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345 Active Aggressor An individual actively engaged in killing or attempting to kill people in a confined and popu- lated area, typically (though not necessarily) through the use of firearms (Modified from Active Shooter Events from 2000 to 2012, 2014). This term includes individuals using firearms, but is not limited to them; it includes those who use vehicle ramming, straight-edged blades or knives, homemade explosives, and other deadly weapons. Active Shooter An individual actively engaged in killing or attempting to kill people in a confined and populated area, typically through the use of firearms (Active Shooter Events from 2000 to 2012, 2014). Catastrophic Incident Any natural or manmade incident, including terrorism, that results in extraordinary levels of mass casualties, damage, or disruption severely affecting the population, infrastructure, envi- ronment, economy, national morale, and/or government functions. A catastrophic incident could result in sustained regional or national impacts over a prolonged time period; almost immediately exceeds resources normally available to state, [territorial,] local, tribal, and private- sector authorities in the affected area; and significantly interrupts governmental operations and emergency services to such an extent that national security could be threatened (All Hazards Consortium, draft definition). Consequence Analysis The estimation of the effect of potential hazardous events. (Blanchard, B.W., âSelect Emergency Management-Related Terms & Definitions,â 2006). Also, one of the emergency management standards of the Emergency Management Accreditation Program (EMAP), along with Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment. Consequence Management Response Measures to alleviate the damage, loss, hardship, or suffering caused by emergencies. These include measures to restore essential government services, protect public health and safety, and provide emergency relief to afflicted entities. Consequence management response is under the primary jurisdiction of the affected state and local governments. Federal agencies support local efforts under the coordination of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) (Security 101, 2009). Cybersecurity The activity or process, ability or capability, or state whereby information and communications systems and the information contained therein are protected from and/or defended against damage, unauthorized use or modification, or exploitation. It consists of strategy, policy, and standards regarding the security of and operations in cyberspace, and encompass[ing] the full A P P E N D I X D Glossary
346 A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies range of threat reduction, vulnerability reduction, deterrence, international engagement, inci- dent response, resiliency, and recovery policies and activities, including computer network oper- ations, information assurance, law enforcement, diplomacy, military, and intelligence missions as they relate to the security and stability of the global information and communications infra- structure (NCHRP Report 221: Protection of Transportation Infrastructure from Cyber Attacks: A Primer, 2015). Emergency Any incident, whether natural or manmade, that requires responsive action to protect life or property. Under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, an emer- gency means any occasion or instance for which, in the determination of the president, federal assistance is needed to supplement state and local efforts and capabilities to save lives and to protect property and public health and safety, or to lessen or avert the threat of a catastrophe in any part of the United States (Stafford Act and NIMS). Emergency Management [Paraphrased] The broad class of agencies or people involved in the practice of managing emergencies and other incidents of all kinds (NIMS, 2008). Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) A national interstate mutual aid agreement that enables states to share resources during times of disaster. EMAC has grown to become the nationâs system for providing mutual aid through operational procedures and protocols that have been validated through experience. EMAC is administered by NEMA, the National Emergency Management Association, and headquartered in Lexington, Kentucky. EMAC acts as a complement to the federal disaster response system, providing timely and cost-effective relief to states requesting assistance from assisting member states (Adapted from FEMA-EMAC, 2007). Emergency Management/Response Personnel Includes federal, state, territorial, tribal, sub-state regional, and local governments, private- sector organizations, critical infrastructure owners and operators, nongovernmental orga- nizations (NGOs), and all other organizations and individuals who assume an emergency management role. Also known