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G Acronyms and Abbreviations 21CTP 21st Century Truck Partnership A Ampere AAR Association of American Railroads ABI Allied Business Intelligence Research ABS anti-lock braking system AC alternating current ACC American Control Conference ACEA European Automobile Manufacturers Association ACEC American Council of Engineering Companies ACEEE American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy ACT Americaâs Commercial Transportation Research Company AEO Annual Energy Outlook AFDC Alternative Fuels Data Center Ah amp-hours ANL Argonne National Laboratory APU auxiliary power unit ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency ASIWPCA Association of State and Interstate Water Pollution Control Administrators ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineering AT automatic transmission ATA American Trucking Associations ATI automatic tire inflation ATIS automatic tire inflation systems ATRI American Transportation Research Institute BAU business-as-usual BEV battery electric vehicle BJCTA Birmingham-Jefferson County Transit Authority BMP Best Management Plan BSG belt-starter-generator BTE brake thermal efficiency BTL biomass-to-liquid CAA Clean Air Act CACC cooperative adaptive cruise control CAD computer-aided design CAFE corporate average fuel economy CalHEAT California Hybrid, Efficient and Advanced Truck Research Center CARB California Air Resources Board CCA cold cranking amperage CCTV closed-circuit television CdA aerodynamic drag coefficient C dwa wind-averaged drag coefficient CFD computational fluid dynamics CGVW combined gross vehicle weight CH 4 Methane CHP combined heat and power Prepublication Copy â Subject to Further Editorial Correction G-1
CI compression-ignition CILCC combined international local and commuter cycle C-ITS cooperative intelligent transportation systems CLEERS crosscut lean exhaust emissions reduction simulations CMU Carnegie Mellon University CN cetane number CNG compressed natural gas CO carbon monoxide CO 2 carbon dioxide COFC container on flat car CRC Coordinating Research Council C rr rolling resistance coefficient CVT continuously variable transmission CWA Clean Water Act DBE double carbon bond equivalent DC direct current DDFS direct dual-fuel stratification DDPP Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project DEF diesel exhaust fuel DICE Dynamic Integrated Climate-Economy Model DME dimethyl ether DOC diesel oxidation catalyst DOE Department of Energy DOT Department of Transportation DPF diesel particulate filter EAA European Aluminum Association EC European Commission EDF Environmental Defense Fund EDI Efficient Powertrains, Inc. EDT electric drive technology EERE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EESTT Electrochemical Energy Storage Technical Team EGR exhaust-gas recirculation EIA Energy Information Administration EISA Energy Independence and Security Act EMG electric motor/generator EPA Environmental Protection Agency EPCA Energy Policy and Conservation Act EPS electronic power steering ET Economic Times Auto eTRU electronic trailer refrigeration unit EU European Union FACE Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines FAME fatty acid methyl esters FC fuel consumption FCEV fuel cell electric vehicle FCV fuel cell vehicle FE fuel efficiency FHEV full hybrid electric vehicle Prepublication Copy â Subject to Further Editorial Correction G-2
FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMEP friction mean effective pressure FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FT Fischer-Tropsch fuel FTA Federal Transit Administration FTP Federal Test Procedure FUDS Federal Urban Driving Schedule FY fiscal year GAO Government Accountability Office GCM Global Climate Model GCVW gross combination vehicle weight GCVWR gross combination vehicle weight rating GDCI gasoline direct-injection compression ignition GDI gasoline direct fuel injection GDP gross domestic product GEM Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model GHG greenhouse gas GPS Global Positioning Systems GTL gas-to-liquid GVW gross vehicle weight GVWR gross vehicle weight rating GWP global warming potential H2O Water HC Hydrocarbon HCCI homogenous charge compression ignition HDRD hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel HEV hybrid-electric vehicle HHD heavy heavy duty HHV hydraulic hybrid powertrain vehicle HP Horsepower HPDI high-pressure direct injection HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning IAA Internationale Atomobil-Ausstellung IAM Integrated Assessment Model IC indirect cost ICCT International Council on Clean Transportation ICE internal combustion engine ICM indirect cost multiplier IEA International Energy Agency IMA integrated motor assist i-MMD intelligent multi-mode drive IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ISG integrated starter/generator ISO International Organization for Standardization ITS intelligent transportation system IWG Interagency Working Group kg Kilogram kg/t kilograms per ton kW Kilowatts Prepublication Copy â Subject to Further Editorial Correction G-3
