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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Increasing Student Success in Developmental Mathematics: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25547.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Increasing Student Success in Developmental Mathematics: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25547.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Increasing Student Success in Developmental Mathematics: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25547.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Increasing Student Success in Developmental Mathematics: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25547.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Increasing Student Success in Developmental Mathematics: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25547.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Increasing Student Success in Developmental Mathematics: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25547.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Increasing Student Success in Developmental Mathematics: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25547.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Increasing Student Success in Developmental Mathematics: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25547.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Increasing Student Success in Developmental Mathematics: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25547.
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PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS Increasing Student Success in Developmental Mathematics PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP Linda Casola and Tiffany E. Taylor, Rapporteurs Board on Science Education Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Board on Mathematical Sciences and Analytics Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences ADVANCE COPY NOT FOR PUBLIC RELEASE BEFORE Friday, September 6, 2019 9:00 a.m. EDT

PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS     THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by Contract No.10004010 between the National Academy of Sciences and Ascendium Education Group.  Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25547 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Increasing Student Success in Developmental Mathematics: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25547 

PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR THE WORKSHOP ON INCREASING STUDENT SUCCESS IN DEVELOPMENTAL MATHEMATICS HOWARD GOBSTEIN (Chair), Association of Public & Land-grant Universities SUSAN BICKERSTAFF, Community College Research Center, Columbia University LINDA BRADDY, Tarrant County College TRISTAN DENLEY, University System of Georgia JAMES DORSEY, College Success Foundation TATIANA MELGUIZO, University of Southern California VILMA MESA, University of Michigan JULIE PHELPS, Valencia College, East Campus PHILIP URI TREISMAN, Charles A. Dana Center, The University of Texas at Austin TIFFANY E. TAYLOR, Study Director KERRY BRENNER, Senior Program Officer HEIDI SCHWEINGRUBER, Director, Board on Science Education MICHELLE SCHWALBE, Director, Board on Mathematical Sciences and Analytics JESSICA COVINGTON, Senior Program Assistant v

PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS BOARD ON SCIENCE EDUCATION ADAM GAMORAN (Chair), William T. Grant Foundation, New York MEGAN BANG, School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University VICKI L. CHANDLER, Minerva Schools at Keck Graduate Institute SUNITA V. COOKE, MiraCosta College, Oceanside, CA RUSH D. HOLT, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC MATTHEW KREHBIEL, Achieve, Inc. CATHRYN (CATHY) MANDUCA, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College JOHN MATHER, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center TONYA M. MATTHEWS, Wayne State University WILLIAM PENUEL, School of Education, University of Colorado Boulder STEPHEN L. PRUITT, Southern Regional Education Board K. RENAE PULLEN, Caddo Parish Schools, Shreveport, LA K. ANN RENNINGER, Department of Educational Studies, Swarthmore College MARSHALL “MIKE” SMITH, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching MARCY H. TOWNS, Department of Chemistry, Purdue University HEIDI SCHWEINGRUBER, Director vi

PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS BOARD ON MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES AND ANALYTICS STEPHEN M. ROBINSON (Chair), University of Wisconsin–Madison JOHN R. BIRGE, University of Chicago W. PETER CHERRY, Independent Consultant DAVID S.C. CHU, Institute for Defense Analyses RONALD R. COIFMAN, Yale University JAMES (JIM) CURRY, University of Colorado Boulder MARK L. GREEN, University of California, Los Angeles SHAWNDRA HILL, Microsoft Research LYDIA KAVRAKI, Rice University TAMARA KOLDA, Sandia National Laboratories JOSEPH A. LANGSAM, University of Maryland, College Park DAVID MAIER, Portland State University LOIS CURFMAN MCINNES, Argonne National Laboratory JILL PIPHER, Brown University ELIZABETH A. THOMPSON, University of Washington CLAIRE TOMLIN, University of California, Berkeley LANCE WALLER, Emory University KAREN E. WILLCOX, The University of Texas at Austin DAVID YAO, Columbia University MICHELLE SCHWALBE, Director vii

PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this workshop proceedings: Helen E. Burn, Department of Mathematics and Curriculum Research Group, Highline College; Ted Coe, Mathematics, Achieve, Inc.; Tristan Denley, Academic Affairs, University System of Georgia; and Thai-Huy Nguyen, College of Education, Seattle University. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by George R. Boggs, Superintendent/President Emeritus, Palomar College. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies. viii

PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 THE CURRENT LANDSCAPE OF DEVELOPMENTAL MATHEMATICS EDUCATION 7 3 DEVELOPMENTAL MATHEMATICS STUDENTS AND THEIR EXPERIENCES 19 4 PROMISING APPROACHES FOR TRANSFORMING DEVELOPMENTAL MATHEMATICS EDUCATION 35 5 BUILDING CAPACITY TO MEET THE NEEDS OF STUDENTS 47 6 VISION FOR THE FUTURE AND NEXT STEPS 53 7 REFERENCES 58 APPENDIXES A Workshop Agenda 60 B Biographical Sketches of Workshop Planning Committee Members and Presenters 64 C Workshop Participants 71 ix

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The Board on Science Education and the Board on Mathematical Sciences and Analytics of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened the Workshop on Increasing Student Success in Developmental Mathematics on March 18-19, 2019. The Workshop explored how to best support all students in postsecondary mathematics, with particular attention to students who are unsuccessful in developmental mathematics and with an eye toward issues of access to promising reforms and equitable learning environments.

The two-day workshop was designed to bring together a variety of stakeholders, including experts who have developed and/or implemented new initiatives to improve the mathematics education experience for students. The overarching goal of the workshop was to take stock of the mathematics education community's progress in this domain. Participants examined the data on students who are well-served by new reform structures in developmental mathematics and discussed various cohorts of students who are not currently well served - those who even with access to reforms do not succeed and those who do not have access to a reform due to differential access constraints. Throughout the workshop, participants also explored promising approaches to bolstering student outcomes in mathematics, focusing especially on research and data that demonstrate the success of these approaches; deliberated and discussed barriers and opportunities for effectively serving all students; and outlined some key directions of inquiry intended to address the prevailing research and data needs in the field. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussion of the workshop.

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