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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25553.
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Page 55
Page 56
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25553.
×
Page 56
Page 57
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25553.
×
Page 57
Page 58
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25553.
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Page 58

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55 AASHTO PP 65, Standard Practice for Determining the Reactivity of Concrete Aggregates and Selecting Appro- priate Measures for Preventing Deleterious Expansion in New Concrete Construction AASHTO R 80, Standard Practice for Determining the Reactivity of Concrete Aggregates and Selecting Appropriate Measures for Preventing Deleterious Expansion in New Concrete Construction AASHTO T303, Accelerated Detection of Potentially Deleterious Expansion of Mortar Bars Due to Alkali-Silica Reaction Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency (AFCESA), Engineering Technical Letter (ETL) 06-2, Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Airfield Pavements, AFCESA, Tyndall AFB, FL, 2006, 30 pp. Air Force Civil Engineering Support Agency (AFCESA), Engineering Technical Letter 07-6, A Risk Assessment Procedure for Recycling Portland Cement Concrete Suffering from Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) in USAF Airfield Pavement Structures, AFCESA, Tyndall AFB, FL, 2007, 25 pp. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), AASHTO Subcommittee on Materials (SOM) 2016 Fly Ash Task Force Report, AASHTO, Washington, DC, 2016. American Concrete Institute (ACI), Guide to Durable Concrete, ACI 201.2R, ACI, Farmington Hills, MI, 2016, 87 pp. Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, “$67.7M Low Bid for Contract to Rebuild Portion of Arkansas Interstate,” Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, July 20, 2017. ASTM C42, Standard Test Method for Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete ASTM C150, Standard Specification for Portland Cement ASTM C227, Standard Test Method for Potential Alkali Reactivity of Cement-Aggregate Combinations (Mortar Bar Method) ASTM C289, Standard Test Method for Potential Alkali-Silica Reactivity of Aggregates (Chemical Method) ASTM C295, Standard Guide for Petrographic Examination of Aggregates for Concrete ASTM C441, Standard Test Method for Effectiveness of Mineral Admixtures or Ground Blast-Furnace Slag in Preventing Excessive Expansion of Concrete Due to Alkali-Silica Reaction ASTM C618, Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete ASTM C856, Practice for Petrographic Analysis of Hardened Concrete ASTM C989, Standard Specification for Slag Cement for Use in Concrete and Mortars ASTM C1240, Standard Specification for Silica Fume Used in Cementitious Mixtures ASTM C1260, Standard Test Method for Potential Alkali Reactivity of Aggregates (Mortar-Bar Method) ASTM C1293, Standard Test Method for Concrete Aggregates by Determination of Length Change of Concrete Due to Alkali-Silica Reaction ASTM C1567, Standard Test Method for Determining the Potential Alkali-Silica Reactivity of Combinations of Cementitious Materials and Aggregate (Accelerated Mortar Bar Method) ASTM C1778, Standard Guide for Reducing the Risk of Deleterious Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Concrete ASTM D5340, Standard Test Method for Airport Pavement Condition Surveys Balachandran, C., J. Olek, P. Rangaraju, and S. Diamond, “Role of Potassium Acetate Deicer in Accelerating Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete Pavements: Relationship Between Laboratory and Field Studies,” Transportation Research Record 2240, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2011. Basham, K. D., Evaluation of Treatment Options for ASR-Affected Concrete, FHWA-WY-10/01F, Wyoming Department of Transportation, Cheyenne, WY, 2009. Buncher, M., G. Fitts, T. Scullion, and R. McQueen, Development of Guidelines for Rubblization–Final Report, Airfield Asphalt Pavement Technology Program, Project 04-01, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 2008, 130 pp. References

