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Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation (2019)

Chapter: Chapter 3 - Careers in the Aviation Industry

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Careers in the Aviation Industry." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Careers in the Aviation Industry." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Careers in the Aviation Industry." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Careers in the Aviation Industry." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Careers in the Aviation Industry." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Careers in the Aviation Industry." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Careers in the Aviation Industry." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Careers in the Aviation Industry." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Careers in the Aviation Industry." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Careers in the Aviation Industry." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Careers in the Aviation Industry." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Careers in the Aviation Industry." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Careers in the Aviation Industry." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25528.
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19 The aviation industry, including aerospace, has a range of career opportunities that cover a vast spectrum of skills and knowledge requirements. A few of the larger career categories include flight, control, management, maintenance, design, and operations. Each career category includes many underlying specific job opportunities. Job requirements range from a high level of education, training, and experience to a basic high school education, an associate degree in a specialized field, or a technical degree in a specific trade. However, an emphasis on STEM disciplines greatly improves career opportunities, compensation potential, and advancement within the industry at any level. In addition, many jobs require medical certifications and secu- rity clearances from the TSA. The extensive career opportunities in the aviation and aerospace industries transcend almost any skill set, education, or work experience. Additionally, many of these careers offer employment opportunities across an array of agencies. Employers can include groups such as • Airlines, both national and regional • Airports • FBOs • Corporate flight departments • Consultants • Federal and state agencies • Manufacturers While this list is not exhaustive, the list paints the picture of the diversity that the aviation industry offers for employment or career opportunities. Table 1 illustrates a number of the careers and the various entities that may employ each profession. Because airports and air- lines operate like other businesses, there are careers that support the jobs that are traditionally associated with aviation. For example, airports often employ accountants, marketing staff, law enforcement officers and security personnel, fire fighters, and electricians. This is just a sample of the types of careers that can be associated with aviation and provide meaningful career paths. There are a number of ways to classify aviation-related careers. The careers in this chapter are organized by the following general categories, which define a specific function within the industry. They are flight, control, manage, maintain, design, and operate. 3.1 Flight The flight category relates to becoming a pilot and flying an aircraft (fixed wing aircraft or helicopters) or UAS. Some pilots fly for recreation, and other pilots turn their hobby into a career. Many different job opportunities exist for pilots around the world. Jobs vary by factors such as pilot experience levels, duties, salary, and where and what the pilot flies. C H A P T E R 3 Careers in the Aviation Industry

20 Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation Table 1. Examples of aviation career options, by employer.

Careers in the Aviation Industry 21 To become a pilot, one must obtain a medical certificate, with different types or classes available. A first-class or second-class medical certificate is needed to hold a job as a pilot. For some UAS positions, a third-class medical certificate is required. For private pilots, a third-class medical certificate or a BasicMed certification is acceptable. Readers may visit the FAA website for more information about medical requirements for various certifications. A commercial pilot certificate is required if a pilot wants to be employed as a professional pilot, along with a minimum number of flight hours, dependent on the type of commercial fly- ing being conducted. 3.1.1 Airline Pilot Airline pilots fly people, cargo, and aircraft from place to place. The size of the airline will dictate other job duties. Most pilots start out working for smaller airlines, like a regional air- line. A regional airline typically flies mid-size aircraft, with seating from 30 to 70 passengers, like a CRJ-900. Often the flights are conducted across certain regions of the United States. The regional airline is often a stepping-stone to a major airline. A major airline often requires more flight hours and experience because the pilot will fly larger aircraft (more than 100 passengers) like a Boeing 767 or Airbus A330, which may include international flights. Businesses that use helicopters have the same mission of flying cargo and passengers but the size of the aircraft is smaller. For example, the 206B3 Jet Ranger and the Bell 407 by Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. hold four passengers and six passengers, respectively. 3.1.2 Certified Flight Instructor A certified flight instructor (CFI) is a pilot who obtains at least a third-class medical cer- tificate and a commercial certificate and, in most cases, an instrument rating. CFIs can teach others to become pilots and are employed at an airport, most often through a flight training facility. Fixed wing aircraft used for flight training typically include small general aviation or GA aircraft such as a Cessna 172, Piper Archer, Diamond DA40, and Cirrus SR20. Robinson R-44s are common training platforms for helicopter GA flight training. More advanced flight training (e.g., instrument and multi- engine) requires a CFI to hold additional ratings with the flight instructor certificate. The CFI may be required to fly multiple different types of aircraft depending on the needs of their students. 3.1.3 GA Pilot Corporate pilots, air taxi or charter pilots, test pilots, and agricultural pilots all fall under the realm of GA pilots. These pilots fly a variety of air- craft, including helicopters. GA pilots may not have a set schedule; they fly when their passengers need to travel. The job requires more than just flying the aircraft, including cleaning and fueling the aircraft as well as assisting passengers. Examples of specific types of GA uses that create career paths for both fixed wing and helicopter pilots may include, but are not limited to, the following: • Charter or air taxi • Corporate flight departments • Agriculture spraying • Air ambulance Source: Great Lakes Chapter of Women in Aviation

