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A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies (2020)

Chapter: Section 5 - Emergency Management Stakeholders and Regional Collaboration

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Suggested Citation:"Section 5 - Emergency Management Stakeholders and Regional Collaboration." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 5 - Emergency Management Stakeholders and Regional Collaboration." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 5 - Emergency Management Stakeholders and Regional Collaboration." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 5 - Emergency Management Stakeholders and Regional Collaboration." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 5 - Emergency Management Stakeholders and Regional Collaboration." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 5 - Emergency Management Stakeholders and Regional Collaboration." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 5 - Emergency Management Stakeholders and Regional Collaboration." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 5 - Emergency Management Stakeholders and Regional Collaboration." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 5 - Emergency Management Stakeholders and Regional Collaboration." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 5 - Emergency Management Stakeholders and Regional Collaboration." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 5 - Emergency Management Stakeholders and Regional Collaboration." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
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82 Organizational, Staffing, and Position Guidance To be ready for the agency’s role, a comprehensive emergency management program must be in place within the agency. Emergency management programs can be challenging for state DOTs and other transportation agencies, especially in terms of the coordination with other local, tribal, state, regional, and federal agencies that may be involved. There is no standard, one-size-fits-all organization or staffing guide for the state transportation agency emergency response planning process. Large transportation agencies may have dedicated emergency managers and staff. Small agencies do not have the resources for a full-time emergency manager, and the role may be taken on by someone in the maintenance division who is an engineer or responsible for safety. In smaller cities and counties, transportation is often part of the public works or general services department. As agency staffing levels shrink, functions may be contracted out to consultants or outside vendors. This section offers an overview of emergency management roles and responsibilities with some guiding principles for state transportation agencies to consider as they establish their emergency management process, and how an agency might position itself for effective planning, preparation, mitigation, response, and recovery. Executive Support NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 6: Guide for Emergency Transpor- tation Operations stresses the following: Executive-level support is crucial to the development of a more formal program approach to ensure that the responsibilities and resources are mobilized and targeted. Raising a fragmented set of responsi- bilities to the level of a resourced, managed program must overcome bureaucratic traditions and inertia, compete for resources, support new approaches, and forge new external relationships. These challenges require top executive leadership—starting at the policy level in agency headquarters and executed under the responsibility of the district and regional management levels. Such executive initiative and oversight are essential to ensure the following: • Foster an interagency focus on the complete array of incidents and emergencies. • Establish a formal program with senior responsibility, organization, and reporting. • Allocate adequate resources. • Establish objectives with related performance measures and accountability. • Develop agency policy, laws, regulations, and interagency agreements. In short, emergency management is for all those in leadership positions in the state transportation agency, not just those bearing titles alluding to emergency management responsibilities. S E C T I O N 5 Emergency Management Stakeholders and Regional Collaboration

Emergency Management Stakeholders and Regional Collaboration 83 ESF #1—Transportation The state DOT is typically assigned to be the lead agency for ESF #1. ESF #1 addresses the key response core capability of critical transportation and is described in the National Response Framework ESF Annexes as coordination of “the support of management of transporta- tion systems and infrastructure, the regulation of transportation, management of the nation’s airspace, and ensuring the safety and security of the national transportation system” (National Response Framework FEMA 2016). • “Monitoring and reporting status of and damage to the transportation system and infrastructure as a result of the incident • Identifying temporary alternative transportation solutions that can be implemented when systems or infrastructure are damaged, unavailable, or overwhelmed • Coordinating and supporting prevention, preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation activities among transportation stakeholders within the authorities and resource limitations of ESF #1 agencies” (2013 ESF #1—Transportation Annex). The state EMA establishes specific ESF #1 responsibilities of the state DOT. The state DOT then develops its preparedness plans based on assigned responsibilities and state and agency needs. For instance, TDOT’s 2015 Disaster Operational Guide establishes the following scope for the DOT’s ESF #1 responsibilities during disasters: • Ensure major routes and alternatives are open and available for use by incoming personnel, equipment, and supplies. • Ensure traffic control devices are in place and easily understood by emergency responders moving into an area, diverting unauthorized civilian traffic from the disaster areas, and assisting victims who are voluntarily leaving the disaster areas. This includes coordinating activities with ESF #13—Law Enforcement to provide staffed roadblocks and other control posts. • Ensure route conditions allow for the movement of any vehicles authorized to use a particular route. • When safe to do so, waive restrictions concerning weight, height, and width of vehicles as well as provisions concerning the hauling of HAZMAT, explosives, and other sensitive materials needed in the affected areas on a case-by-case basis. • Coordinate the use of vehicles carrying personnel and equipment to ensure maximum efficiency is utilized (i.e., vehicles are fully loaded to prevent duplication of effort, unnecessary trips, etc.). ESF #3—Public Works and Engineering The state DOT may in some states become the lead or co-lead agency for ESF #3, which addresses the following key response core capabilities: • Infrastructure systems • Critical transportation • Public and private services and resources • Environmental response, health, and safety • Fatality management • Mass care services • Mass search and rescue operations ESF #3 “coordinates the capabilities and resources to facilitate the delivery of services, techni- cal assistance, engineering expertise, construction management, and other support to prepare for, respond to, and/or recover from a disaster or an incident” (National Response Framework FEMA 2016). ESF #3—Public Works and Engineering for state DOTs are as follows: • “Provides technical expertise and assistance for repair and restoration of transportation infrastructure (e.g., highways, bridges, tunnels, transit systems, port facilities, and railways) and provides advice and assistance on the transportation of contaminated materials. • Provides engineering personnel and support to assist in damage assessment, structural inspections, debris clearing, and restoration of the nation’s transportation infrastructure.

