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Suggested Citation:"7.0 Tabulation of All Available Emissions Data." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. ACRP Web-Only Document 41: Alternative Jet Fuels Emissions: Quantification Methods Creation and Validation Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25548.
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Suggested Citation:"7.0 Tabulation of All Available Emissions Data." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. ACRP Web-Only Document 41: Alternative Jet Fuels Emissions: Quantification Methods Creation and Validation Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25548.
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Suggested Citation:"7.0 Tabulation of All Available Emissions Data." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. ACRP Web-Only Document 41: Alternative Jet Fuels Emissions: Quantification Methods Creation and Validation Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25548.
×
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Page 58
Suggested Citation:"7.0 Tabulation of All Available Emissions Data." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. ACRP Web-Only Document 41: Alternative Jet Fuels Emissions: Quantification Methods Creation and Validation Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25548.
×
Page 58
Page 59
Suggested Citation:"7.0 Tabulation of All Available Emissions Data." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. ACRP Web-Only Document 41: Alternative Jet Fuels Emissions: Quantification Methods Creation and Validation Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25548.
×
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Page 60
Suggested Citation:"7.0 Tabulation of All Available Emissions Data." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. ACRP Web-Only Document 41: Alternative Jet Fuels Emissions: Quantification Methods Creation and Validation Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25548.
×
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Page 61
Suggested Citation:"7.0 Tabulation of All Available Emissions Data." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. ACRP Web-Only Document 41: Alternative Jet Fuels Emissions: Quantification Methods Creation and Validation Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25548.
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Emissions Quantification Methodology Report: ACRP 02-80 Quantifying Emissions Reductions at Airports from the Use of Alternative Jet Fuel Emissions Quantification Methodology Report Page 55 7.0 Tabulation of All Available Emissions Data This section includes tables summarizing the impacts of alternative fuels on the emissions of SOx, PM2.5, CO, UHC, NOx, and HAP and their associated references. This is taken from the phase one “State of the Industry Report.” Table 22: Alternative fuel impact on SOx emissions Alt Fuel Ref Fuel Engine Impact Ref # FT GTL JP-8 CFM56-2C1 EI_SO2 ↓ 90% for pure FT, and ↓ intermediately for blends. 6 HEFA JP-8 F117-PW-100 SO2 ↓ 50% for 50% blend. 20 * The engine operating conditions are typically found in the root data upon which impacts are derived. Table 23: Alternative fuel impact on PM2.5 emissions Alt Fuel Ref Fuel Engine Impact Ref # ATJH SPK JP-8 PW615F Smoke # & nvPM no Δ. 26 Beef Tallow JP-8 F117-PW-100 = nvPM N ↓ 63% at idle; nvPM GMD ↓ 10-15%; EIm ↓ 50- 70% at 63% power; SN no Δ. 20 Beef Tallow JP-9 T63-A-701 Soot ↓ significantly. 21 Camelina Jet A TFE-109 Honeywell nvPM EIn ↓ at power se ngs of 10% and 30%. 44 Camelina JP-10 T63-A-702 Soot ↓ significantly. 21 CH-SKA Jet A2 CF-700-2D-2 GE black carbon (BC) mass ↓ 38-50%. 15 Fats & Grease JP-11 T63-A-703 Soot ↓ significantly. 21 FT GTL Jet A1 CFM56-7B EIn ↓, EIm ↓. 36 FT GTL Jet A1 CFM56-7 nvPM N & Mass & GMD ↓. 48 FT GTL JP-8 CFM56-2C1 nvPM Mass ↓ 86% averaged over power for pure FT, ↓. 6 FT GTL JP-8 CFM-56-2C EIn ↓ varied monotonically with power: factor 200 at idle, factor 4 at max thrust; EIm ↓ factor 30 at 45-65% power, factor 7 at 85% power. 2 FT GTL JP-8 T63-A-700 Soot ↓ significantly. 21 FT GTL JP-8 CFM56-7 EIn ↓ up to 80%. 22 FT GTL JP-8 CFM56-2 EIn ↓ up to 80%. 22 FT GTL JP-8 PW308 EIn ↓ up to 35%. 22 FT-AAFEX JP-8 CFM56-2-C nvPM ↓. 19