22 Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation • Search and rescue • Traffic reports for news channels • Police • Sightseeing • Firefighting GA careers specifically for helicopter pilots may include cranes or lifting types of operations such as logging, construction, and power lines and offshore oil rigs or transporting people and supplies. 3.1.4 Military Pilot The U.S. Armed Forces (including the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, National Guard, Coast Guard, and the Reserves) have a variety of pilot opportunities within the various branches. The type of aircraft flown depends on the branch of service. For example, the Air Force, Army, and Navy all have manned and unmanned pilot options, as well as options between airplanes and helicopters. The missions that pilots fly range from aerial photography, executive transpor- tation, and cargo flights to air-to-air combat in fighter jets. After their military duty, most pilots pursue careers with airlines. 3.1.5 Test Pilot Manufacturers and repair facilities often employ pilots to fly aircraft that they build or repair. Those test flights evaluate the aircraft before they are delivered to new owners or confirm that repairs have been successfully accomplished. 3.1.6 Unmanned Aircraft Systems Operations Unmanned aircraft systems operations reflect the many professions and varied educational backgrounds needed for those involved in conducting UAS commercial activities. The term unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is often used to describe the unmanned aerial vehicles, but the term has become interchangeable with UAS. For small UAS under 55 pounds, civil com- mercial operations can involve one to two personnel, such as a remote pilot operating the UAS and a visual observer for safety. The remote pilot is the per- son responsible for the safe flight of the UAS. Remote pilots of larger UAS often use the UAS for public safety and work with public government entities, which can have many per- sonnel involved to conduct operations throughout the world. Regardless of the type of UAS, a remote pilot operator is needed. For UAS operations, a person at least 16 years old can take a written test to receive a remote pilot certificate to fly commercially below 400 feet above ground level with a UAS aircraft 55 pounds or less. Careers in UAS include using the UAS for inspections for agriculture, power lines, wind tur- bines, and oil pipelines, along with construction surveys and real estate. For UAS larger than 55 pounds, remote pilots need addi- tional manned pilot certificates, experience flying manned Source: Mead & Hunt, Inc.

Careers in the Aviation Industry 23 aircraft in the national airspace system, and additional educational background or UAS spe- cific training to be considered for employment. Other positions include a sensor operator, UAS maintenance staffer, radar operator, visual observers, and network and communications per- sonnel. The larger the UAS that is flying, the more complex the operation. More experienced personnel will be needed to conduct the mission. 3.2 Control The control category includes the critical function of air traffic control, which is performed by the FAA. This system is in place to ensure the safety of aircraft and passengers during all phases of flight. All airspace above the United States is divided into different classes depending on the volume of traffic and type of aircraft flying in that area. Airports with the largest amount of com- mercial airline activity are equipped with the most sophisticated navigation and communication equipment as well as with highly trained air traffic controllers and technicians to ensure aircraft operations occur safely. The air traffic system uses highly sophisticated equipment that must be constantly monitored and maintained. In addition, systems are continually being upgraded using state-of-the-art equipment and practices to improve safety and maintain capacity to meet forecasted growth in the industry. 3.2.1 Air Traffic Control Specialist Air traffic control specialists, or air traffic controllers, direct aircraft traffic on the ground and in the air. These duties require extensive training and the ability to work in situational awareness environments with high levels of stress. Current FAA minimum requirements to apply for an air traffic position include being a U.S. citizen under 30 years of age. Candidates must pass a medical examination, must pass a security investi- gation, and must meet educational requirements. 3.2.2 Airway Transportation Systems Specialist Airway transportation systems specialists are electronic technicians who install and maintain equipment and lighting aids for aviation navigation facilities and services to ensure a reliable, safe, and smooth flow of air traffic. Those specialists perform their duties on equipment throughout airports, air traffic control towers, automated flight service stations, air route traffic control centers, and at remote locations such as mountain tops. They are typically working for the FAA. 3.3 Manage The manage category encompasses the aviation administration and management careers at airports, airlines, and other aviation businesses and organizations. Those professions require a comprehensive application of business and management principles related to air transportation and commerce. Roles can include planning or managing aviation facilities, managing budgets, marketing, employment, and other administrative tasks, all of which are essential to an aviation organization’s or airport’s success. Source: Mead & Hunt, Inc.