as Emergency Responder (See Section 2(6), Homeland Security Act of 2002, Pub. L. 107-296, 116 Stat. 2135 (2002) (NIMS, 2008). Emergency Response The planned and actual response by multiple agencies to incidents that can include acts of terrorism, wildland and urban fires, floods, hazardous material spills, nuclear accidents, aircraft accidents, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, tropical storms, war-related disasters, public health and medical emergencies [Adapted from (NIMS, 2008). The phases of ER are plan, prepare, respond, and recover (NRF, 2008)]. Emergency Transportation Operations (ETO) A coordinated, performance-oriented, all-hazards approach to support the development of a formal program for the improved management of traffic incidents, natural disasters, security events, and other emergencies on the highway system. Focuses on an enhanced role for state departments of transportation (DOTs) as participants with the public safety community in an interagency process. (Adapted from NCHRP Report 525, Volume 6, 2005). Exercises An activity requiring the performance, integration, and coordination of response activities by several individuals and teams. Exercises (except for tabletop exercises) normally involve mobi- lization of personnel and resources. As noted in HSEEP Volume I, an exercise is carried out to train for, assess, practice, and improve performance. It can also be used to test and validate
Glossary 347 policies, plans, procedures, training, equipment, and interagency agreements; clarify and train personnel in roles and responsibilities; improve interagency coordination and communica- tions; identify gaps in resources; improve individual performance; and identify opportunities for improvement (NCHRP Synthesis 468: Interactive Training for All-Hazards Emergency Planning, Preparation, and Response for Maintenance and Operations Field Personnel, 2015). First Responder Refers to those individuals who, in the early stages of an incident, are responsible for protecting and preserving life, property, evidence, and the environment, including emergency response providers as defined in Section 2 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (6 U.S.C. 101) as well as emergency management, public health, clinical care, public works, and other skilled support personnel (such as equipment operators) who provide immediate support services during prevention, response, and recovery operations (HSPD-8). Fusion Center Centers that integrate various streams of information and intelligence, including that flowing from the federal, state, [territorial,] tribal, and local governments as well as the private sector, providing a more accurate picture of risks to people, economic infrastructure, and communities that can be developed and translated into protective (e.g., preventative or responsive) actions. The ultimate goal of fusion is to prevent manmade (terrorist) attacks and to respond to natural disasters and manmade threats quickly and efficiently should they occur (Paraphrased from Rollins, 2008). Hazard Identification The identification of a hazard of concern during a risk assessment. Part of the first of four steps of THIRA (Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment) (Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 201, 2013). Incident An occurrence or event, natural or manmade, that requires a response to protect life or prop- erty. Incidents can include major disasters, emergencies, terrorist attacks, terrorist threats, civil unrest, wildland and urban fires, floods, hazardous materials spills, nuclear accidents, aircraft accidents, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, tropical storms, tsunamis, war-related disasters, public health and medical emergencies, and other occurrences requiring an emergency response (NIMS, 2008). Incident Command System (ICS) A standardized on-scene emergency management construct specifically designed to provide for the adoption of an integrated organizational structure that reflects the complexity and demands of single or multiple incidents, without being hindered by jurisdictional boundaries. ICS is the combination of facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures, and communications operating within a common organizational structure, designed to aid in the management of resources during incidents. It is used for all kinds of emergencies and is applicable to small as well as large and complex incidents. ICS is used by various jurisdictions and functional agencies, both public and private, to organize field-level incident management operations (NIMS, 2008). Incident, Traffic See Traffic Incident. Infrastructure Protection Securing critical infrastructure from all hazards by managing risk and enhancing resilience through collaboration with the critical infrastructure community (Modified from the Mission of the DHS Office of Infrastructure Protection).
