gerlach, two critical issues were at the forefront when STEM was introduced “as the next big thing”: the insufficiency of preparation in the STEM disciplines for students, teachers, and practitioners and the rapid increase in demand for people to fill STEM-related positions. Gerlach noted that educators’ bias toward their own field of expertise or practice was shaping the curriculum toward that bias. Rather than debating what STEM means or how it is defined, Gerlach holds that, in the end, the focus needs to be on learning and posing and solving problems that move students forward and push innovation (Gerlach 2012). The research team’s approach in creating this resource supports that phi- losophy and encourages interdisciplinary instruction. As research progressed, a rising interest in and tendency to include the arts within this group (STEAM) became apparent. Blending arts into the sciences inspires creative thinking, problem solving, and innovation. 2.1.2 Next Generation Science Standards The Next Generation Science Standards are the work of 26 lead state education partners in collaboration with industry organizations that include the National Research Council, the National Science Teachers Association, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The intent is to assist K–12 science educators in designing the learning experience for students so that there is greater consistency across the board. Source: Great Lakes Chapter of Women in Aviation “The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are K–12 science content standards. Standards set the expectations for what students should know and be able to do. The NGSS were developed by states to improve science education for all students. A goal for developing the NGSS was to create a set of research-based, up-to-date K–12 science standards. These standards give local educators the flexibility to design classroom learning experiences that stimulate students’ interests in science and prepare them for college, careers, and citizenship” (Next Generation Science Standards n.d.). The NGSS include three important dimensions to the science of learning that combine to form each standard or performance expectation. Each dimension works with the other two dimensions to help students understand science over time (Next Generation Science Stan- dards n.d.). According to information obtained in 2018 from the NGSS website, the three distinct and equally important dimensions are as follows: 1. Crosscutting Concepts: Connections across four dimensions of science, including physical, life, earth and space, and engineering design. Concepts such as cause and effect are made

10 Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation explicit for students to assist in the development of a coherent and scientifically based view of the world around them. 2. Science and Engineering Practices: Descriptions of what scientists do to investigate the natural world and what engineers do to design and build systems. This is the inquiry into science, and students design, build, and apply their knowledge in crosscutting concepts. 3. Disciplinary Core Ideas: Key ideas in science that have broad importance and are within or across multiple science and engineering disciplines. The core ideas build on each other as a student progresses across the four domains: physical science, life science, earth and space science, and engineering design. 2.1.3 Technological Advances in Education According to the website Teachhub.com, technology has changed the ways in which people communicate and learn. Whereas the classroom is used to present boundaries, tech- nology has expanded the audience and type of students that a class can reach. This allows classes and students now to see no boundaries, which increases diversity of learners. Students most likely are watching videos while they wait for an elevator, walk down the street, or carpool. Students have changed the amount of time they desire to spend learning at any one given time. A 50-minute structured lecture may not draw interest. An important provider of aviation-related educa- tional material—Boldmethod—supplies educational videos, tools, and text. Their most popular videos are approximately 3 minutes long. Educational videos over 5 minutes may lose their audi- ence due to length. Tablets and other electronics have negated the need to organize and carry around three- ring binders, leaving students to access an infinite number of learning aids, instead of being limited to the textbook or resources the instructor had access to. Textbooks of today are interactive and accompanied by web-based sites that include assessments, animations, addi- tional material, and videos to support new forms of learning. The use of electronic materials has widened the imagination and thought processes, allowing access to materials that were once not widely available. One example of an organization the research team identified as having embraced this new electronic education is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA has used electronic mediums to build interactive social media applications to reach more students and educators than ever before. NASA has a social media section on their website titled Connect and Collaborate with NASA. For details, see https://www.nasa.gov/socialmedia. NASA encour- ages site visitors to participate in the conversation by using various popular social media sites such as, but not limited to, Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, YouTube, Tumblr, and Pinterest. By using these applications, visitors can interact regularly with NASA. 2.1.4 Online Versus Face-to-Face Education in the Research While online education is often convenient, the research did not find any organizations exclu- sively using online education. Face-to-face education clearly emerged during research as the preferred method of instruction. Despite a plethora of aviation career paths, the initial dream to fly an airplane is usually the spark that ignites the desire to become involved in aviation. Teaching someone to fly an airplane generally requires face-to-face interaction. However, if a Source: Great Lakes Chapter of Women in Aviation