24 Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation 3.3.1 Administrative Manager Administrative managers are responsible for planning, directing, and coordinating adminis- trative support services at an aviation organization or airport. Specific duties can vary based on the type of organization and may include recordkeeping, distributing mail, and planning and maintaining facilities. 3.3.2 Airport Director and Manager Airport directors and managers are responsible for planning, directing, and coordinating the operations, construction, and maintenance of airport facilities according to government and commission laws, policies, rules, and regulations. Individuals in this role handle everything from signing leases with concessionaires and airlines to preparing for emergencies and meeting safety standards. In addition to overseeing the day-to-day functions and operation of the facilities, the individuals plan for future growth of their airports. 3.3.3 Logistics Manager Logistics managers direct activities, including purchasing, inventory, shipping and transpor- tation, warehousing, and delivery. In some instances, they may oversee the movement of airport- related or aviation-related supplies, goods, or people, ranging from military supplies to common consumer goods. Logisticians are also responsible for designing strategies that reduce time or cost required to move goods, as well as identifying and proposing improvements to airport customers and management. 3.3.4 Airline Station Manager An airline station manager is a key employee in the operation of an airline at each individual airport where an airline provides service. The airline station manager is responsible for coordi- nating the staff who provide the following services: • Passenger ticketing and check-in, • Baggage and cargo services, • Passenger boarding at the gate area and de-boarding, and • Servicing the aircraft while it is on the ground. The manager may be the actual person responsible for conducting those activities if the operations or the number of flights is limited at an airport. 3.3.5 Fixed Base Operator Manager Fixed base operator managers oversee a variety of services offered at an aviation facility and, in some cases, may be responsible for multiple FBO locations. Their duties can include plan- ning, directing, or coordinating transportation, storage, or distribution activities for aircraft and pilots. An FBO manager may supervise 1, 2, or as many as 100 workers. 3.3.6 Operations Research Analyst Operations research analysts help aviation organizations solve problems and make better decisions by using advanced methods of analysis. Someone in this role may also advise specific individuals such as an airport manager. This job touches all aspects of an aviation organiza- tion or airport, with operations research analysts being responsible for tasks that include the