kWh kilowatt-hour L Liter LCA life-cycle assessment LCD liquid-crystal display LCFS low-carbon fuel standard LCO lithium cobalt oxide LCV longer combination vehicles LDV light-duty vehicle LFP lithium iron phosphate LHD light heavy duty Li-Ion lithium-ion LiNiMnCoO 2 lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt-oxide LMO lithium manganese oxide LNG liquefied natural gas LRR low rolling resistance LSFC load-specific fuel consumption LTC low-temperature control LTO lithium titanate oxide m2 meters squared m2/g meters squared per gram mAh/g charge per gram MBRC miles between road calls MECA Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association MH mild hybrid MHD medium heavy duty MHDV medium- and heavy-duty vehicle mi Miles MJ Megajoule MMTCO 2 e metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent mpg miles per gallon MPGe miles per gasoline gallon equivalent mph miles per hour MRD multi-ring domed MTBE methyl tertiary-butyl ether MY model year NACFE North American Council for Freight Efficiency NAE National Academy of Engineering NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement NAMII National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute NAS National Academy of Sciences NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASEM National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine NCA nickel-cobalt-aluminum-oxide NCM nickel-cobalt-manganese NEMS National Energy Modeling System NESCCAF Northeast States Center for a Clean Air Future NG natural gas NGV natural gas vehicle NGWBS next-generation wide-based single Prepublication Copy â Subject to Further Editorial Correction G-4
NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Ni-Cd nickel-cadmium NiMH nickel-metal hydride Nm Newton-meter NNI National Nanotechnology Initiative NNMI National Network for Manufacturing Innovation NO nitric oxide NO 2 nitrogen dioxide NO x nitrous oxides NPC National Petroleum Council NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking NRC National Research Council NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory NSC NO x storage catalyst NSTC National Science and Technology Council NTEA Association for the Work Truck Industry OBD on-board diagnostics OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OEM original equipment manufacturer OPEC Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries ORC organic Rankine cycle ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory OTAQ Office of Transportation and Air Quality P Power PBS performance based standard PCCI premixed charge compression-ignition PEM polymer exchange membrane P eng engine power demand PFI port fuel injection PGM platinum group metal PHEV plug-in hybrid electric vehicle PM particulate matter PM 2.5 fine particulate matter PMI particulate matter index PPC partially premixed combustion PS power split PSI Power Solutions International psi pounds per square inch PTO power-take-off R&D research and development RCCI reactivity controlled compression ignition RFA Renewable Fuels Association RFS Renewable Fuel Standard RFS2 Renewable Fuel Standard Program (2) RGGI Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative RIA Regulatory Impact Analysis RIN Renewable Identification Number RMA Rubber Manufacturers Association ROI return-on-investment Prepublication Copy â Subject to Further Editorial Correction G-5
RON research octane number RPE retail price equivalent RPM revolutions per minute RSU road-side unit RSW resistance spot welding SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SCAQMD South Coast Air Quality Management District SCC social cost of carbon SCR selective catalytic reduction SEI solid electrolyte interphase SES Stored Energy Solutions SET supplemental emissions test SI spark-ignition SLM selective laser melting SOC state of charge SOT statement of task SO x sulfur oxides SS stop-start ST SuperTruck STAA Surface Transportation Assistance Act SW SmartWay SwRI Southwest Research Institute TAR Technical Assessment Report TARDEC Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center TMC Technology and Maintenance Council TOFC trailer of flat car TP tractive power TPMS tire pressure monitoring system TPS tire pressure system TtW tank to wheel TWC three-way catalyst UPS United Parcel Service of America USABC United States Automotive Battery Consortium USDA United States Department of Agriculture U.S. DRIVE United States Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle Efficiency and Energy Sustainability UTQG Uniform Tire Quality Grading V Volt V2P vehicle-to-pedestrian V2V vehicle-to-vehicle VANET Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network VIUS Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey VMT vehicle miles traveled VOC volatile organic compound VPD vehicle power demand VVA variable valve actuation VVT variable valve timing W/kg watts per kilogram WBST wide-base single tire Prepublication Copy â Subject to Further Editorial Correction G-6
WGB wide band gap Wh/kg watt-hours per kilogram Wh/l watt-hours per liter WHR waste-heat recovery WI Wobbe Index WQA Water Quality Act WTT well-to-tank WTW well-to-wheels WVU West Virginia University Prepublication Copy â Subject to Further Editorial Correction G-7