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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25546.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25546.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25546.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25546.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25546.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25546.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25546.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25546.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25546.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25546.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25546.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25546.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25546.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25546.
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Prepublication Copy Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth Committee on Summertime Experiences and Child and Adolescent Education, Health, and Safety Martín-José Sepúlveda and Rebekah Hutton, Editors Board on Children, Youth, and Families Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education A Consensus Study Report of PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by a contract awarded to the National Academy of Sciences and funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (1003812) and the Wallace Foundation (10003942). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25546 Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25546. PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

COMMITTEE ON SUMMERTIME EXPERIENCES AND CHILD AND ADOLESCENT EDUCATION, HEALTH, AND SAFETY MARTÍN-JOSÉ SEPÚLVEDA, Research Division, IBM Corporation (retired) KARL ALEXANDER, Thurgood Marshall Alliance NISHA BOTCHWEY, Georgia Institute of Technology NANCY L. DEUTSCH, University of Virginia JOSHUA DOHAN, Youth Advocacy Division, State of Massachusetts BARRY A. GARST, Clemson University SANDRA HASSINK, American Academy of Pediatrics Institute for Healthy Childhood Weight PAMELA HYMEL, Walt Disney Parks and Resorts JENNIFER MCCOMBS, RAND Corporation BARBARA MEDINA, Center for Urban Education, University of Northern Colorado DEBORAH MORONEY, American Institutes for Research CHRIS SMITH, Boston After School & Beyond RACHEL THORNTON, Johns Hopkins University Study Staff REBEKAH HUTTON, Study Director PRIYANKA NALAMADA, Associate Program Officer STACEY SMIT, Senior Program Assistant LORENA GARCIA, Archer Fellow (May 2018 – August 2018) CYPRESS LYNX, Intern (August 2018 – April 2019) PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS v

BOARD ON CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND FAMILIES ANGELA DIAZ, (Chair), Departments of Pediatrics and Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai HAROLYN BELCHER, Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine W. THOMAS BOYCE, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco DAVID V. B. BRITT, Sesame Workshop (Retired) RICHARD F. CATALANO, University of Washington School of Social Work DIMITRI CHRISTAKIS, Seattle Children’s Research Institute, University of Washington JEFFREY W. HUTCHINSON, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences JACQUELINE JONES, Foundation for Child Development JAMES M. PERRIN, Harvard Medical School and Mass General Hospital for Children NISHA SACHDEV, Bainum Family Foundation DONALD SCHWARZ, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation MARTÍN-JOSÉ SEPÚLVEDA, Research Division, IBM Corporation (retired) MARTIN H. TEICHER, Harvard Medical School and McLean Hospital JONATHAN TODRES, Georgia State University College of Law NATACHA BLAIN, Director PAMELLA ATAYI, Program Coordinator PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS vi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report would not have been possible without the contributions of many people. Special thanks go to the members of the committee who dedicated extensive time, expertise, and energy to the drafting of the report. The committee also thanks the members of the National Academies staff: Rebekah Hutton and Priyanka Nalamada for their significant contributions to the report, Stacey Smit for providing key administrative and logistical support, which ensured that committee meetings ran smoothly, and Cypress Lynx and Lorena Garcia for providing valuable research support to the committee. The committee is also grateful to Anthony Bryant, Faye Hillman, and Lisa Alston for their administrative and financial assistance. From the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Office of Reports and Communication, Kirsten Sampson Snyder, Viola Horek, Patricia L. Morison, Douglas Sprunger, and Yvonne Wise guided the report through the review and production process and assisted with its communication and dissemination. The committee also thanks the National Academies Press staff for their assistance with the production of the final report; Daniel Bearss and Rebecca Morgan in the National Academies research library for their assistance with fact checking and literature searches; Genie Grohman for her editing of early drafts of the report; and the report’s copyeditor, Marc DeFrancis, for his expert editing. Finally, throughout the project, Natacha Blain, director of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families, along with Mary Ellen O’Connell and Monica Feit, provided helpful oversight. Many individuals volunteered significant time and effort to address and educate the committee during our public information session. Their perspectives and personal experiences were essential to the committee’s work. We thank: Steve Baskin, Camp Champions; Kim Fortunato, Campbell Soup Foundation; Maeghan Gilmore, National Association of Counties; Nathalie Hawkins, Walt Disney Parks and Resorts; Woodie Hughes, Jr., Fort Valley State University; Jocelyn Richgels, Rural Policy Research Institute; Juli Shaw, Walt Disney Parks and Resorts; and Lauren Tingey, Johns Hopkins Center for American Indian Health. The committee also appreciates the contributions of Vidhya Ananthakrishnan, Columbia University; Amanda Geller, New York University; Nikki Jones, University of California, Berkeley; Theresa Melton, University of Virginia; Scott Pulizzi, American Institutes for Research; and Jocelyn Widmer, Texas A&M, for their valuable commissioned papers, which informed our report. This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Tina L. Cheng, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; Andrew J. Cherlin, Department of Sociology, Johns Hopkins University; Jacqueline Jones, President/CEO, Foundation for Child Development, New York, NY; Ruth Perou, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; James F. Sallis, Family Medicine and Public Health (emeritus), University of California, San Diego; Jim Sibthorp, Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism, University of Utah; Melissa Threadgill, Juvenile Justice PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS vii