Importance of Aviation Education and Activities 11 student does not desire to become a pilot, there are many ways to ignite aviation interest. The key is to find opportunities to engage and encourage a student’s participation and continue to develop their interest. The organizations interviewed most often offered their programming to students in a face- to-face setting. The personal interaction is believed to be an essential ingredient to ignite the students’ passion for aviation. Many activities are hands on and intensive and, therefore, most organizations have not used online educational practices. Many people interviewed said they each spent an endless amount of time googling to find new ideas and activities. This led to compiling the searchable PDF library to share activities and assist the organizations with their programming and curriculum. 2.2 Overview of Aviation Activities Students can watch movies or play games on their iPhones or tablets any time of day. They can communicate with their friends across the world instantly through a variety of applica- tions (apps). How do organizations, museums, teachers, or even parents get the attention of students away from their devices to explore interests such as aviation? Students need to experi- ence aviation through many different mediums to develop and sustain interest. Active partici- pation in activities such as flying an airplane, controlling an unmanned aircraft, or going to an airport—these firsthand experiences are quite effective at creating and sustaining interest. Once the idea of flight and traveling the world was intriguing, but now students can see the world through their electronic devices, which warrants exploring new ways of creating interest or a spark. Encouraging students to experience and explore diverse opportunities within the aviation industry to drive their interests is key. The hope in publishing this document is that organiza- tions will use it to create activities and experiences to engage young people. An ideal situation would be one in which an organization would offer aviation-related or aerospace-related activi- ties that engage students at multiple stages throughout their education. Participants could then attend when they are young and continue to participate as they grow. This idea is explored further in Chapter 4. A brief list of possible activities is summarized in the following section to provide a starting point for users of this resource. The section following activities is similar in that it provides some initial logistical guidelines that may aid in the development of an activity. A third section discusses possible ways to measure success and connect activities to educational standards. One example of online education use is the Museum of Flight in Seattle, Washington. Several of the museum’s programs offer online education in conjunction with traditional face-to-face education. They have turned to online activities to reach students who do not live near their campus. The online activities invite a wide range of students to become involved and then encourage students to come to the museum for specialized programming. The Museum of Flight seems to use online education to augment their already-successful educational curriculum and, especially, to reach students who cannot regularly reach them.

12 Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation 2.2.1 Activities Activities can include nearly any type of interaction that sparks and reinforces a desire to engage in the aviation industry. Activities can be as simple as the appearance of a guest speaker in the classroom to a multiday camp that offers hands-on learning to actual airplane flights. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to offering activities. Each individual or organization that wants to offer events needs to develop or select an activity or group of activities appropri- ate for considerations such as venue, budget, audience, and personnel level. The following summary lists various activities that could be offered individually or as part of a larger event or program. This list of activities is not exhaustive but merely a starting point for a conversation about the type of event or activities to consider. Tours Often a local community has an airport that could provide the opportunity for tours. There are usually multiple points of interest that could be included in the tour. They are • Terminal building • Fixed base operators (FBOs) • Corporate flight department • Airport operations and maintenance facility • Aircraft rescue and firefighting • Air traffic control tower • Aircraft manufacturing facilities Guest Speakers Guest speakers are often an economical way to expose students to the diverse aviation indus- try. As noted in Chapter 3, there is a multitude of aviation careers. Representatives from those careers are likely willing to attend events and provide participants with insight on their specific career. Like the opportunity for tours, guest speakers can be standalone activities or used in tandem with other activities for larger events. Hands-on Activities Hands-on activities are great ways to introduce participants to aviation concepts when there is no access to a tour or speaker. These activities can be as simple as building a paper airplane or model rocket and can add a more advanced element by measuring weight and balance to determine the flight distance. Hands-on activities can be developed based on the age of the par- ticipants as well as the facilities accessible, that is, whether the venue is a classroom, open field, or a wind tunnel. Introductory Flights Like hands-on activities, introductory flights are a method of introducing aviation that allows the participant to get involved and experience the concepts firsthand. Hands-on activi- ties can occur via the computer with flight simulation software by using a joystick or a yoke. If the resources are accessible, piloting a UAS or riding along for a flight in an airplane are other great ways to introduce flight to participants. Contests Contests are another activity that can be hosted for a wide range of participants. Aviation art contests are held by airports and organizations all over the country and are cost-effective to organize. An easy contest example would be an art contest or constructing a paper airplane that can fly the farthest. Types of events and activities to consider: • Tours • Guest speakers • Hands-on activities • Introductory flights • Contests