56 Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports Canadian Standards Association (CSA), Guide to the Evaluation and Management of Concrete Structures Affected by Alkali-Aggregate Reaction, CSA A864-00, CSA, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, 2000. Department of Defense (DOD), United Facilities Criteria (UFC), Concrete Repair, UFC 3-270-04, DOD, Washington, DC, 2001. Department of Defense (DOD), Report on Alkali-Aggregate Problems on Portland Cement Concrete Airfield Pavements, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Omaha, NE; Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA; and Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency, Tyndall AFB, FL, 2006, 20 pp. Department of Defense (DOD), Unified Facilities Guide Specifications, Division 32, Section 32 13 11, Concrete Pavements for Airfields and Other Heavy-Duty Pavements, DOD, Washington, DC, 2015. Deschenes, R. A., C. D. Murray, and W. M. Hale, “Mitigation of Alkali-Silica Reaction and Freezing and Thawing through Surface Treatment,” ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 114, No. 2, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2017, pp. 307–314. Farny, J. A., and B. Kerkhoff, Diagnosis and Control of Alkali-Aggregate Reactions in Concrete, IS413.02, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL, 2007. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Standards for Specifying Construction of Airports, Advisory Circular (AC) 150/1570-10G, FAA, Washington, DC, 2014. Folliard, K. J., M. D. A. Thomas, B. Fournier, K. E. Kurtis, and J. H. Ideker, Interim Recommendations for the Use of Lithium to Mitigate or Prevent Alkali-Silica Reaction, FHWA-HRT-06-073, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2006, 94 pp. Folliard, K. J., M. D. A. Thomas, B. Fournier, T. Drimalas, and G. Ahlstrom, “Mitigation of Alkali Silica Reaction in U.S. Highway Concrete,” Proceedings, Institution of Civil Engineers, Construction Materials, Vol. 169, No. CM4, Institution of Civil Engineers, London, UK, 2016, pp. 215–222. Godart, B., and M. R. de Rooij, “Diagnosis, Appraisal, Repair, and Management,” Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Concrete: A World Review, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK, 2017, pp. 119–166. Gore, E. R., R. D. Moser, J. Morson, and C. A. Weiss, Petrographic Examination of Concrete from Tinker Air Force Base, Midwest City, OK, Final Report, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, 2014. Greer, W. C., S. R. Kuchikulla, K. Masters, and J. Rone, “Design, Construction, and Maintenance of Concrete Pavements at the World’s Busiest Airport,” Technical Paper 2013-01, Proceedings, 9th International Conference on the Bearing Capacity of Roads, Railways and Airfields, Trondheim, Norway, 2013. Greer, W. C., S. R. Kuchikulla, J. Rone, and J. Drinkard, “Innovative and Durable Repair Solutions for Concrete Pavement at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport,” Technical Paper 2014-01, Proceedings, 12th International Symposium on Concrete Roads, Prague, Czech Republic, 2014. Guthrie, G., and J. W. Carey, “Geochemical Method for Identifying Alkali-Silica-Reaction Gel,” Transportation Research Record 1668, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 1999. Hammons, M., and A. Saeed, “Expedient Spall Repair Methods and Equipment for Airfield Pavements,” Transportation Research Record 2155, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2010. Heymsfield, E., R. Deschenes, W. M. Hale, and M. L. Kuss, “Alkali-Silica Reaction Identification and Remediation at Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport,” Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, Vol. 30, No. 4, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, 2016. Heyen, W., L. Halsey, M. Jamshidi, J. Dondlinger, and B. Seger, Field Performance of Sealers for Portland Cement Concrete Pavements (PCCP), Nebraska Department of Roads, Lincoln, NE, 2015, 25 pp. Hoerner, T. E., K. D. Smith, H. T. Yu, D. G. Peshkin, and M. J. Wade, PCC Pavement Evaluation and Rehabilitation, Reference Manual for NHI Course 131062, National Highway Institute, Arlington, VA, 2001. Johnson, D., R. L. Warnock, A. K. Schindler, and R. W. Barnes, Effectiveness of Silane in Mitigating Alkali-Silica Reaction in the Bibb Graves Bridge, FHWA/ALDOT 930-802, Alabama Department of Transportation, Montgomery, AL, 2013. Kelly, M. T., and C. Y. Tuan, “A Case Study Evaluating the Use of Lithium Nitrate to Arrest Alkali-Silica Reaction in an Existing Concrete Pavement,” Proceedings, 2006 Airfield and Highway Pavement Specialty Conference, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, 2006. Krauss, P., J. Mallela, and B. Aho, Highway Concrete Pavement Technology Development and Testing, Volume I— Field Evaluation of Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) C-202 Test Sites (Alkali-Silica Reaction), FHWA-RD-02-082, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2006, 185 pp. Kwak, P. J., T. H. Kim, J. I. Lee, and W. Y. Jeong, “Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete Pavement at Gimpo Inter- national Airport – A Maintenance Case Study Using HMA Overlays,” Proceedings, 2014 FAA Worldwide Airport Technology Transfer Conference, Galloway, NJ, 2014. Malvar, L. J., G. D. Cline, D. F. Burke, R. Rollings, T. Sherman, and J. Greene, Alkali-Silica Reaction Mitigation: State-of-the-Art, Technical Report TR-2195-SHR, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Washington Navy Yard, DC, 2001, 40 pp. Meissner, H., “Cracking in Concrete Due to Expansive Reaction Between Aggregate and High-Alkali Cement as Evidenced in Parker Dam,” ACI Journal, Vol. 37, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, MI, 1941, p. 549.