Initiatives, Massachusetts Office of the Child Advocate; Paul Von Hippel, Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, University of Texas, Austin. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report, nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by David V. Britt, President and CEO, Sesame Workshop (retired) and Catherine E. Woteki, Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. Martín-José Sepúlveda, Chair PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS viii

Contents PREFACE P-14 PROLOGUE SUMMARY ES-9 Study Charge Recommendations 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1 An Updated View of Summertime The Study Charge and the Committee’s Approach Report Organization References 2 SUMMERTIME EXPERIENCES 2-1 Structured Versus Unstructured Summertime Experiences Common Summertime Experiences of Children and Youth Summertime Experiences Provided by Key Agents Conclusions References 3 THE EFFECTS OF SUMMERTIME EXPERIENCE ON CHILDREN’S DEVELOPMENT 3-1 Developmental Needs of Children and Youth Developmental Stages of School-Age Children and Youth How Does Summer Affect Developmental Trajectories? Conclusions References 4 HOW DO SUMMER PROGRAMS INFLUENCE OUTCOMES FOR CHILDREN AND YOUTH? 4-1 Classification of Program Effectiveness Evidence Evidence for the Effectiveness of Summer Programs Research-Based Best Practices International Evidence Conclusions References 5 THE EFFECTS OF CHILDREN’S CIRCUMSTANCES ON SUMMERTIME EXPERIENCES 5-1 Where Children and Families Live PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS ix

How Do Community and Family Contexts Affect the Summertime Experiences of Children and Youth? Summary Conclusions References 6 FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR POLICY, PRACTICE, AND RESEARCH 6-1 Overall Conclusions for Policy, Practice, and Research Recommendations References EPILOGUE APPENDIXES A. TERMINOLOGY B. CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICAN CAMP ASSOCIATION ACCREDITED DAY AND OVERNIGHT CAMPS IN 2016 C. AGENDA FOR PUBLIC INFORMATION GATHERING SESSION D. AUTHORS OF MEMOS SUBMITTED TO THE COMMITTEE E. BIOSKETCHES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS AND PROJECT STAFF PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS x

BOXES, FIGURES, AND TABLES BOXES 1-1 Statement of Task 2-1 Key Findings 2-2 Youth Programs and Services Provided by Specialty Camps 2-3 One Summer Chicago Initiative 2-4 Leveraging Culture, Community, and Family to Promote Positive Outcomes for Youth in Treatment and Detention in Alaska 2-5 Examples of STEM-Centered Summertime Experiences from the Private Sector 2-6 The Story of a Citywide Intermediary 2-7 National Intermediaries and Intermediary Coalitions 3-1 Key Findings 3-2 Features of Positive Developmental Settings 3-3 Food Insecurity in the Summer 4-1 Key Findings from the Program Effectiveness Literature 4-2 International Lessons for Summer Programming in the United States 5-1 Key Findings 5-2 The Child Opportunity Index 5-3 Children and Youth Involved with the Juvenile Justice or Child Welfare Systems 5-4 Children and Youth Who Are Gender Non-Conforming and Children and Youth Who Are LGBTQ 5-5 Rural Settings and Summertime 5-6 Children and Youth Who Are American Indian or Alaskan Native FIGURES 1-1 A systems view of summertime. A system that promotes healthy development for children and adolescents during the summer months requires coordination and collaboration between numerous sectors and agents that adequately meet the needs of communities in order to achieve positive outcomes. 2-1 Percent distribution of summer camp providers, by agent 2-2 Percent distribution of children served by day camps (left) and overnight camps (right) by economic level 2-3 Out of school time program offerings sponsored by parks and recreation (P&R) departments (percentage of departments sponsoring) 2-4 Age distribution of P&R out-of-school-time program participants 2-5 Race/ethnicity distribution of P&R out-of-school time program participants 3-1 Maslow’s (1943) Hierarchy of Needs 5-1 Percent change in population, by age group and county type, since 2000 5-2 Child poverty rates are persistently highest in rural counties and in the South 5-3 Children living in areas of concentrated poverty, by race and ethnicity, in the United States, 2013–2017 PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS xi