Emissions Quantification Methodology Report: ACRP 02-80 Quantifying Emissions Reductions at Airports from the Use of Alternative Jet Fuel Emissions Quantification Methodology Report Page 56 Alt Fuel Ref Fuel Engine Impact Ref # FT-SPK Jet A1 CF-700-2D-2 GE nvPM N ↓ 70-95%; BC mass ↓ 70-95%. 15 HEFA JP-8 CFM56-8 EIn ↓ up to 80%. 22 HEFA JP-8 CFM56-3 EIn ↓ up to 80%. 22 HEFA JP-8 PW309 EIn ↓ up to 35%. 22 HEFA, SAK Jet A TRS-18 Microturbo nvPM N & Mass ↓ 35-70%. 23 HEFA-SPK Jet A3 CF-700-2D-2 GE nvPM N ↓ 40-60%; BC mass ↓58-82%. 15 HRJ-AAFEX JP-9 CFM56-2-C nvPM ↓. 19 SPK JP-8 Allison T63-A- 700 nvPM N, Mass, and GMD ↓. 12 SPK JP-8 PW308 Soot ↓ 95% at idle & 50% at 85% power. 25 SPK JP-8 CFM56 Soot ↓ 98% at idle & 70% at 85% power. 25 UCO–HEFA Jet A GTCP85-129 Garrett Honeywell nvPM N & Mass & GMD ↓. 18 * The engine operating conditions are typically found in the root data upon which impacts are derived. Table 24: Alternative fuel impact on CO emissions Alt Fuel Ref Fuel Engine Impact Ref # SPK JP-8 Allison T63-A-700 CO ↓ 10-20% except no Δ for the m-xylene/C12 blend. 12 Sasol FSJF Jet A CO ↓ 19% in LTO cycle. 8 FT-SPK Jet A1 CO ↑ when lean & ↓ when rich. 28 FT-GTL JP-8 Combustor sector CO ↓. 45 FT-AAFE X JP-8 CFM56-2-C Minor Δ in gaseous emissions. 19 HRJ- AAFEX JP-9 CFM56-2-C Minor Δ in gaseous emissions. 19 Bio fuel RP-3 Combustor rig CO ↑. 16 Beef Tallow JP-8 F117-PW-100 = PW2000 CO ↓ 20-40%. 20 FT GTL JP-8 CFM-56-2C CO ↓ 9%. 2 ATJH SPK JP-8 AE 3007 CO ↑ slightly at low power. 26 ATJH SPK JP-8 TFE34 CO ↑ slightly at low power. 26 ATJH SPK JP-8 PW615F 0. 26

Emissions Quantification Methodology Report: ACRP 02-80 Quantifying Emissions Reductions at Airports from the Use of Alternative Jet Fuel Emissions Quantification Methodology Report Page 57 Alt Fuel Ref Fuel Engine Impact Ref # ATJH SPK JP-8 TPE331-10YGD CO ↑ slightly at low power 26 Beef Tallow JP-9 T63-A-701 CO ↓ 10-25% 21 Bio-SPK Jet A CFM56-7B CO ↑ 5-9% 10 Bio-SPK JP-8 TPE331-10 CO no Δ except slightly ↓ at low power 10 Bio-SPK JP-8 TFE731-5 CO ↓ ~2% at idle 10 Camelina JP-10 T63-A-702 CO ↓ 10-25% 21 DSHC Jet A1 SaM146 0 43 DSHC Jet A1 CFM56-5C4 0 43 Fats & Grease JP-11 T63-A-703 CO ↓ 10-25% 21 FT GTL Jet A1 CFM56-7 Modest changes in CO 48 FT GTL JP-8 T63-A-700 CO ↓ 10-25% 21 FT GTL JP-8 CFM56-7 Normalized CO 0.8-1.0. 22 FT GTL JP-8 CFM56-2 Normalized CO 0.8-1.0. 22 FT GTL JP-8 F117 Normalized CO 0.8-1.0. 22 FT GTL JP-8 TF33 Normalized CO 0.8-1.0. 22 FT GTL JP-8 PW308 Normalized CO 0.8-1.0. 22 HEFA JP-8 CFM56-8 Normalized CO 0.8-1.0. 22 HEFA JP-8 CFM56-3 Normalized CO 0.8-1.0. 22 HEFA JP-8 F118 Normalized CO 0.8-1.0. 22 HEFA JP-8 TF34 Normalized CO 0.8-1.0. 22 HEFA JP-8 PW309 Normalized CO 0.8-1.0. 22 SPK Normalized: CO 0.74-0.87 for 100% alt fuel. Normalized: CO 0.83-0.91 for 50% blend. 13 * The engine operating conditions are typically found in the root data upon which impacts are derived. Table 25: Alternative fuel impact on UHC emissions Alt Fuel Ref Fuel Engine Impact Ref # ATJH SPK JP-8 AE 3007 UHC ↑ slightly at low power. 26 ATJH SPK JP-8 TFE34 UHC ↑ slightly at low power. 26 ATJH SPK JP-8 TPE331- 10YGD UHC ↑ slightly at low power. 26

