National Academies Press: OpenBook

Criteria for Selecting the Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030 (2019)

Chapter: 4 Criteria for Healthy People 2030 Leading Health Indicators

« Previous: 3 The Healthy People 2030 Draft Objectives
Suggested Citation:"4 Criteria for Healthy People 2030 Leading Health Indicators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Criteria for Selecting the Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25531.
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Page 19
Suggested Citation:"4 Criteria for Healthy People 2030 Leading Health Indicators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Criteria for Selecting the Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25531.
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Page 20
Suggested Citation:"4 Criteria for Healthy People 2030 Leading Health Indicators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Criteria for Selecting the Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25531.
×
Page 21
Suggested Citation:"4 Criteria for Healthy People 2030 Leading Health Indicators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Criteria for Selecting the Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25531.
×
Page 22

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4 Criteria for Healthy People 2030 Leading Health Indicators The Secretary’s Advisory Committee on National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives for 2030 (SAC) has proposed a two-phase process for selecting Leading Health Indicators (LHIs) from the HP2030 objectives (again, the objectives are currently available in draft form, with the final set expected in 2020). In phase 1 of the LHI selection process, All core objectives should be assessed across the following four criteria: 1. Public health burden—relative significance to the health and well-being of the nation; 2. Magnitude of the health disparity and the degree to which health equity would be achieved if the target were met; 3. The degree to which the objective is a sentinel or bellwether; and 4. Actionability of the objective. In phase 2, the following four criteria are applied to the set of potential LHIs emerging from phase 1: 1. “The LHIs represent a balanced portfolio or cohesive set of indicators of health and well-being across the life span. 2. The LHIs are balanced between common, upstream root causes of poor health and well-being and measures of high-priority health states. 3. The LHIs are amenable to policy, environmental, and systems interventions at the local, state, tribal, and national levels 4. The LHIs are understandable and will resonate with diverse stakeholders to drive action” (SAC, 2018a, pp. 3, 4). The committee has reviewed the criteria in the two-phase process for selection of LHIs. The SAC’s description of the phases and criteria, and the rationale for each, are provided in the SAC’s report on the LHIs (see Appendix D). As noted above, the LHIs are defined by the SAC as a “selected set of measures of determinants and sentinel indicators of current and potential changes in population health and well-being,” and “drawn from Healthy People objectives to communicate the highest-priority health issues.” Highest-priority health issues, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine committee adds, would include not only those that characterize the health of the country, but also, the health of communities. The committee agrees with the phase 1 and phase 2 criteria for LHI selection—they cover all essential characteristics of individual LHIs and a well-constructed set of LHIs, and they are also consistent with previously described criteria (e.g., previous reports from the National Academies that addressed the criteria for selecting a small set of indicators). The committee notes that the main goal of phase 1 is to ensure that the LHIs meet certain specific criteria, such as public health burden, that demonstrate their importance to the nation’s health and well-being. 4-1 PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