348 A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies Major Disaster Any natural catastrophe (including any hurricane, tornado, storm, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, or drought) or, regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or explosion in any part of the United States, which, in the determination of the President, causes damage of sufficient severity and magni- tude to warrant major disaster assistance under [the Stafford] Act to supplement the efforts and available resources of states, local governments, and disaster relief organizations in alleviating the damage, loss, hardship, or suffering caused thereby (Stafford Act). Mission Area (National Preparedness Goal) The National Preparedness Goal identified five mission areas in which it groups the 32 core capabilities (the distinct critical elements needed to achieve the goal): Prevention, Protection, Mitigation, Response, and Recovery (FEMA âMission Areasâ page: https://www.fema.gov/ mission-areas). Mitigation (National Preparedness Goal) The Mitigation mission area comprises the capabilities necessary to reduce the loss of life and property by lessening the impact of disasters (FEMA âMission Areasâ page: https://www.fema.gov/ mission-areas). National Preparedness System The National Preparedness System outlines an organized process for everyone in the whole community to move forward with their preparedness activities and achieve the National Preparedness Goal. The National Preparedness System has six parts: Identifying and Assessing Risk; Estimating Capability Requirements; Building and Sustaining Capabilities; Planning to Deliver Capabilities; Validating Capabilities; and Review and Updating (FEMA âNational Prepared- ness Systemâ page: https://www.fema.gov/national-preparedness-system). Pandemic An epidemic that has spread over several countries or continents, usually affecting a large number of people. In contrast, an epidemic refers to an increase, often sudden, in the number of cases of a disease above what is normally expected in that population in that area (CDC Self-Study Course SS1978: Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health Practice, 2006). Physical Security The part of security concerned with measures/concepts designed to safeguard personnel; to prevent unauthorized access to equipment, installations, materiel, and documents; and to safeguard them against espionage, sabotage, damage, and theft (Security 101, 2009). Prevention (National Preparedness Goal) The Prevention mission area comprises the capabilities necessary to avoid, prevent, or stop a threatened or actual act of terrorism. It is focused on ensuring we are optimally prepared to prevent an imminent terrorist attack within the United States (FEMA âMission Areasâ page: https://www.fema.gov/missionareas). Protection (National Preparedness Goal) The Protection mission area comprises the capabilities necessary to secure the homeland against acts of terrorism and manmade or natural disasters (FEMA âMission Areasâ page: https://www. fema.gov/mission-areas). Recovery (National Preparedness Goal) The Recovery mission area comprises the core capabilities necessary to assist communities affected by an incident to recover effectively (FEMA âMission Areasâ page: https://www.fema.gov/ mission-areas).
Glossary 349 Resilience The ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from, and more successfully adapt to adverse events (Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative, 2012). Resource Management (1) Efficient incident management requires a system for identifying available resources at all jurisdic- tional levels to enable timely and unimpeded access to resources needed to prepare for, respond to, or recover from an incident. Resource management under the NIMS includes mutual aid agreements; the use of special federal, state, local, and tribal teams; and resource mobilization protocols (Security 101, 2009). Resource Management (2) Those actions taken by a government to identify sources and obtain resources needed to support disaster response activities; coordinate the supply, allocation, distribution, and delivery of resources so that they arrive where and when most needed; and maintain accountability for the resources used (Security 101, 2009). Response (National Preparedness Goal) The Response mission area comprises the capabilities necessary to save lives, protect property and the environment, and meet basic human needs after an incident has occurred (FEMA âMission Areasâ page: https://www.fema.gov/mission-areas). Risk Assessment (1) A systematic process whereby assets are identified and valuated, credible threats to those assets are enumerated, applicable vulnerabilities are documented, potential impacts or consequences of a loss event are described, and a qualitative or quantitative analysis of resulting risks is produced. Risks are generally reported in order of priority or severity and attached to some description of a level of risk (Security 101, 2009). Risk Assessment (2) A comprehensive study of a transit agency to identify components most vulnerable to criminal activity, including acts of terrorism and quasi-terrorism, and to assess the impact of such activity on passengers, employees, and the agency (Security 101, 2009). Risk Management (1) The process of selecting and implementing security countermeasures to achieve an acceptable level of risk (Security 101, 2009). Risk Management (2) The process of measuring or assessing risk and then developing strategies to manage the risk. Involves a prioritization process through which risks with the greatest adverse consequences and greatest probability of occurring are handled first, and risks with lower probability of occurrence and lower loss are handled later if at all. Requires balancing risks with a high probability of occur- rence but lower loss against risks with high loss but lower probability (Security 101, 2009). Security Awareness The capability of identifying, reporting, and reacting to suspicious activity and security incidents (Security 101, 2009). Establishing a security mindset of awareness in all employees can increase an agencyâs security effectiveness. Security awareness is the cornerstone of a security culture. In a security culture, security is an integral part of the daily routine. The importance of security to daily work is understood by all employees, and each one takes responsibility to know the security risks that exist and the corresponding, appropriate measures to address potential and actual security issues (Incorporating Transportation Security Awareness into Routine State DOT Operations and Training, 2014).