Emissions Quantification Methodology Report: ACRP 02-80 Quantifying Emissions Reductions at Airports from the Use of Alternative Jet Fuel Emissions Quantification Methodology Report Page 58 Alt Fuel Ref Fuel Engine Impact Ref # Beef Tallow JP-9 T63-A-701 UHC ↓ 20-30%. 21 Bio fuel RP-3 aviation kerosen Combustor rig UHC ↓ by up to 61%. Increasing ethanol content ↓ UHC. 16 Bio-SPK JP-8 TPE331-10 UHC ↓ 5-20% at lowest power. 10 Bio-SPK JP-8 TFE731-5 UHC ↓ ~2% at idle. 10 Camelina JP-10 T63-A-702 UHC ↓ 20-30%. 21 Fats & Grease JP-11 T63-A-703 UHC ↓ 20-30%. 21 FT GTL JP-8 CFM56-2C1 EI_UHC ↓ 40% for pure FT, and ↓ intermediately for blends. 6 FT GTL JP-8 CFM-56-2C THC ↓ 22%. 2 FT GTL JP-8 T63-A-700 UHC ↓ 20-30%. 21 FT-AAFEX JP-8 CFM56-2-C Minor Δ in gaseous emissions. 19 HRJ-AAFEX JP-9 CFM56-2-C Minor Δ in gaseous emissions. 19 Sasol FSJF Jet A UHC no Δ at idle. 8 SPK Normalized: UHC 0.68-0.76 for 100% alt fuel. Normalized: UHC 0.76-0.86 for 50% blend. 13 UCO SPK Jet A1 GTCP85 G 0 17 * The engine operating conditions are typically found in the root data upon which impacts are derived. Table 26: Alternative fuel impacts on NOx emissions Alt Fuel Ref Fuel Engine Impact Ref # AMJ JP-8 9 pt. lean direct low emissions 0 50 ATJH SPK JP-8 AE 3007 0 26 ATJH SPK JP-8 TFE34 0 26 ATJH SPK JP-8 PW615F 0 26 ATJH SPK JP-8 TPE331-10YGD 0 26 Beef Tallow JP-8 F117-PW-100 = PW2000 0 20 Beef Tallow JP-9 T63-A-701 0 21

Emissions Quantification Methodology Report: ACRP 02-80 Quantifying Emissions Reductions at Airports from the Use of Alternative Jet Fuel Emissions Quantification Methodology Report Page 59 Alt Fuel Ref Fuel Engine Impact Ref # Bio fuel RP-3 aviation kerosene Combustor rig NOx ↓ by up to 70%. Increasing ethanol content ↓ NOx. 16 Bio-SPK Jet A CFM56-7B - (1-5%) 42 Bio-SPK Jet A CFM56-7B NOx ↓ 1-5% 10 Bio-SPK JP-8 TPE331-10 0 10 Bio-SPK JP-8 TFE731-5 NOx ↑ 3.5% at cruise condition 10 Camelina JP-10 T63-A-702 0 21 CH-SKA Jet A2 CF-700-2D-2 General Electric NOx ↓ 7-25% 45 DSHC Jet A1 SaM146 0 43 DSHC Jet A1 CFM56-5C4 NOx slightly ↓ except slightly ↑ at cruise 43 DSHC Jet A1 131-9 APU NOx slightly ↓ except slightly ↑ at cruise 43 Fats & Grease JP-11 T63-A-703 0 21 FT GTL Jet A1 CFM56-7 NOx ↓ 10% for 100% FT and ↓ 5% for 50% blend 48 FT GTL JP-8 CFM-56-2C NOx ↓ 5-10% at high power, 10% at idle 2 FT GTL JP-8 T63-A-700 0 21 FT GTL JP-8 CFM56-7 0 22 FT GTL JP-8 CFM56-2 0 22 FT GTL JP-8 F117 0 22 FT GTL JP-8 TF33 0 22 FT GTL JP-8 PW308 0 22 FT GTL (100%) Jet A CFM56-7B -10% 48 FT GTL (50%) Jet A CFM56-7B -5% 48 FT-AAFEX JP-8 CFM56-2-C Minor Δ in NOx 19 FT-GTL JP-8 Combustor sector NOx ↓ when lean & ↑ when rich. 45 FT-SPK Jet A1 Tubular combustor NOx ↑ at low pressure; no Δ at high pressure. 7