Careers in the Aviation Industry 25 allocation of resources, development of production schedules, management of the supply chain, and setting prices. 3.3.7 Operations Supervisor Aviation operations supervisors directly coordinate and supervise activities of airport-related material, moving machines, and air transportation, as well as vehicle operators and helpers. Individuals in this role can be responsible for a variety of airport-related tasks, including FAA rules and regulations, airfield operations, and relationships with other airport operators. 3.3.8 Program Managers Airport program managers coordinate and manage airport projects that meet the goals for multiyear and multi-project capital programs. Program managers work with airport staff and stakeholders to ensure projects are managed effectively at all levels from planning through construction completion. Projects often include airside, landside, aviation facilities, and sys- tems that include central utility plants, parking garages, inline explosive detections systems, passenger security screening checkpoints, and highway and transit systems to and within the airport. Program managers must possess skills in finance, project management, planning, pro- curement, document control, contract administration, risk management, and subcontractor coordination. 3.3.9 Technical Managers Aviation businesses and airports can also have a need for managers who focus on specific technical areas of expertise. Those areas can include air service, engineering, environmental, information technology (IT), and planning. Each of those managers would have specific exper- tise in the topic areas associated with these niches and usually interact with the other technical managers to create an integrated system that supports their organizations. An example would be an IT manager who directs the technology resources and supervises the staff responsible for operating and supporting the airport IT systems. The IT director col- laborates with business departments to align their IT systems to their requirements and man- ages the systems to ensure they are constantly available to all users of the airport, which includes the public, airport tenants, and airport staff. Utilization of technology is critical to the overall safety and security of the airport, enhancing productivity and efficiency, cutting costs, increas- ing revenues, and enhancing the customer experience. An IT director recruits, trains, and man- ages a team of IT staff, hiring people with the skills needed to operate and support a range of IT resources. These resources include desktop and laptop computers, printers, telephone systems, data centers, servers, and networks. The IT director is responsible for securing the data and the IT systems against loss or attack by computer viruses or other external threats. An IT manager is also responsible for managing budgets that include capital costs, operating expenses, and salaries. 3.4 Maintain The FAA has placed a significant responsibility on aviation professionals to operate and main- tain safe aircraft across the aviation industry. According to the FAA, maintenance means the inspection, overall repair, upkeep, and preservation of an aircraft and engine, including the replacement parts. The purpose of maintenance is to ensure that the aircraft remains airworthy throughout its operational life. A properly maintained aircraft is a safe aircraft [Plane Sense: General Aviation Information (FAA-H-8083-19A)].

26 Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation Each aircraft owner or operator must properly maintain aircraft before flight, and properly certified professionals play a significant role in that maintenance. Advancing technology and increasing flight hours continue to grow demand for these services. UAS maintenance is an evolving process. The FAA is continually identifying the certification requirements for mainte- nance. At the time of writing, best practices developed over decades of manned flight are laying the groundwork for the minimum standards for maintaining unmanned aircraft. Many 2-year applied associate degree programs throughout the country provide the educa- tion and training needed to be prepared in the aviation careers for maintaining aircraft described in the following sections. 3.4.1 Aircraft Mechanic Aircraft mechanics and service technicians work to diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul air- craft engines and assemblies, such as hydraulic and pneumatic systems. The vast majority of technicians are certified as FAA mechanics. Under an FAA mechanic’s certificate, there are two ratings: airframe and powerplant. Although most certified mechanics hold both ratings and are referred to in the industry as an “A&P,” there are many mechanics certified only with an air frame (A) rating or only with a powerplant (P) rating. The need for qualified, experi- enced air craft mechanics reaches all parts of the United States for employment by aircraft manufacturers, airlines, air taxi companies, and aircraft service providers. 3.4.2 Aircraft Systems Assembler Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers assemble, fit, fasten, and install parts of airplanes, space vehicles, or missiles. Assemblers could work on aircraft tails, wings, fuselage, bulkheads, stabilizers, landing gear, rigging and control equipment, or heating and ventilating systems. This career option would include working at aircraft manufacturers such as Boeing, Airbus, Cirrus, Piper Aircraft, or Textron. 3.4.3 Airport Maintenance Airport maintenance workers perform a variety of duties under the general supervision of airport management and are expected to perform assigned duties with minimal supervision. Work assignments include an array of duties unique to the day-to-day maintenance, opera- tion, and security of an airport facility. Work duties may include maintaining movement and nonmovement area pavements and the repair and upkeep of the airfield navigational aids (NAVAIDS) and hangar facilities. The duties can also include enforcing airport rules and regu- lations, taking immediate action in emergencies, directing fire and rescue operations, patrol- ling and inspecting airport facilities, as well as maintaining airport equipment. Additionally, performing electrical repairs and operating equipment for maintenance of the airfield such as snow removal, mowing, sweeping, painting, and general pavement maintenance can all be under the umbrella of airport maintenance. This position normally requires specific training in airfield maintenance, aircraft rescue and firefighting, and emergency first aid. 3.4.4 Avionics Technician The aviation industry needs trained avionics technicians who understand the complex avi- onics systems onboard aircraft and space vehicles and can analyze and solve complex electronic problems related to their integration into the aircraft. According to the Bureau of Labor Statis- tics, avionics technicians are specialized in the installation, inspection, testing, adjusting, and According to the FAA, maintenance means the inspection, overall repair, upkeep, and preservation of an aircraft and engine, including the replacement parts.