Importance of Aviation Education and Activities 13 2.2.2 Activity Logistics Following is a list meant to generate conversation prior to launching any type of activity. The items warrant consideration, as they can shape an upcoming event positively or negatively. Working through this list will provide an idea of broader items to consider when planning and executing an activity. As with most programs, logistics and administrative issues may evolve over time and require refinement as an activity grows and matures. Implementing or addressing each of the issues should be done case by case, with the activity organizer assessing what is necessary for the specific activity or event and the anticipated participants. This is not an exhaustive list, and it is important to look for other issues that may be relevant to a specific activity or venue. Venue The venue used for an event is a key consideration when planning an event or activity. The size, temperature, acoustics, visibility, and location are all important considerations that should be evaluated when selecting an appropriate location to host an event. The following questions should be answered before finalizing the location: • If a projector is needed to make a presentation, can the venue be made dark enough to view the screen or can the image be projected large enough for par- ticipants to see well? • Are the acoustics in the venue good enough for normal speaking or are micro- phones and speakers needed? Large airplane hangars are typically used for events and often have high ceilings that may make it hard to hear a speaker. • Is the venue large enough to accommodate the number of participants and the activities planned? • Can the venue be kept warm enough or cool enough during the event? This question is important when considering the use of a local hangar facility. • Is there inherent noise associated with the venue that may interfere with the activity? This is also important when considering use of a local hangar facility. • What is the proximity of the venue to adequate parking? Is access to the venue clearly marked? • If the activity is on an airport, are there security considerations for entry to reach the venue? Parking, Pickup, and Drop-off Getting participants into and out of a venue may take additional evaluation. Depending on the number of participants, consider where at the venue a larger number of vehicles can be parked or where school buses can be accommodated. Additionally, plans may need to be devel- oped for pickup and drop-off stations to allow for parents or guardians to sign participants in and out of the activity. Will the participants need parking permits? Will specialized spaces be utilized? While these logistics may seem minor, they can require additional space, time, and even staffing in the preplanning phase as well as the actual implementation. Restroom Facilities Depending on the venue and the number of participants, consideration may need to be given to obtaining additional restroom facilities such as porta potties. For example, if a local Experi- mental Aircraft Association (EAA) chapter is hosting a daylong event in a community hangar, there may not be any restroom facilities in the hangar itself and the closest restroom might be a single toilet facility in the nearby terminal building that may require an escort for security Winner of the 2018 International Aviation Art Contest. James Tseng’s piece titled Flight into the Future placed first in the United States and second worldwide (NASAO 2018).

14 Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation reasons. This situation would likely be inconvenient for par- ticipants and insufficient to support many students, causing a continual demand for use of the restroom. Consequently, the provision of several porta potties for the duration of the event may be advantageous. Food Options Events that will take more than a few hours should include planning for food and drinks whether they are provided on site or participants are asked to bring a lunch. Food planning has become more complicated as food allergies become more prevalent, and provisions need to be in place to address them. Consider the need to provide just beverages or if snacks or even a full meal should be added if the event extends over the lunch or dinner hour. The event sponsor must also determine the type and amount of food to provide. Keep in mind the need for refrigeration or heating, dietary needs, and palate of the age group of the participants. Emergency Response and First Aid No one wants an emergency during an event, but it is important to be prepared in case one occurs. Accordingly, having at least basic first aid requirements covered, with staff attending the event trained in first aid response, is recommended. Organizers should coordinate ahead of time with local emergency responders about the planned event in case they need to respond. Emergency contact information may also be important to collect from event participants. If the event occurs at a school or at a commercial airport, coordination with the larger entity may be preferred. Insurance Whether the activity or event is hosted at the facility of an event organizer or sponsor or at a remote location, additional insurance coverage may be prudent. This coverage may be needed to insure additional staff or volunteers assisting with the event and for additional liability coverage or other temporary policies to cover the specific activities offered. Additional insurance coverage should be investigated with individual insurance carriers or providers on a case-by-case basis. Marketing and Promotions An important part of offering any activity is participation. It is critical to consider how to market and promote the event to gain exposure and generate interest in attending the activ- ity. Additionally, thought should be given to how to promote the event or activity to the local community to sustain interest in aviation, build possible funding support, and even cultivate additional volunteers or participants for future events. A range of options is available to carry out marketing and promotions, such as print media, radio and television, and social media, includ- ing websites, Facebook, and Twitter. The target audience for participation drives which appropriate method to use. For example, social media may be used to reach participants for a high school camp, but the local newspaper and television stations may be the methods for efforts to promote the event on the day it takes place. Taking photographs or videos of participants as they get involved in the events may be useful for inclusion in future marketing and promotional materials. Consider hiring a profes- sional photographer to document the event if organizers are too busy for this task. If taking photographs and videos, obtain the permission to use captured images through a participation- and-photograph release form. Marketing and promotional information for the case example organizations can be found in Chapter 6. Source: Great Lakes Chapter of Women in Aviation