4-2 LEADING HEALTH INDICATORS The main goal of phase 2 appears to be a diagnostic check on phase 1 to ensure that the selected LHIs comport with the ideas identified in phase 0 (the proposed initial phase). The committee has a few observations to share about the LHI criteria. Regarding the phase 1 criteria, “The magnitude of the health disparity and the degree to which health equity would be achieved if the target were met” seems to be a fairly aspirational criterion, because the data needed for this kind of analysis are often not available. The second criterion in phase 2— balancing upstream root causes with high-priority health states—may need to be applied earlier, perhaps as part of phase 1, given the importance of having a set of LHIs that addresses both upstream root causes and high-priority health states. The third criterion in phase 2, that “LHIs are amenable to policy, environmental, and systems interventions at the local, state, tribal, and national levels” a criterion to be applied to the full complement of LHIs, may need to be revised to replace the and in “local, state, tribal, and national levels” with an or, as it does not seem realistic to expect that each LHI would be amenable to interventions of all types at every level. As noted, the draft core objectives from which LHIs are to be derived are currently characterized by the limitations described above—the collection of draft objectives offers both too much and too little for identifying LHIs that are aligned with the HP2030 framework. It is easy to get lost in the minutiae of myriad objectives, but the HP2030 framework offers a coherent vision and pathway, one that also seems well aligned with the frameworks for national or local indicators showcased at the National Academies committee’s May 28, 2019, information-gathering meeting (NASEM, 2019). The HP2030 framework developed by the SAC appears designed to balance the need for continuity with the past with the need to evolve to meet emerging and future opportunities and challenges. However, given that the LHI selection criteria begin by calling for assessing “all core objectives,” having objectives that are minimally aligned with the HP2030 framework may lead to an inadequate, subjective, and ineffective process of identifying indicators to serve the field in the future. Providing a more well-rounded collection of objectives that show the “big picture” articulated by the framework will be essential to ensuring that meaningful and useful LHIs can be selected. Finding 4: The committee finds that if the existing criteria for LHI selection were applied to the existing Healthy People 2030 draft objectives, the resulting LHI set would not be aligned with the Healthy People 2030 framework—it would not tell a coherent story about the nation’s (or communities’) health, well-being, and the state of health equity. Therefore: Recommendation 1: The committee recommends that the Department of Health and Human Services and the Federal Interagency Workgroup add to the Healthy People 2030 objectives topics or implement a structural reorganization (with additional topics) that will yield more core objectives that reflect the Healthy People 2030 framework and could lead to better Leading Health Indicators. Cross-cutting topics (i.e., topics that refer to or link with multiple health states, life stages, systems, and all dimensions of health) should include health equity; the social, physical, and economic determinants of health; shared responsibility and multiple sectors; and all levels of government. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

CRITERIA FOR HEALTHY PEOPLE 2030 4-3 Inspired by the SAC’s efforts in framing the Healthy People 2030 initiative, the committee also recommends the following: Recommendation 2: The committee recommends a three-phase process should be used for Leading Health Indicator selection from the Healthy People 2030 objectives. A new phase would precede the existing two, and it would apply the Healthy People 2030 framework (especially the vision, mission, foundational principles, and overarching goals) in consideration of additional objectives and in selecting LHIs. The term phases implies a chronological sequence; however, the committee notes that the term filter may more accurately describe the manner in which criteria would likely be applied, and also includes a recognition that some of the criteria from phase 1 and phase 2 may in fact be applied concurrently. The main goal of adding a new phase (or filter) to the LHI selection process, let us call it phase 0, would be to ensure that the major concepts of the HP2030 framework are represented in the LHIs as a collective set. The existing objectives could remain under consideration as LHIs in accordance with the guidance already provided by the SAC in Report 7, but additional selection criteria are needed to determine which objectives can be LHIs. The committee believes that the three-phase process recommended is needed to help “see the forest for the trees” among all the currently proposed objectives/indicators, and to operationalize the vision, mission, foundational principles, and goals of HP2030 in “filtering” the vast range of indicators represented in the collection of HP2030 draft core objectives. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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Every ten years, the Department of Health and Human Service’s Healthy People Initiative develops a new set of science-based, national objectives with the goal of improving the health of all Americans. Defining balanced and comprehensive criteria for healthy people enables the public, programs, and policymakers to gauge our progress and reevaluate efforts towards a healthier society. Criteria for Selecting the Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030 makes recommendations for the development of Leading Health Indicators for the initiative’s Healthy People 2030 framework. The authoring committee’s assessments inform their recommendations for the Healthy People Federal Interagency Workgroup in their endeavor to develop the latest Leading Health Indicators. The finalized Leading Health Indicators will establish the criteria for healthy Americans and help update policies that will guide decision-marking throughout the next decade. This report also reviews and reflects upon current and past Healthy People materials to identify gaps and new objectives.

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