Careers in the Aviation Industry 27 repair of avionics equipment, such as radar, radio, navigation, and missile control systems in manned and UAS and in space vehicles. As glass cockpits and advanced avionics equipment continue to be integrated into aircraft, this specialization will remain in demand. An individual who is an FAA certified mechanic with an airframe rating is authorized under his rating to maintain avionics equipment. But this privilege is allowed only if that individual is properly trained, properly qualified, and has the proper tools and equipment to perform the work. 3.5 Design The field of aerospace design involves turning ideas into reality. Designers typically specialize in either aircraft, airports, or space technology. Aerospace designers generate plans or drawings to display the form, function, and workings of airports, aircraft, terminals, spacecraft, rockets, avionics, navigational aids, weather reporting systems, or anything related to the aerospace field. Successful people in this field generally exhibit strong analytical, mathematical, problem solving, and communication skills. 3.5.1 Aerospace Engineer Aerospace engineers design aircraft, spacecraft, satellites, and systems for national defense. This includes creating and testing prototypes to ensure that they function as planned. Typically, a bachelor’s degree in aerospace engineering is desired or required to enter this field. More senior or advanced positions will likely require a professional engineer license, and work on projects related to national defense often must have a security clearance. Aerospace engineers can be found working at NASA, SpaceX, Boeing, and many other commercial aircraft and spacecraft companies. 3.5.2 Civil Engineer Civil engineers design, build, supervise, operate, construct, and maintain aviation infrastruc- ture projects and systems, including runways, taxiways, aprons, buildings, and other related ele- ments. Civil engineers often work for airports, consultants, state departments of transportation, or the FAA. Civil engineers need a bachelor’s degree in civil engineering from a school accredited by the Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology and typically must be licensed if they provide services directly to the public. 3.5.3 Electrical Engineer Electrical engineers design, develop, and test electrical equipment and electric motors. In aviation, this can include radar and navigation systems, communications systems, power gen- eration equipment, and flight controls. Electrical engineers need a bachelor’s degree from a school accredited by the Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology. Those engineers work at aircraft and spacecraft manufacturers (like Boeing and SpaceX), avionics companies (like Raytheon and Garmin), satellite manufacturers, and any other company that supports the aerospace industry. 3.5.4 Engineering Technician Engineering technicians assist engineers in planning, designing, and building airports, air- craft, spacecraft, and anything else necessary for engineering design related to aviation. Although

28 Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation not always required, an associate degree is generally preferred with working knowledge of computer-aided drafting and design software. Engineering technicians are needed anywhere engineers are needed. 3.5.5 Planner Planners are highly trained and experienced individuals who display specialized aviation knowledge, sound analytical ability, and persuasive communication and presentation skills. Planners can work with airports, consultants, or the FAA on airport master plans, statewide aviation system plans, and environmental assessments. They can also work for airlines on pro- cesses, procedures, and maintenance techniques, or with airlines on route structures and crew scheduling. Planners typically have at least a bachelor’s degree or more in aviation or airport management or planning. 3.6 Operate Aviation industry jobs in the operations category specifically relate to the operation of the airport and the airline at the ground level for a local airport, with several different occupations and employers from which to choose. Each organization will likely label positions slightly differently, but the essential function is to service the airplane or serve passengers using the airport. Many of those positions are considered security sensitive and will require a TSA criminal history records check to receive credentialing to work near passenger-carrying aircraft. 3.6.1 Aircraft Fueler Aircraft fuelers operate the fueling equipment, filling a fuel truck and delivering the fuel to aircraft. Airlines, FBOs, and airports often employ those individuals. 3.6.2 Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting Aircraft rescue and firefighting staff are responsible for the response, hazard mitigation, evacuation, and possible rescue of passengers and crew of an aircraft involved in an airport emergency. Most airports with airline service employ a few firefighters and rescue workers, some of whom may be trained as emergency medical technicians or paramedics. Airport fire- fighters are usually skilled in both aircraft firefighting and building or structural firefighting. 3.6.3 Airport Operations Airport operations personnel assess, evaluate, and coordinate the safety and security of the airside, landside and terminal activities of an airport. Airport operations personnel can work directly for the airport or be specific to an airline. When working for an airport within this general category, there are specific job duties in the following areas: • Safety and security, • Regulation compliance, • Equipment maintenance, • Facility maintenance, • Airfield inspections, • Emergency response and preparedness, • Wildlife hazard management, • Aircraft fueling,