References 57 Poole, A. B., “Introduction, Chemistry and Mechanisms,” Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Concrete: A World Review, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK, 2017, pp. 1–32. Rangaraju, P. R., Mitigation of ASR in Presence of Pavement Deicing Chemicals, IPRF-01-G-002-04-8, Innovative Pavement Research Foundation, Skokie, IL, 2007. Rangaraju, P. R., and J. Olek, Potential for Acceleration of ASR in the Presence of Pavement Deicing Chemicals, IPFR-01-G-002-03-9, Innovative Pavement Research Foundation, Skokie, IL, 2007. Rangaraju, P. R., and J. Olek, Performance of Concrete in the Presence of Airfield Pavement Deicers and Identifi- cation of Induced Distress Mechanisms, IPRF-01-G-002-05-7, Innovative Pavement Research Foundation, Skokie, IL, 2011. Saeed, A., M. I. Hammons, D. Rufino-Feldman, and T. Poole, Evaluation, Design, and Construction Techniques for Airfield Concrete Pavement Used as Recycled Material for Base, IPRF-01-G-002-03-5, Innovative Pavement Research Foundation, Skokie, IL, 2006. Sims, I., and A. Poole (editors), Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Concrete: A World Review, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, London, UK, 2017. Smith, K. D., M. B. Snyder, M. I. Darter, M. J. Reiter, and K. T. Hall, Pressure Relief and Other Joint Rehabilitation Techniques, FHWA/RD-88/111, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1987. Smith, K., D. Harrington, L. Pierce, P. Ram, and K. Smith, Concrete Pavement Preservation Guide, Second Edition, Concrete Pavement Technology Center, Ames, IA, 2014. Stanton, T. E., “Influence of Cement and Aggregate on Concrete Expansion,” Engineering News-Record, Vol. 124, No. 5, February 1, 1940a, p. 59. Stanton, T. E., “Expansion of Concrete Through Reaction Between Cement and Aggregate,” Proceedings, American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 66, No. 10, December, 1940b, p. 1781. Stanton, T. E., “Expansion of Concrete Through Reaction Between Cement and Aggregate,” Transactions, American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 107, 1942, p. 54. Stark, D., B. Morgan, P. Okamoto, and S. Diamond, Eliminating or Minimizing Alkali-Silica Reactivity, SHRP-P-343, Strategic Highway Research Program, Washington, DC, 1993, 266 pp. Sutter, L. L., K. R. Peterson, T. J. Van Dam, K. D. Smith, and M. J. Wade, Guidelines for Detection, Analysis, and Treatment of Materials-Related Distress in Concrete Pavements—Volume 3: Case Studies Using the Guidelines, FHWA-RD-01-165, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, 2002, 127 pp. Sutter, L. L., K. Peterson, G. Julio-Betancourt, D. Hooton, T. Van Dam, and K. Smith, The Deleterious Chemical Effects of Concentrated Deicing Solutions on Portland Cement Concrete – Implementation Guide, SD2002-01-G, South Dakota Department of Transportation, Pierre, SD, 2008. Taylor, P., Materials-Related Distress: Aggregates, FHWA-HIF-15-013, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2015. Thomas, M. D. A., R. D. Hooton, and C. A. Rogers, “Prevention of Damage Due to Alkali-Aggregate Reaction (AAR) in Concrete Construction—Canadian Approach,” Cement, Concrete and Aggregates, Vol. 19, No. 1, American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, 1997, pp. 26–30. Thomas, M. D. A., B. Fournier, K. Folliard, J. Ideker, and M. Shehata, “Test Methods for Evaluating Preventive Measures for Controlling Expansion Due to Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 36, No. 10, 2006, pp. 1842–1856. Thomas, M. D. A., B. Fournier, K. J. Folliard, J. H. Ideker, and Y. Resendez, The Use of Lithium to Prevent or Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reactions in Concrete Pavements and Structures, FHWA-HRT-06-133, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2007. Thomas, M. D. A., B. Fournier, and K. J. Folliard, Report on Determining the Reactivity of Concrete Aggregates and Selecting Appropriate Measures for Preventing Deleterious Expansion in New Concrete Construction, FHWA-HIF-09-001, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2008. Thomas, M. D. A., B. Fournier, K. J. Folliard, and Y. A. Resendez, Alkali-Silica Reactivity Field Identification Handbook, FHWA-HIF-12-022, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2011. Thomas, M. D. A., B. Fournier, and K. Folliard, Selecting Measures to Prevent Deleterious Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete: Rationale for the AASHTO PP-65 Prescriptive Approach, FHWA-HIF-13-002, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2012, 54 pp. Thomas, M. D. A., B. Fournier, and K. Folliard, Alkali-Aggregate Reactivity (AAR) Facts Book, FHWA-HIF-13-019, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2013a. Thomas, M. D. A., K. Folliard, B. Fournier, T. Drimalas, and S. I. Garber, Methods for Preventing ASR in New Construction: Results of Field Exposure Sites, FHWA-HIF-14-004, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2013b. Thomas, M. D. A., K. J. Folliard, B. Fournier, and T. Drimalas, Methods for Evaluating and Treating ASR-Affected Structures: Results of Field Application and Demonstration Projects—Volume I: Summary of Findings and Recommendations, FHWA-HIF-14-002, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2013c.