Emissions Quantification Methodology Report: ACRP 02-80 Quantifying Emissions Reductions at Airports from the Use of Alternative Jet Fuel Emissions Quantification Methodology Report Page 60 Alt Fuel Ref Fuel Engine Impact Ref # FT-SPK Jet A1 NOx ↓ always except when rich at high inlet air temp. 28 HEFA Jet A1 MK113 APU ↓ except slightly ↑ at idle 34 HEFA JP-8 9 pt. lean direct low emissions 0 50 HEFA JP-8 CFM56-8 0 22 HEFA JP-8 CFM56-3 0 22 HEFA JP-8 F118 0 22 HEFA JP-8 TF34 0 22 HEFA JP-8 PW309 0 22 HRJ-AAFEX JP-9 CFM56-2-C Minor Δ in NOx 19 HVO Jet A JT9D-7R4G2 0 42 Sasol FSJF Jet A NOx ↓ 4% in LTO cycle 8 SPK Normalized: NOx 0.91-1.01 13 UCO SPK Jet A1 GTCP85 Garret Honeywell APU 0 17 * The engine operating conditions are typically found in the root data upon which impacts are derived. Table 27: Alternative fuel impact on HAP emissions Alt Fuel Ref Fuel Engine Impact Ref # Beef Tallow JP-8 F117-PW-100 = PW2000 HAP ↓ 20 Beef Tallow JP-9 T63-A-701 Formaldehyde no Δ 21 Camelina JP-10 T63-A-702 Formaldehyde no Δ 21 Fats & Grease JP-11 T63-A-703 Formaldehyde no Δ 21 FT GTL Jet A1 MK113 APU A Formaldehyde ↓ 30% Acrolein ↓ 36-64% idl 35 FT GTL Jet A1 CFM56-7 Modest changes in HCHO 48 FT GTL JP-8 CFM-56-2C HAPS ↓ significantly, e.g., EI–benzene ↓ factor 5 at idle. 2 FT GTL JP-8 T63-A-700 Formaldehyde no Δ 21 FT GTL JP-8 CFM56-7 0 22 FT GTL JP-8 CFM56-2 0 22

Emissions Quantification Methodology Report: ACRP 02-80 Quantifying Emissions Reductions at Airports from the Use of Alternative Jet Fuel Emissions Quantification Methodology Report Page 61 Alt Fuel Ref Fuel Engine Impact Ref # FT GTL JP-8 F117 0 22 FT GTL JP-8 TF33 0 22 FT GTL JP-8 PW308 0 22 FT-AAFEX JP-8 CFM56-2-C Minor Δ in gaseous emissions 19 HEFA Jet A2 MK113 APU A No Δ in aldehyde emissions. 35 HEFA JP-8 CFM56-8 0 22 HEFA JP-8 CFM56-3 0 22 HEFA JP-8 F118 0 22 HEFA JP-8 TF34 0 22 HEFA JP-8 PW309 0 22 HRJ-AAFEX JP-9 CFM56-2-C Minor Δ in gaseous emissions 19 Beef Tallow JP-8 F117-PW-100 = PW2000 HAP ↓ 20 Beef Tallow JP-9 T63-A-701 Formaldehyde no Δ 21 Camelina JP-10 T63-A-702 Formaldehyde no Δ 21 Fats & Grease JP-11 T63-A-703 Formaldehyde no Δ 21

Next: 8.0 Instructions to Use the Alternative Jet Fuel Assessment Tool »
ACRP Web-Only Document 41: Alternative Jet Fuels Emissions: Quantification Methods Creation and Validation Report Get This Book
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One of the most challenging environmental issues facing the aviation industry today is the impact of jet fuel emissions on the global climate. The use of sustainable alternative jet fuels (SAJF) to reduce aircraft emissions will become significantly more important in coming years. Capturing the air quality benefits in a way that is useful to airports requires understanding how SAJF reduce pollutant emissions, quantifying the reduction, and demonstrating the impact through an easy-to-use tool that airports can apply to their emissions inventories.

ACRP Web-Only Document 41: Alternative Jet Fuels Emissions: Quantification Methods Creation and Validation Report represents the second phase of this ACRP work. The first phase provided an understanding of how SAJF impacts aircraft emissions. This phase analyzes the data compiled in the report to quantify SAJF emission impacts.

Results of this analysis were subsequently used to develop a simplified tool that will allow airports to easily estimate emission reductions from use of SAJF at their airport. The Alternative Jet Fuel Assessment Tool and the Sustainable Alternative Jet Fuels and Emissions Reduction Fact Sheet are the two key products from ACRP 02-80.

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