Careers in the Aviation Industry 29 • Snow removal, and • Issuance of Notices to Airmen, including airfield condition reporting during inclement or winter weather conditions. An employee in this category will typically be required to communicate with the air traffic control tower, airlines, FBOs, airport tenants, flight crews, the public, or the TSA. Other respon- sibilities of those employees include the implementation of safety plans, ensuring compliance with FAA Advisory Circulars concerning operational safety during airfield construction, and periodic revision of the Airport Certification Manual. Those employees also may be responsible for coordination of environmental programs that involve storm water pollution prevention and petroleum pollution prevention by completing checklists, inspecting facilities, and incorporat- ing corrective actions as necessary, to name a few. When working for an airline, airport operations personnel implement their company pro- cedures for the safe and on-time movement of aircraft through their station. Personnel in this category will often coordinate their activities with the local airport management operations personnel, provide information and support for flight crews and ground personnel, coordinate company aircraft arrivals and departures, assign gates, coordinate with U.S. Customs and Border Protection, or operate customer enplaning/deplaning equipment. 3.6.4 Airline Ground Agent Airline ground agents assist passengers in the terminal in many ways, such as answering ques- tions about fares, helping locate luggage, explaining missed connections, and providing general assistance to airline passengers. 3.6.5 Airport Security Screener The primary task of a transportation security officer is to screen both people and property for security using walkthrough metal detectors, handheld wands, or pat-down searches. Property such as baggage or cargo is also screened to prevent dangerous items from being brought aboard a plane in luggage. Transportation security officers are also responsible for controlling entry and exit points at an airport or at other places of transportation. 3.6.6 Cargo Agent Air freight agents or cargo agents receive air freight shipments, supervise loading and unload- ing, and keep written records. They communicate and work with air freight forwarders and customers using telephones, computers, and hand calculators to do their jobs. Agents facilitate shipments of goods through airline, train, trucking terminals, and shipping docks. 3.6.7 Flight Attendant Flight attendants are employed by airlines to see to the safety and comfort of passengers aboard commercial flights, select business jet aircraft, and some military aircraft. The attendants check passengers’ names and destinations, enforce safety rules, serve food, oversee passengers’ comfort, and direct evacuation procedures in the case of an emergency. 3.6.8 Flight Dispatcher Flight dispatchers are often employed by airlines and are responsible for furnishing a flight plan that enables the aircraft to arrive at its destination on schedule with the maximum payload

