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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25553.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25553.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25553.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25553.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25553.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25553.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25553.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25553.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25553.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25553.
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C-1 A P P E N D I X C Bibliography

Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency (AFCESA), Engineering Technical Letter (ETL) 06-2, Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Airfield Pavements, AFCESA, Tyndall AFB, FL, 2006. Air Force Civil Engineering Support Agency (AFCESA), Engineering Technical Letter 07-6, A Risk Assessment Procedure for Recycling Portland Cement Concrete Suffering from Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) in USAF Airfield Pavement Structures, AFCESA, Tyndall AFB, FL, 2007. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), AASHTO Subcommittee on Materials (SOM) 2016 Fly Ash Task Force Report, AASHTO, Washington, DC, 2016. Balachandran, C., J. Olek, P. Rangaraju, and S. Diamond, “Role of Potassium Acetate Deicer in Accelerating Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete Pavements: Relationship Between Laboratory and Field Studies,” Transportation Research Record 2240, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2011. Basham, K. D., Evaluation of Treatment Options for ASR-Affected Concrete, FHWA-WY- 10/01F, Wyoming Department of Transportation, Cheyenne, WY, 2009. Berke, N. S., B. E. Bucher, and P. K. DeNicola, “Organofunctional Silane Inhibitor Surface Treatment of Concrete for Corrosion and ASR Mitigation,” Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual Meeting, Paper 14-0763, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2014. Buncher, M., G. Fitts, T. Scullion, and R. McQueen, Development of Guidelines for Rubblization–Final Report, Airfield Asphalt Pavement Technology Program, Project 04-01, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 2008. Canadian Standards Association (CSA), Guide to the Evaluation and Management of Concrete Structures Affected by Alkali-Aggregate Reaction, CSA A864-00, CSA, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, 2000. Department of Defense (DOD), Report on Alkali-Aggregate Problems on Portland Cement Concrete Airfield Pavements, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Omaha, NE; Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA; and Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency, Tyndall AFB, FL, 2006. Deschenes, R. A., C. D. Murray, and W. M. Hale, “Prevention and Mitigation of ASR in Median Barriers with Varying Degrees of Damage,” T&DI Congress 2014: Planes, Trains, and Automobiles, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, 2014, pp. 111-120. Deschenes, R. A., C. D. Murray, and W. M. Hale, “Mitigation of Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete Pavements by Silane Treatment,” 15th International Conference on Alkali-Silica Reaction (ICAAR), San Paulo, Brazil, 2015. Deschenes, R. A., C. D. Murray, and W. M. Hale, “Mitigation of Alkali-Silica Reaction and Freezing and Thawing Through Surface Treatment,” ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 114, No. 2, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2017. Drimalas, T., K. J. Folliard, M. D. A. Thomas, B. Fournier, and A. Bentivegna, “Study of the Effectiveness of Lithium and Silane Treatments on Field Structures Affected by ASR,” 14th International Conference on Alkali-Aggregate Reaction (ICAAR), Austin, TX, 2012. Eskridge, A. E., R. E. Klingner, M. E. Kreger, and T. J. Fowler, Mitigation Techniques for In- Service Structures with Premature Concrete Deterioration: A Literature Review, FHWA/TX- 05/0-4069-1, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin, TX, 2004. Eskridge, A. E., J. T. Klahorst, R. E. Klingner, and M. E. Kreger, “Mitigation Techniques for Structures with Premature Concrete Deterioration Due to ASR/DEF,” ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 106, No. 3, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2009. Farny, J. A., and B. Kerkhoff, Diagnosis and Control of Alkali-Aggregate Reactions in Concrete, IS413.02, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL, 2007. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Alkali-Aggregate Reactivity (AAR) Workshop for Engineers and Practitioners, Reference Manual, FHWA, Washington, DC, 2012. Department of Defense (DOD), Unified Facilities Guide Specifications, Division 32, Section 32 13 11, Concrete Pavements for Airfields and Other Heavy-Duty Pavements, DOD, Washington, DC, 2015. Deschenes, R. A., and W. M. Hale, Alkali Silica Reaction Mitigation & Prevention Measures— Phase I, MBTC 4000, Arkansas Highway and Transportation Department, Little Rock, AR, 2016. C-2 Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports Bibliography C-3

