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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Criteria for Selecting the Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Criteria for Selecting the Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Criteria for Selecting the Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Criteria for Selecting the Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Criteria for Selecting the Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Criteria for Selecting the Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Criteria for Selecting the Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25531.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Criteria for Selecting the Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Criteria for Selecting the Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Criteria for Selecting the Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Criteria for Selecting the Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Criteria for Selecting the Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25531.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Criteria for Selecting the Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Criteria for Selecting the Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25531.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

CRITERIA FOR SELECTING THE LEADING HEALTH INDICATORS FOR HEALTHY PEOPLE 2030 Committee on Informing the Selection of Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030 Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice Health and Medicine Division A Consensus Study Report of PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by a contract between the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHSP233201400020B). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25531 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Criteria for Selecting the Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25531. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process, and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

COMMITTEE ON INFORMING THE SELECTION OF LEADING HEALTH INDICATORS FOR HEALTHY PEOPLE 2030 GEORGE J. ISHAM (Chair), Senior Fellow, HealthPartners Institute EBONY BOULWARE, Professor of Medicine; Chief, Division of General Internal Medicine; Vice Dean, Translational Science; Associate Vice Chancellor, Translational Research, Duke University School of Medicine GILBERT GEE, Professor, Department of Community Health Sciences, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles MARTHE R. GOLD, Senior Scholar, The New York Academy of Medicine SHERI JOHNSON, Director, Population Health Institute, Associate Professor, Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Schools of Medicine and Public Health PAULA LANTZ, Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, Professor of Public Policy, Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University of Michigan DARCY PHELAN-EMRICK, Chief Epidemiologist, Baltimore City Health Department; Assistant Scientist, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health JONATHAN S. SKINNER, James O. Freedman Presidential Professor in Economics, Department of Economics, Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College Study Staff ALINA B. BACIU, Study Director CARLA S. ALVARADO, Program Officer ANNA W. MARTIN, Administrative Assistant ROSE MARIE MARTINEZ, Senior Director, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice v PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

REVIEWERS This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: John Auerbach, Trust for America’s Health Ana Diez Roux, Drexel University Cynthia Haq, University of California, Irvine Steven M. Teutsch, Public Health Institute and University of California, Los Angeles José A. Pagan, New York University Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Eric B. Larson, Kaiser Permanente Washington and James S. House, University of Michigan. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. vii PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The committee wishes to thank and acknowledge the many individuals and organizations that contributed to the study process and development of this report. The committee appreciates the opportunity to assist the Department of Health and Human Services by providing advice on a key aspect of its Healthy People 2030 effort. The committee is grateful to experts who informed its deliberations through presentations and discussions that took place at the committee’s public meetings. Four individuals provided background and insights about the Secretary’s Advisory Committee on National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives for 2030 (SAC)—they included Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health Donald Wright, director of the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP) Carter Blakey, and ODPHP staff member Tiffani Kigenyi, SAC co-chairs Dushanka Kleinman and Nico Pronk. Other speakers included Anita Chandra, Tom Eckstein, Marjory Givens, Kristen Lewis, Bobby Milstein, Ali Mokdad, Amy O’Hara, Carley Riley, and Brian Smedley, Soma Stout, Sarah Treuhaft, and Steve Woolf.1 The committee thanks the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine staff who contributed to the production of this report, including study staff Alina Baciu, Carla Alvarado, Anna Martin, and Rose Marie Martinez. The committee’s work received additional support from Andrew Koltun, Georgetown University medical student and population health scholar who completed his summer practicum in the Health and Medicine Division. This project received assistance from Misrak Dabi (Office of Financial Administration); Clyde Behney, Lauren Shern, and Taryn Young (Health and Medicine Division Executive Office); and Health and Medicine Division communications staff, including Jeanay Butler, Sadaf Faraz, and Tina Seliber. Finally, the National Academies staff offers thanks to the executive assistants of committee members who provided scheduling support: Nancy Langer and Harriet Ware. 1 Steven Woolf’s slides were presented by Brian Smedley at the May 28, 2019 meeting. ix PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

CONTENTS ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS SUMMARY S-1 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1 2 PAST SELECTION CRITERIA DESCRIBED FOR THE LEADING HEALTH INDICATORS AND OTHER HIGH-LEVEL INDICATOR SETS 2-1 3 THE HEALTHY PEOPLE 2030 DRAFT OBJECTIVES 3-1 4 CRITERIA FOR HEALTHY PEOPLE 2030 LEADING HEALTH INDICATORS 4-1 5 CONCLUSION 5-1 APPENDIXES A REFERENCES A-1 B MEETING AGENDAS B-1 C COMMITTEE MEMBER BIOSKETCHES C-1 D CRITERIA FOR SELECTING A SET OF LEADING HEALTH INDICATORS D-1 E HEALTHY PEOPLE 2030 FRAMEWORK E-1 xi PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AHR America’s Health Rankings CHR County Health Rankings CIA Central Intelligence Agency FIW Federal Interagency Workgroup HHS Department of Health and Human Services HP Healthy People HP2030/2020/2010 Healthy People 2030/2020/2010 IOM Institute of Medicine LHIs Leading Health Indicators NASEM The National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine NQF National Quality Forum OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OMH HHS Office of Minority Health SAC Secretary’s Advisory Committee on National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives for 2030 USPSTF United States Preventive Services Task Force WHO World Health Organization xiii PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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Every ten years, the Department of Health and Human Service’s Healthy People Initiative develops a new set of science-based, national objectives with the goal of improving the health of all Americans. Defining balanced and comprehensive criteria for healthy people enables the public, programs, and policymakers to gauge our progress and reevaluate efforts towards a healthier society. Criteria for Selecting the Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030 makes recommendations for the development of Leading Health Indicators for the initiative’s Healthy People 2030 framework. The authoring committee’s assessments inform their recommendations for the Healthy People Federal Interagency Workgroup in their endeavor to develop the latest Leading Health Indicators. The finalized Leading Health Indicators will establish the criteria for healthy Americans and help update policies that will guide decision-marking throughout the next decade. This report also reviews and reflects upon current and past Healthy People materials to identify gaps and new objectives.

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