58 Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports Thomas, M. D. A., K. J. Folliard, B. Fournier, T. Drimalas, and S. I. Garber, Methods for Evaluating and Treating ASR-Affected Structures: Results of Field Application and Demonstration Projects—Volume II: Details of Field Applications and Analysis, FHWA-HIF-14-003, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2013d. Tremper, B., and L. P. Kovanda, A Report on Service Record on Concrete Containing Reactive Aggregates and Low-Alkali Cement, Report 501-R-54, California Division of Highways, Sacramento, CA, December 1955, 9 pp. Ueda, T., A. Nanasawa, and M. Tsukagoshi, “Influence of Electrochemical Lithium Penetration from Various Kinds of Lithium Solution on ASR Expansion of Concrete,” Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation, and Retrofitting (Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation, and Retrofitting IV), Leipzig, Germany, October 5–7, 2015, Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK, 2016. Van Dam, T., Ensuring Durability of Concrete Paving Mixtures, Part I: Mechanisms and Mitigation, FHWA- HIF-16-033, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2016a. Van Dam, T., Ensuring Durability of Concrete Paving Mixtures, Part II: Test Methods, FHWA-HIF-16-034, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2016b. Van Dam, T. J., L. L. Sutter, K. D. Smith, M. J. Wade, and K. R. Peterson, Guidelines for Detection, Analysis, and Treatment of Materials-Related Distress in Concrete Pavements—Volume 1: Final Report, FHWA-RD-01-163, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, 2002a, 194 pp. Van Dam, T. J., L. L. Sutter, K. D. Smith, M. J. Wade, and K. R. Peterson, Guidelines for Detection, Analysis, and Treatment of Materials-Related Distress in Concrete Pavements—Volume 2: Guidelines, Description, and Use, FHWA-RD-01-164, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, 2002b, 236 pp. Van Dam, T., F. Nelson, D. Peshkin, and K. Smith, Identification of Materials-Related Distress and Projected Pave- ment Life—Concrete Airfield Pavement, IPRF-01-G-002-06-6, Innovative Pavement Research Foundation, Skokie, IL, 2009, 123 pp. Waidner, M., Identifying Damage, Predicting Expansion, and Determining the Effectiveness of Sealers on Concrete Affected by Alkali-Silica Reaction and Freeze-Thaw, Master of Science Dissertation, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, 2016. Whitmore, D. W., Field Studies in Mitigating ASR in Existing Pavement, Topical Application of Lithium, IPRF-01-G-002-03-10, Innovative Pavement Research Foundation, Skokie, IL, 2009. Zollinger, D. G., A. K. Mukhopadhyay, H. Ghanem, C. S. Shon, D. Gress, and D. Hooten, Mitigation of ASR in Concrete Pavement—Combined Materials Testing, IPRF-01-G-002-03-2, Innovative Pavement Research Foundation, Skokie, IL, 2009.

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Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports Get This Book
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Some concrete pavements commonly used at airports are susceptible to the destructive effects of alkali-silica reaction (ASR). The presence of ASR on concrete pavements can have a devastating effect on pavement performance, not only in terms of reduced functionality, but also in terms of shortened service lives.

The focus of ACRP Synthesis 96: Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports is on current practices for mitigating ASR in affected pavements at airports. Given the substantial initial investment required for pavement, airports are interested in using mitigations to slow the effects of ASR and prolong the life of airfield concrete pavements.

This synthesis identifies the current state of the practice regarding the mitigation measures used on existing ASR-affected airport pavements that service aircraft and summarizes the experiences and practices of airports in dealing with the distress (including conventional treatments, but also any new or emerging technologies).

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