Fournier, B., M. A. Berube, K. J. Folliard, and M. D. A. Thomas, Report on the Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Mitigation of Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) in Transportation Structures, FHWA- HIF-09-001, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2010. Greer, W. C., S. R. Kuchikulla, K. Masters, and J. Rone, “Design, Construction and Maintenance of Concrete Pavements at the World’s Busiest Airport,” Ninth International Conference on the Bearing Capacity of Roads, Railways, and Airfields, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, the Norwegian Public Roads Administration, AVINOR, and the Norwegian National Rail Administration, Norway, 2013. Heyen, W., L. Halsey, M. Jamshidi, J. Dondlinger, and B. Seger, Field Performance of Sealers for Portland Cement Concrete Pavements (PCCP), Nebraska Department of Roads, Lincoln, NE, 2015. Heymsfield, E., R. Deschenes, W. Hale, and M. Kuss, “Alkali–Silica Reaction Identification and Remediation at Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport,” Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, Vol. 30, No. 4, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, 2015. Folliard, K. J., M. D. A. Thomas, B. Fournier, Y. Resendez, T. Drimalas, and A. Bentivegna, “Evaluation of Mitigation Measures Applied to ASR-Affected Concrete Elements: Preliminary Findings from Austin, TX Exposure Site,” 14th International Conference on Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Concrete (ICAAR), Austin, TX, 2012. Folliard, K. J., M. D. A. Thomas, B. Fournier, T. Drimalas, and G. Ahlstrom, “Mitigation of Alkali Silica Reaction in U.S. Highway Concrete,” Institution of Civil Engineers, Construction Materials, Vol. 169, No. CM4, Institution of Civil Engineers, London, UK, 2016. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Alkali-Silica Reaction Mechanisms and Detection: An Advanced Understanding, FHWA-HRT-14-079, FHWA, Washington, DC, 2014. Folliard, K. J., M. D. A. Thomas, B. Fournier, K. E. Kurtis, and J. H. Ideker, Interim Recommendations for the Use of Lithium to Mitigate or Prevent Alkali-Silica Reaction, FHWA- HRT-06-073, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2006. Folliard, K. J., M. D. A. Thomas, B. Fournier, J. Ideker, and B. East, “Treatment of Structures with Alkali-Silica Reactive Distress with Lithium Nitrate: Case Studies,” Transportation Research Board 88th Annual Meeting, Paper 09-2685, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2009. 2014 FAA Worldwide Airport Technology Transfer Conference, Galloway, NJ, Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC, 2014. Lute, R. D., K. J. Folliard, T. Drimalas, and C. K. Rust, “Coatings and Sealers for Mitigation of Alkali-Silica Reaction and/or Delayed Ettringite Formation,” 15th International Conference on Alkali-Silica Reaction (ICAAR), San Paulo, Brazil, 2015. Klahorst, J. T., R. E. Klingner, and M. E. Kreger, Mitigation Techniques for In-Service Structures with Premature Concrete Deterioration: Development and Verification of New Test Method, FHWA/TX-05/0-4069-2, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin, TX, 2005. Krauss, P., J. Mallela, and B. Aho, Highway Concrete Pavement Technology Development and Testing, Volume I—Field Evaluation of Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) C-202 Test Sites (Alkali-Silica Reaction), FHWA-RD-02-082, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2006. Kwak, P. J., T. H. Kim, J. I. Lee, and W. Y. Jeong, “Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete Pavement at Gimpo International Airport – A Maintenance Case Study Using HMA Overlays,” Hooton, R. D., C. Rogers, C. A. MacDonald, and T. Ramlochan, “Twenty-Year Field Evaluation of Alkali-Silica Reaction Mitigation,” ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 110, No. 5, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2013. Japan Science and Technology Agency, “Controlling ASR Expansion by Lithium Ion Pressurized Injection Method,” Concrete Journal, Vol. 58, No. 2, Japan Concrete Institute, Tokyo, Japan, 2012, pp. 155-162. Jiang, L., M. Sherman, and J. Grieco, “Inspection, Risk Assessment, and Management Planning of MassDOT Transportation Structures Affected by Alkali-Silica Reaction,” Transportation Research Board (TRB) 94th Annual Meeting, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2015. Johnson, D., R. L. Warnock, A. K. Schindler, and R. W. Barnes, Effectiveness of Silane in Mitigating Alkali-Silica Reaction in the Bibb Graves Bridge, FHWA/ALDOT 930-802, Alabama Department of Transportation, Montgomery, AL, 2013. Kelly, M. T., and C. Y. Tuan, “A Case Study Evaluating the Use of Lithium Nitrate to Arrest Alkali-Silica Reaction in an Existing Concrete Pavement,” 2006 Airfield and Highway Pavement Specialty Conference, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, 2006. C-4 Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports Bibliography C-5