Importance of Aviation Education and Activities 15 Summary of Activity Logistics This brief list is not exhaustive but provides some initial guidance on the types of logistical concerns to consider when preparing to host an activity or event. There are no right or wrong answers to these issues; each provider of an activity must evaluate the merits of each of these and other issues to meet specific needs and address them accordingly. Refinement will likely be necessary as an event grows, matures, and changes over time. Event providers are encour- aged to develop a checklist of items for consideration for each type of activity and update the Organizers of the MSP Boot Camp have found that flyers are an effective method of promoting their event (Ostrom 2017)

16 Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation checklist each time an activity is complete. A meeting or report after the event may be beneficial for assessing those logistical items to make refinements for future events. 2.2.3 Program Evaluation Many of the programs reviewed began with a small activity or event, such as a camp, dem- onstration, or classroom presentation. The initial activity or event often became the catalyst to inspire continued support and funding to promote aviation and often STEM concepts. As an organization begins to develop a program or an activity, it is critical to include as part of the implementation plan how success will be measured and how to define expectations. This lays the groundwork to manage realistic expectations as program developers look for opportunities to grow and refine a program. It is also important to note that all successes will not be identi- fied prior to an event. Quite often, unplanned successes appear, such as children shaking with anticipation as they fly a small, unmanned aircraft for the first time or the excitement of children crawling into an airplane at a museum. Those moments can be captured, recorded, and photo- graphed whenever possible and used in debriefings or reports to those who sponsored the events. When private or state grants are used, it is often important to gather more quantitative and qualitative data on the event such as student numbers each year, impact on community, how many schools participated, how the equipment purchased through funding will be used in future events, or a personal testimony from students about how the event affected them. Fund- ing organizations and donors want to be able to show how their funds multiplied to benefit those who received their funding and gifts. Program developers are encouraged to build on success. Program developers can identify successes and describe what can be done in the future to improve, modify, and grow the event or activities offered, even if it is in a qualitative manner. 2.2.4 Connecting Aviation Activities to Education Standards When developing an activity, it may be advantageous to consider possible connections between the activity and national or state education standards. Providing those connections may afford more funding opportunities and greater support for the inclusion of those activities in the classroom as well as in the local community. Some states have aviation standards for their high school aviation courses, and many of the topics address science, mathematics, and language arts standards as well. Figure 1 high- lights various national education standards applicable to the three examples of aviation-related activities. Example 1 North Dakota’s Aviation Technology I class is offered to students in Grades 10 through 12 and has the following standards for people, events, and trends in aviation. They are to 1. Discuss important people in aviation history and their contribution to the field of aviation. 2. Determine the progression of aviation technology (e.g., pre-heavier than air flight, gliders [pre-Wright Brothers], World War I and II, the jet age and modern aviation). 3. Identify current issues in aviation. Standard 3 could require a student in Grades 9 through 12 to research a topic using news paper articles, online news sources, aviation magazines, and so forth, which aligns with the national language arts Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literary in History/ Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. It is estimated that 13 items would be satisfied across four categories with this single activity. A number of the national requirements for language arts, math, and science that could be met in the following examples are listed in Figure 1. As an organization begins to develop a program or an activity, it is critical to include as part of the implemen- tation plan how success will be measured and how to define expectations.