30 Developing Innovative Strategies for Aviation Education and Participation (such as passengers, mail, and cargo) and the lowest operating cost. The flight dispatcher con- siders en route and destination weather, winds aloft, alternate destinations, fuel required, alti- tudes, and traffic flow. The dispatcher maintains a constant watch on all flights dispatched and is the liaison between the pilot and ground service personnel. The flight dispatcher must be familiar with all airline routes and airport facilities as well as with the takeoff, cruising, and landing charac- teristics of all types of aircraft operated by the airline. Flight dispatchers also take periodic flights in the cockpit with the flight crew to observe flight routes, conditions, and airports. 3.6.9 Line Person The FBO employs line persons or ramp service persons who meet arriving aircraft, guide them to parking spots, assist pilots in securing their aircraft, and otherwise serve the general aviation and airline customers. Line persons may also fuel and service aircraft and report to the aircraft owners any signs of possible trouble with their planes, such as fluid leaks. 3.6.10 Ramp Service Types of ramp service personnel vary. The cabin service person cleans the airplane and cockpit between flights. Duties include vacuuming the floor, picking up trash, washing lavatories and buffets, replacing headrests and pillow covers, folding blankets, refilling seat packets with magazines and safety information, refilling the drinking water supply, and cleaning the cockpit windows. Other service personnel care for the exterior of the aircraft. They wash, polish, touch up paint, and de-ice the outside of the airplane. They also work with chemicals used to prevent corrosion. Other ramp personnel drive food trucks, mobile stairs, employee buses, messenger cars, and conveyors. 3.7 Other Aviation Careers In many instances, there are career opportunities within airline, airport, FBO, or corporate flight for positions such as accountants, human resources, marketing, public relations, con- cessions, administrative staff, law enforcement, and public safety. Those careers all support the day-to-day aviation activities within the system. 3.8 Workforce Development The first ACRP research project completed on the topic of workforce development was the ACRP Synthesis 18: Aviation Workforce Development Practices published in 2010. This research explored airport operating entity jobs and related skill sets needed to perform those jobs. The report also identified potential ways to gain training on the skill sets needed to fulfill airport- related jobs and noted gaps where skill sets, along with educational and advancement opportuni- ties, may exist. See http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/163380.aspx. The second research resource was ACRP Web-Only Document 28: Identifying and Evaluating Airport Workforce Requirements. This research effort gathered information to analyze current and future requirements for airport jobs and to identify mission-critical airport occupations; assess the potential of current airport education, training, and resources to address work- force gaps; and project airport workforce capacity needs over the next 5 to 10 years. See http:// www.trb.org/main/blurbs/175503.aspx. The third research resource was ACRP Report 186: Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity published in 2018, which identified and evaluated workforce requirements for airports.

Careers in the Aviation Industry 31 ACRP Research Report 186, which is the final product of a two-phase study, built on that pre- liminary analysis to identify optimal workforce planning and development strategies and best practices designed to help airports prepare their workforces for emerging industry changes. See http://www.trb.org/Aviation1/Blurbs/178144.aspx. The three resources provide helpful insight into the needs associated with aviation careers and the skills necessary to support these jobs. 3.9 Summary Developing a resource offered the opportunity to present available careers in the aviation industry and what many organizations—from the federal level to grass roots groups—are doing to try to alleviate the barriers to becoming an aviation professional. Many groups and orga- nizations have dedicated their knowledge, skills, and abilities to creating aviation programs that reach all ages to encourage the next generation to engage in aviation. Those efforts can be enhanced as organizations learn from others offering aviation-related activities and find ways to stimulate the next generation to become aviation professionals to keep this vital industry well supplied with capable professionals. This chapter has highlighted some of the numerous careers available within the aviation industry. The education requirements and the related training vary from job type to job type. Different positions may require a TSA background check or a security clearance from the U.S. government. As the aviation and aerospace industries continue to expand into new frontiers, the job choices will follow, so indeed the sky is the limit with future possibilities.

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Resources to help promote interest in aviation among younger populations ranging from 10 years old to 25 years old are detailed in TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 202.

The report is designed to help educators and aviation enthusiasts understand the need for encouraging interest in aviation. It offers guidance on developing a program of activities to fit particular needs and provides activities for developing a program that can be scaled and tailored for various age groups and resource availability.

The report is designed to help develop intentional pathways for promoting interest in aviation. These pathways are seen as the process for engaging students at an early age to pursue aviation at some level and then have them, in turn, continue the cycle by promoting aviation to others.

The report addresses the challenges to establishing and maintaining these pathways—such as resource limitations, lack of programming or curriculum, competing interests for kids, and administrative or organizational issues—and identifies opportunities to overcome them.

The report also provides support for developing and executing single events and activities when they are the most practical means for exposing young people to the aviation industry. Finally, the report includes three summary listings of the landing pages. The landing pages are a collection of activities that can engage young people in aviation and be adapted to any particular group or organization. They are sorted by activity type, target age group, and cost per person. A searchable list, by keyword, of these landing pages can be found in the Presorted Tables PDF.

There is also an individual activity landing pages PDF, which is an alphabetical listing of organizations and the types of activities they offer. The PDF User Guide explains how to use and search the PDFs. A microsite with the Presorted Tables PDF, the Individual Activity Landing Pages PDF, and the PDF User Guide may be found at http://www.trb.org/acrp/acrpreport202.aspx.

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