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Page 57
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Design Guidelines for Horizontal Sightline Offsets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25537.
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Page 57
Page 58
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Design Guidelines for Horizontal Sightline Offsets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25537.
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Page 58

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

57 American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO), A Policy on Sight Distance for Highways, Washington, DC, 1940. American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO), A Policy on Geometric Design of Rural Highways, Washington, DC, 1954. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, Washington, DC, 2001. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), Highway Safety Manual, Washington, DC, 2010. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, Washington, DC, 2011. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), Highway Safety Manual, 2014 Supplement, Washington, DC, 2014. Cirillo J. A., S. K. Dietz, and R. L. Beatty. Analysis and Modeling of Relationships Between Accidents and the Geometric and Traffic Characteristics of the Interstate System. Bureau of Public Roads, 1969. Easa, S. M. Lateral Clearance to Vision Obstacles on Horizontal Curves. Transportation Research Record, No. 1303, 1991, pp. 22–32. Easa, S. M. Lateral Clearance Needs On Compound Horizontal Curves. Journal of Transportation Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 119, No. 1, 1993. Fambro, D. B., K. Fitzpatrick, and R. J. Koppa. NCHRP Report 44: Determination of Stopping Sight Distances. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1997. Federal Highway Administration. Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, Washington, DC, 2009. Foody, T. J. and M. D. Long. The Identification of Relationships Between Safety and Roadway Obstructions, Ohio Department of Transportation, 1974. Glennon, J. C. Effect of Sight Distance on Highway Safety. TRB State-of-the-Art Report No. 6, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 1987. Gupta, R. C. and R. Jain. Effect of Certain Geometric Design Characteristics of Highways on Accident Rates for Two-Lane Roads in Connecticut. Civil Engineering Department, School of Engineering, University of Connecticut, 1973. Harwood, D. W., J. M. Hutton, C. Fees, K. M. Bauer, A. Glen, and H. Ouren. NCHRP Report 783: Evaluation of the 13 Controlling Criteria for Geometric Design. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC, 2014. Hills, B. L. Hillcrests: Problems of Vertical Line of Sight and Visibility. Proceedings, Geometric and Design Standards. Paris: OECD, 1977. Himes, S., K. A. Eccles, K. Peach, C. M. Monsere, and T. Gates. “Estimating the Safety Effects of Intersection Sight Distance at Unsignalized Intersections,” presented at the 95th annual meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 2016. Jia, A., B. Williams, and N. Rouphail. Identification and Calibration of Site-Specific Stochastic Freeway Break- down and Queue Discharge. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2188, 2010. Johansson, G. and K. Rumar. Driver’s Brake Reaction Times. Human Factors, 13 (1), Human Factors Society, Santa Monica, CA. 1971. Liu, C. and Z. Wang, Determination of Sight Distance on a Combined Crest and Circular Curve in a Three Dimensional Space. International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2012. Liu, C. Exact Sight Distance Determination on Compound Vertical and Horizontal Curves in the Presence of Road Barriers. International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2013. References

58 Design Guidelines for Horizontal Sightline Offsets Mauga, T. Horizontal Clearance Offsets to Objects Higher Than Sight Lines. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2436, 2014. Mauga, T. New Spiral Curves for Appropriate Transition of Minimum Roadside Clearance on Simple Curves. Journal of Transportation Technologies, No. 5, 2015a. Mauga, T. “Horizontal Clearance Offsets to Objects on Insides of Reverse Curves,” presented at the 94th annual meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 2015b. Olson, P. L., D. E. Cleveland, P. S. Fancher, L. P. Kostyniuk, and L. W. Scheider. NCHRP Report 270: Parameters Affecting Stopping Sight Distance. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1984. Potts, I. B., D. W. Harwood, D. J. Cook, J. M. Hutton, E. T. Donnell, M. T. Pietrucha, J. S. Wood, and L. Li. Horizontal Sightline Offset Design Criteria, Exceptions, and Mitigation Strategies, final report of NCHRP Project 15–59, MRIGlobal, 2018. Raymond, W. L. Offsets to Sight Obstructions Near the Ends of Horizontal Curves. ASCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 42, 1972. Raff, M. S. Interstate Highway Accident Study. Highway Research Board Bulletin 74, Washington, DC, 1953. Schoppert, D. W. Predicting Traffic Accidents from Roadway Elements of Rural Two-Lane Highways with Gravel Shoulders. Highway Research Board Bulletin 158, Washington, DC, 1957. Sparks, J. W. The Influence of Highway Characteristics on Accident Rates. Public Works, Vol. 120, 1968. Stein, W. J., and T. R. Neuman. Mitigation Strategies for Design Exceptions. Report No. FHWA-SA-07-011, Federal Highway Administration Office of Safety, Washington, DC, 2007. Waissi, G. R. and D. E. Cleveland. Sight Distance Relationships Involving Horizontal Curves. Transportation Research Record, No. 1122, Washington, DC, 1987.

Next: Appendix A - Computation of HSOs »
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The distance between the driver’s line of sight along the roadway ahead on a horizontal curve and a sight obstruction on the inside of the curve is known as the horizontal sightline offset (HSO). Highway agencies can use NCHRP Research Report 910: Design Guidelines for Horizontal Sightline Offsets as guidance to address the types of sight distance restrictions that are most likely to be encountered on specific roadway types.

The relationship between stopping sight distance (SSD) and the frequency and severity of crashes has been difficult to quantify because the role of SSD in reducing crashes is highly situational. The design criteria for the horizontal component of SSD in what is known as AASHTO's Green Book are based on the maximum sightline offset that may be needed at any point along a curve with a given radius, which doesn't cover all possible situations.

Designers compensate for the limitations on driver sight distance in various ways, including: accepting shorter sightlines, lowering design speed, increasing shoulder width, or providing additional signage. There are advantages and disadvantages to the trade-offs; as a result, many highway agencies have used the design exception process to address the trade-offs for sight distance in such situations.

This project conducted research to evaluate these situations and determine what criteria or mitigation will provide acceptable solutions when impaired horizontal sightline offsets are encountered. The project includes a tool (an Excel spreadsheet) that may be used to calculate sight distance.

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