Importance of Aviation Education and Activities 17 Example 2 The North Dakota Aviation standards for the topic of aircraft are as follows for students in Grades 10 through 12: 1. Identify the parts of the aircraft. 2. Compare different types of aircraft (e.g., single-engine, multi-engine, jet). 3. Compare categories of aircraft (e.g., glider, helicopter). 4. Compare the different types of aircraft engines (e.g., turbo-prop, piston, or turbine). Language Arts-CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA (http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/CCRA/L/): (Grade 9-12) 1. L.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. 2. L.2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. 3. R.1 Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. 4. R.10 Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently. 5. SL.1 Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. 6. SL.2 Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. 7. SL.4 Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. 8. SL.5 Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations. 9. W.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearty and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. 10. W.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. 11. W.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. 12. W.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism. 13. W.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. Science: (Grade 9-12) (http://www.nextgenscience.org/) 1. HS-PS2-1 Analyze data to support the claim that Newton's second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration. 2. HS-ETS1-3 Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts. Math: CCSS.MATH.CONTENT (Grade 10-12) (http://www.corestandards.org/Math/Practice/) 1. HS.N-Q.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. 2. HS.N-Q.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. 3. HS.N-Q.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. 4. HS.A-SSE.1 Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. 5. HS.A-CED.1 Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. 6. MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Figure 1. National education standards applicable to aviation examples (pp. 20–21).

18 Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation Organizing an event at an airport where there are aircraft to view or touch would be a perfect set- ting to address some, if not all, of the aircraft standards. Language arts standards could be applied to these topics as well if the activities are planned to include a writing or speaking expectation. Example 3 The North Dakota Aviation standards for weight and balance are as follows for students in Grades 10 through 12: 1. Define weight and balance terms (e.g., center of gravity, basic empty, weight and useful load). 2. Identify the methods of calculating weight and balance. 3. Explain the effects of weight on aircraft performance. 4. Explain the effects of forward/aft center of gravity on aircraft performance. 5. Determine the center of gravity using the computation method. 6. Explain the effects of weight on aircraft performance, takeoff, climb, cruise and landing. Weight and balance in terms of aircraft performance are topics that align with science, math, and language arts national standards. Having the students compute various weight and balance problems and make go/no-go flight decisions is a sample activity in which state aviation and mathematics standards can be applied. To verify that a planned activity meets state aviation and state or national science, mathematics, and language arts standards, program developers will want to search the various K–12 education standards. The national standards can be found on the following websites: • Language Arts: http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/CCRA/L/ • Math: http://www.corestandards.org/Math/Practice/ • Science: http://www.nextgenscience.org/ Program developers can find state standards by searching state department of education websites. 2.3 Summary This chapter has shown the challenges to, and opportunities for, implementing aviation edu- cation at all age levels. Aviation-related federal agencies have created educational materials and pathways to engage students with the industries of aviation and aerospace. In the United States, decisions about education curricula are largely decided at the state and local levels. State stan- dards are revised continually, so aligning aviation educational activities with state guidelines is important. The NGSS are the result of a collaboration of states and other national educa- tion organizations that created generally accepted standards or performance expectations for science-based activities. These standards and expectations align with established standards and may make educational opportunities created by program leaders more valuable to classroom teachers. Current technology used by students is equally important to recognize when designing and implementing aviation educational activities. Aligning activities with state standards and current technology trends will serve a dual purpose of engaging the students and providing for longevity of the activities. Examples included in the preceding paragraphs illustrate how educators and program developers can research the standards that would apply to their students or attendees and align activities with those standards.

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Resources to help promote interest in aviation among younger populations ranging from 10 years old to 25 years old are detailed in TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 202.

The report is designed to help educators and aviation enthusiasts understand the need for encouraging interest in aviation. It offers guidance on developing a program of activities to fit particular needs and provides activities for developing a program that can be scaled and tailored for various age groups and resource availability.

The report is designed to help develop intentional pathways for promoting interest in aviation. These pathways are seen as the process for engaging students at an early age to pursue aviation at some level and then have them, in turn, continue the cycle by promoting aviation to others.

The report addresses the challenges to establishing and maintaining these pathways—such as resource limitations, lack of programming or curriculum, competing interests for kids, and administrative or organizational issues—and identifies opportunities to overcome them.

The report also provides support for developing and executing single events and activities when they are the most practical means for exposing young people to the aviation industry. Finally, the report includes three summary listings of the landing pages. The landing pages are a collection of activities that can engage young people in aviation and be adapted to any particular group or organization. They are sorted by activity type, target age group, and cost per person. A searchable list, by keyword, of these landing pages can be found in the Presorted Tables PDF.

There is also an individual activity landing pages PDF, which is an alphabetical listing of organizations and the types of activities they offer. The PDF User Guide explains how to use and search the PDFs. A microsite with the Presorted Tables PDF, the Individual Activity Landing Pages PDF, and the PDF User Guide may be found at http://www.trb.org/acrp/acrpreport202.aspx.

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