Rangaraju, P. R., and J. Olek, Potential for Acceleration of ASR in the Presence of Pavement Deicing Chemicals, IPFR-01-G-002-03-9, Innovative Pavement Research Foundation, Skokie, IL, 2007. Rangaraju, P. R., and J. Olek, Performance of Concrete in the Presence of Airfield Pavement Deicers and Identification of Induced Distress Mechanisms, IPRF-01-G-002-05-7, Innovative Pavement Research Foundation, Skokie, IL, 2011. Rua, C. M. S., N. P. Harparyk, P. J. M. Monteiro, D. D. Molin, and L. Elger, “Study of Silane Compositions to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction,” 15th International Conference on Alkali-Silica Reaction (ICAAR), San Paulo, Brazil, 2015. Malvar, L. J., “ASR Prevention in DOD,” 2010 Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Preprint Paper, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2010. Malvar, L. J., G. D. Cline, D. F. Burke, R. Rollings, T. Sherman, and J. Greene, Alkali-Silica Reaction Mitigation: State-of-the-Art, Technical Report TR-2195-SHR, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Washington Navy Yard, DC, 2001. Malvar, L. J., G. D. Cline, D. F. Burke, R. Rollings, T. Sherman, and J. Greene, “Alkali-Silica Reaction Mitigation: State-of-the-Art and Recommendations,” ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 99, No. 5, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2002. McNerney, M. T., “Remaining Service Life Analysis of Concrete Airfield Pavements at Denver International Airport Using the FACS Method,” Airfield and Highway Pavements: Efficient Pavements Supporting Transportation’s Future, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, 2008. Mukhopadhyay, A. K., D. G. Zollinger, and C. S. Shon, Evaluation of Alkali Silica Reactivity of Mineral and Aggregate Using Dilatometer Method, IPRF-01-G-002-02-5.1, Innovative Pavement Research Foundation, Skokie, IL, 2005. Nomura, M., A. Komastubara, K. Fujimoto, and K. Torii, “Evaluation of Maintenance Methods for ASR-Damaged Structures in Hokuriku District, Japan,” Third International Conference on Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies, Kyoto Research Park, Kyoto, Japan, 2013. Rangaraju, P. R., Mitigation of ASR in Presence of Pavement Deicing Chemicals, IPRF-01-G- 002-04-8, Innovative Pavement Research Foundation, Skokie, IL, 2007. Thomas, M. D. A., B. Fournier, K. J. Folliard, and Y. A. Resendez, Alkali-Silica Reactivity Surveying and Tracking Guidelines, FHWA-HIF-12-046, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2012. Souza, L. M. S., Electrochemical Lithium Migration to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction in Existing Concrete Structures, Ph.D. Dissertation, Lourdes Maria Silva De Souza, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, 2016. Souza, L. M. S., R. B. Polder, and O. Copuroglu, “Investigation of Lithium Migration for Treating Alkali-Silica Reaction Affected Concrete,” 1st Concrete Innovation Conference, Oslo, Norway, 2014. Stark, D., B. Morgan, P. Okamoto, and S. Diamond, Eliminating or Minimizing Alkali-Silica Reactivity, SHRP-P-343, Strategic Highway Research Program, Washington, DC, 1993. Sutter, L. L., K. Peterson, T. J. Van Dam, K. D. Smith, and M. J. Wade, Guidelines for Detection, Analysis, and Treatment of Materials-Related Distress in Concrete Pavements— Volume 3: Case Studies Using the Guidelines, FHWA-RD-01-165, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, 2002. Sutter, L. L., K. Peterson, G. Julio-Betancourt, D. Hooton, T. Van Dam, and K. Smith, The Deleterious Chemical Effects of Concentrated Deicing Solutions on Portland Cement Concrete – Implementation Guide, SD2002-01-G, South Dakota DOT, Pierre, SD, 2008. Thomas, M. D. A., B. Fournier, K. J. Folliard, J. H. Ideker, and Y. Resendez, The Use of Lithium to Prevent or Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reactions in Concrete Pavements and Structures, FHWA- HRT-06-133, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2007. Thomas, M. D. A., B. Fournier, K. J. Folliard, and Y. A. Resendez, Alkali-Silica Reactivity Field Identification Handbook, FHWA-HIF-12-022, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2011. Thomas, M. D. A., K. J. Folliard, B. Fournier, T. Drimalas, and P. Rivard, “Study of Remedial Actions on Highway Structures Affected by ASR,” 14th International Conference on Alkali- Aggregate Reaction in Concrete (ICAAR), Vol. 2025, Austin, TX, 2012. Sims, I., and A. Poole (editors), Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Concrete: A World Review, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, London, UK, 2017. C-6 Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports Bibliography C-7

