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B Disclosure of Conflict(s) of Interest The conflict-of-interest policy of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (www.nationalacademies.org/coi) prohibits the appointment of an individual to a committee like the one that authored this Consensus Study Report if the individual has a conflict of interest that is relevant to the task to be performed. An exception to this prohibition is permitted only if the National Academies determine that the conflict is unavoidable and the conflict is promptly and publicly disclosed. When the committee that authored this report was established a determination of whether there was a conflict of interest was made for each committee member given the individualâs circumstances and the task being undertaken by the committee. A determination that an individual has a conflict of interest is not an assessment of that individualâs actual behavior or character or ability to act objectively despite the conflicting interest. Mr. Gary Rogers was determined to have a conflict of interest because the firm of which he was CEO, FEV, has consulting relationships with makers of medium- and heavy-duty truck engines. Beginning in 2013, Mr. Rogers became Vice President of Roush, which provides engineering services to manufacturers of medium- and heavy-duty engines, electric powertrains, and medium- and heavy- duty commercial vehicles. Mr. Dan Hancock was determined to have a conflict of interest because he owns stock in General Motors Corporation, which makes pickup trucks and medium-duty truck engines. Beginning in 2017, Mr. Hancock was elected to the board of Westport Fuel Systems, which develops and supplies components and systems for natural gas fueling of light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles. Ms. Christine Vujovich was determined to have a conflict of interest because she owns stock in Cummins Inc., a maker of medium- and heavy-duty truck engines. The National Academies determined that the experience and expertise of the above individuals was needed for the committee to accomplish the task for which it was established. The National Academies could not find other available individuals with the equivalent experience and expertise who did not have a conflict of interest. Therefore, the National Academies concluded that the above conflicts were unavoidable and publicly disclosed them through the National Academies Projects & Activities Repository (NAPAR) (http://webapp.nationalacademies.org/napar/). Prepublication Copy â Subject to Further Editorial Correction B-1