350 A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies Security Countermeasures Actions that can be taken to avoid or mitigate security threats, the cornerstones of which are detect, deter, deny, and defend. Space Weather Naturally occurring phenomena in the space environment that have the potential to disrupt technologies and systems in space and on Earth. These phenomena can affect satellite and airline operations, communications networks, navigation systems, the electric power grid, and other technologies and infrastructures critical to the daily functioning, economic vitality, and security of our nation (National Space Weather Strategy, 2015). Sustainability Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. One concept that adds context to sustainability is the triple bottom line. The triple bottom line includes three componentsâeconomic, environmental, and societal. In transportation, the triple bottom line relates to sustainable solutions in the areas of the natural environmental systems surrounding the transportation system, the economic efficiency of the system, and the societal needs (e.g., mobility, accessibility, safety, and equity) (2010 Status of the Nationâs Highways, Bridges, and Transit: Conditions & Performance, 2010). Traffic Incident Any nonrecurring event that reduces roadway capacity or an abnormal increase in demand. Such events include traffic crashes, disabled vehicles, spilled cargo, highway maintenance and recon- struction projects, and special nonemergency events (e.g., ball games, concerts, or any other event that significantly affects roadway operations) (FHWA, 2010). Traffic Incident Management A tool to achieve and maintain public safety, travel efficiency, and air quality standards by reduc- ing the impacts of traffic incidents (I-95CC, 2009). Training According to NCHRP Synthesis 468, training is the delivery of new information. Both training and exercises are integral parts of emergency planning and the emergency preparedness cycle; they are related but distinct from each other. In contrast, exercises provide the opportunity to practice knowledge, skills, and plans; are controlled activities conducted under realistic conditions; and range from tabletop exercises to full-scale exercises. For more information on training, NCHRP Synthesis 468 describes several training delivery methods: field crew meetings, just-in-time train- ing (JITT), Interjurisdictional and interagency training and exercises, joint training, asynchronous training, train-the-trainer, planned events and incidents, discussion-based and operations-based exercises, classroom training, online training with live instructors, and computer simulations (NCHRP Synthesis 468: Interactive Training for All-Hazards Emergency Planning, Preparation, and Response for Maintenance and Operations Field Personnel, 2015). Unified Command (UC) An application of ICS used when there is more than one agency with incident jurisdiction or when incidents cross political jurisdictions. Agencies work together through the designated members of the UC, often the senior person from agencies and/or disciplines participating in the UC, to establish a common set of objectives and strategies and a single Incident Action Plan (IAP) (NIMS, 2008). Vehicle Ramming A form of attack in which a perpetrator deliberately rams a vehicle into a building, a crowd of people, or another vehicle (Department of Homeland Security-FBI Warning: Terrorist Use of Vehicle Ramming Tactics, 2010).
Glossary 351 Vulnerability Assessment Systematic examination of a critical infrastructure, the interconnected systems on which it relies, its information, or product to determine the adequacy of security measures, identify security deficiencies, evaluate security alternatives, and verify the adequacy of such measures after imple- mentation. A systematic evaluation process in which qualitative and/or quantitative techniques are applied to arrive at an effectiveness level for a safeguards and security system to protect spe- cific targets from specific adversaries and their acts. In general, determining the vulnerability of a critical asset is the least difficult area of risk assessment. Both quantifiable and qualitative analysis can be performed to measure the current vulnerability status of the asset as well as the effect of ongoing risk management improvements. Similarly, the return on investment of future actions can be forecast with some level of certainty. Vulnerability assessment considers the likelihood of a given scenario occurring by chance or intention. Virginia also postulates susceptibility and resultant damage (Security 101, 2009).