Thomas, M. D. A., B. Fournier, and K. J. Folliard, Alkali-Aggregate Reactivity (AAR) Facts Book, FHWA-HIF-13-019, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2013. Ueda, T., T. Kameda, T. Maeda, and A. Nanasawa, “Suppression of ASR Due to Electrochemical Supply of Lithium from DFRCC Anode System,” Sixth International Conference on Concrete Under Severe Conditions: Environment and Loading, CRC Press/Balkema, The Netherlands, 2010. Ueda, T., A. Nanasawa, and M. Tsukagoshi, “Influence of Electrochemical Lithium Penetration from Various Kinds of Lithium Solution on ASR Expansion of Concrete,” 4th International Conference on Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation, and Retrofitting IV, Leipzig, Germany, October 5-7, 2015, Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK, 2016. Uehara, M., K. Mizuno, and T. Sato, “Development of Alkali-Silica-Reaction Suppressing Material with Li-containing Zeolite,” Quarterly Report of Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI), Vol. 53, No. 3, Kokubunji, Tokyo, Japan, 2012, pp. 160-166. Van Dam, T. J., L. L. Sutter, K. D. Smith, M. J. Wade, and K. R. Peterson, Guidelines for Detection, Analysis, and Treatment of Materials-Related Distress in Concrete Pavements— Volume 1: Final Report, FHWA-RD-01-163, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, 2002. Van Dam, T. J., L. L. Sutter, K. D. Smith, M. J. Wade, and K. R. Peterson, Guidelines for Detection, Analysis, and Treatment of Materials-Related Distress in Concrete Pavements— Volume 2: Guidelines, Description, and Use, FHWA-RD-01-164, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, 2002. Thomas, M. D. A., K. J. Folliard, B. Fournier, T. Drimalas, and S. I. Garber, Methods for Preventing ASR in New Construction: Results of Field Exposure Sites, FHWA-HIF-14-004, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2013.Thomas, M. D. A., K. J. Folliard, B. Fournier, P. Rivard, and T. Drimalas, Methods for Evaluating and Treating ASR-Affected Structures: Results of Field Application and Demonstration Projects–Volume I: Summary of Findings and Recommendations, FHWA-HIF-14-002, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2013. Thomas, M. D. A., K. J. Folliard, B. Fournier, P. Rivard, T. Drimalas, and S. I. Garber, Methods for Evaluating and Treating ASR-Affected Structures: Results of Field Application and Demonstration Projects–Volume II: Details of Field Applications and Analysis, FHWA-HIF-14-003, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2013. Waidner, M., Identifying Damage, Predicting Expansion, and Determining the Effectiveness of Sealers on Concrete Affected by Alkali-Silica Reaction and Freeze-Thaw, Master of Science Dissertation, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, 2016. Wehrle, R. E., The Effects of Coatings and Sealers Used to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction and/or Delayed Ettringite Formation in Hardened Concrete, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Texas, Austin, TX, 2010. Whitmore, D. W., Field Studies in Mitigating ASR in Existing Pavement, Topical Application of Lithium, IPRF-01-G-002-03-10, Innovative Pavement Research Foundation, Skokie, IL, 2009. Zollinger, D. G., A. K. Mukhopadhyay, H. Ghanem, C. S. Shon, D. Gress, and D. Hooten, Mitigation of ASR in Concrete Pavement—Combined Materials Testing, IPRF-01-G-002-03-2, Innovative Pavement Research Foundation, Skokie, IL, 2009. Van Dam, T. J., F. Nelson, D. G. Peshkin, and K. D. Smith, Identification of Materials-Related Distress and Projected Pavement Life—Concrete Airfield Pavement, IPRF-01-G-002-06-6, Innovative Pavement Research Foundation, Skokie, IL, 2009. C-8 Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports Bibliography C-9

Abbreviations and acronyms used without definitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACI–NA Airports Council International–North America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TDC Transit Development Corporation TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S. DOT United States Department of Transportation

TRA N SPO RTATIO N RESEA RCH BO A RD 500 Fifth Street, N W W ashington, D C 20001 A D D RESS SERV ICE REQ U ESTED N O N -PR O FIT O R G . U .S. PO STA G E PA ID C O LU M B IA , M D PER M IT N O . 88 ISBN 978-0-309-48055-0 9 7 8 0 3 0 9 4 8 0 5 5 0 9 0 0 0 0 Practices to M itigate A lkali-Silica Reaction (A SR ) A ffected Pavem ents at A irports A CRP Synthesis 96 TRB

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Some concrete pavements commonly used at airports are susceptible to the destructive effects of alkali-silica reaction (ASR). The presence of ASR on concrete pavements can have a devastating effect on pavement performance, not only in terms of reduced functionality, but also in terms of shortened service lives.

The focus of ACRP Synthesis 96: Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports is on current practices for mitigating ASR in affected pavements at airports. Given the substantial initial investment required for pavement, airports are interested in using mitigations to slow the effects of ASR and prolong the life of airfield concrete pavements.

This synthesis identifies the current state of the practice regarding the mitigation measures used on existing ASR-affected airport pavements that service aircraft and summarizes the experiences and practices of airports in dealing with the distress (including conventional treatments, but also any new or emerging technologies).

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