TABLES 2-1 Common Types of Summertime Experiences Reported for Children Ages 5 to 6 2-2 Data on Summertime Programming from the Afterschool Alliance’s 2014 America After 3pm report by community type 4-1 Safety: Research Evidence for Summer Program Effectiveness 4-2 Physical and Mental Health: Evidence for Summer Program Effectiveness 4-3 Social and Emotional Development: Evidence for Summer Program Effectiveness 4-4 Academic Learning: Evidence for Program Effectiveness 5-1 Population (in Millions) Living in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Communities and Changes in Community Sizes, 2000 to 2012–2016 PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS xii

Preface For children and youth in grades K–12 in the United States, “summertime” is the period between successive academic calendar years that typically occupies the majority of the months of June through August. It is an important time period for all community members, since the summertime experiences of children (grades K–5) and youth or adolescents (grades 5–12) have both direct and indirect effects on others in their roles as parents, siblings, caretakers, providers of goods and services, or community residents. This yearly interval presents opportunities and challenges for children and youth as well as for the agents (e.g. parents, teachers, summer counselors and program directors, police) and sectors (e.g. government, commercial, nonprofit) that design, develop, deliver, or fund components of summertime experiences. Environments, exposures, activities, and interactions during summertime can promote positive cognitive, social, emotional, and skills development, as well as promoting safety and physical and mental health, for children and youth. However, summertime experiences are not evenly and equitably distributed, and many children and youth lack access to quality experiences due to the challenges of availability, accessibility, and affordability. The most vulnerable children—those in households or neighborhoods at a lower socioeconomic level, from ethnic, racial, or immigrant minorities, with special needs or disabilities, from rural neighborhoods, who are LGBTQ+, or who are affected by the juvenile or adult criminal justice or child welfare systems—face the greatest challenges in accessing quality summertime experiences. Meeting the needs of children and youth through summertime experiences that promote positive outcomes in education, health, safety, and well-being requires an understanding of how summertime affects these outcomes and of the types, quality, and distribution of as well as participation in summertime activities at the national, regional, and local levels. Identifying, collecting, and assessing the existing data, and using those data as a lens to describe the current state of and opportunities for improvement in summertime activities, formed the basis of this committee’s work. These aims were applied to four areas of well-being: (i) academic learning; (ii) social and emotional development; (iii) physical and mental health and behaviors; and (iv) safety, risk-taking, and anti- and pro-social behavior. The central aim of this report is to provide a path forward that is actionable for policy makers, funders, sectors, and agents involved in the environments and experiences of children and youth in summertime to improve the quality, effectiveness, and equity of their efforts. As parents, family members, policy makers, funders, and service providers, our communities benefit from improved developmental, safety, and health experiences for our K–12 children and youth during the summer months. We begin our report with a Prologue vignette. It is intended to place our call for action and investments for greater equity in positive summertime experiences for children and youth into the broader context of the distinct cultures, histories, and assets they possess as members of families and communities. Interventions that may result from our recommendations should leverage these capacities in their design and implementation. Martín-José Sepúlveda, Chair Committee on Summertime Experiences and Child and Adolescent Education, Health, and Safety PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS 13

Prologue As we deliberate about those experiences that support children, I think of the summers I hoed sugar beets with my family on our farm. How my mother would stretch across her three rows to hoe on mine and catch my 6-year-old-self up. Some would say that my summer experiences were deficits. There were no youth activities or summer school. I learned to dog-paddle in the canals and irrigation ditches surrounding our farm. I learned to drive in the beet truck, from one end of the field to another. We often speak in deficits, of childhood traumas or opportunities unavailable to children. I am the evidence that my parents, my heritage, and my rural country schooling were assets. -Barbara Medina, Committee Member PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS 14

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For children and youth, summertime presents a unique break from the traditional structure, resources, and support systems that exist during the school year. For some students, this time involves opportunities to engage in fun and enriching activities and programs, while others face additional challenges as they lose a variety of supports, including healthy meals, medical care, supervision, and structured programs that enhance development. Children that are limited by their social, economic, or physical environments during the summer months are at higher risk for worse academic, health, social and emotional, and safety outcomes. In contrast, structured summertime activities and programs support basic developmental needs and positive outcomes for children and youth who can access and afford these programs. These discrepancies in summertime experiences exacerbate pre-existing academic inequities. While further research is needed regarding the impact of summertime on developmental domains outside of the academic setting, extensive literature exists regarding the impact of summertime on academic development trajectories. However, this knowledge is not sufficiently applied to policy and practice, and it is important to address these inequalities.

Shaping Summertime Experiences examines the impact of summertime experiences on the developmental trajectories of school-age children and youth across four areas of well-being, including academic learning, social and emotional development, physical and mental health, and health-promoting and safety behaviors. It also reviews the state of science and available literature regarding the impact of summertime experiences. In addition, this report provides recommendations to improve the experiences of children over the summertime regarding planning, access and equity, and opportunities for further research and data collection.

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