84 A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies • Administers special funding that can be used for repair or reconstruction of major highway facilities as well as grant programs for transit systems and railroads that could be used for repair and rehabilitation of damaged infrastructure” (2008 ESF #3—Public Works and Engineering Annex). As an example, TDOT is the lead for ESF #3 Infrastructure Sub-functions, Route Clearance and Bridge Inspection Sub-function, and Debris Removal Sub-function. The Route Clearance and Bridge Inspection Sub-function . . . • “provides the capability of determining route conditions based on ground and aerial observations, and providing for removal of debris from roadways and airfields to open them up for use by responding personnel”; and • “provides for debris removal from major roadways after roadways are opened, and from other areas as determined by the Direction and Coordination group at the SEOC.” The Debris Removal Sub-function . . . • “coordinates the removal of debris generated through the demolition of unsafe structures, recovery activities, or through the disaster itself.” (TDOT 2015 Disaster Operational Guide.) Traffic Incident Management State DOTs, and tribal and local public works agencies along with safety/service patrols, address and manage traffic incidents on a daily basis. Field personnel also perform TIM activities during emergencies and disasters. FHWA’s TIM website provides a comprehensive summary of activities involved in TIM: • Assist in incident detection and verification. • Initiate traffic management strategies on incident impacted facilities. • Protect the incident scene. • Initiate emergency medical assistance until help arrives. • Provide traffic control. • Assist motorist with disabled vehicles. • Provide motorist information. • Provide sand for absorbing small fuel and anti-freeze spills. • Provide special equipment clearing incident scenes. • Determine incident clearance and roadway repair needs. • Establish and operate alternate routes. • Coordinate clearance and repair resources. • Serve as incident commander for clearance and repair functions. • Repair transportation infrastructure. (FHWA ETO/TIM website https://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/eto_tim_pse/about/tim.htm#ti.) During large-scale emergencies and disasters, TIM activities, such as damage assessment and debris removal, coincide with emergency response activities. Traffic Management Centers and Technologies TMCs monitor and manage transportation systems and support incident management through the deployment of ITS and other transportation technologies, such as traffic sensors, video surveillance, RWISs, traffic signal controls, and traveler information systems. TMCs are often co-located with EOCs and work closely with emergency response personnel from their DOT and from state and local police and fire departments to manage traffic incidents of all sizes and types. TMC personnel require training on these technologies and partnerships, so that they

Emergency Management Stakeholders and Regional Collaboration 85 are able to respond to and support larger-scale incidents. Specific TMC emergency support activities include the following: • Plan for anticipated events (hurricanes, winter storms, etc.). • Detect, verify, and monitor roadway conditions. • Assess transportation system damage and capacity. • Identify and manage public safety lifeline routes. • Develop and implement traffic control strategies to support emergency response and evacuation. • Manage detours and evacuation routes. • Dispatch maintenance and support vehicles. • Coordinate with local transportation agencies. • Develop event-specific operational strategies to address response phases. • Provide public information and traveler alerts. • Stabilize traffic demand in the affected area. • Conduct post-event debriefings. (2012 Role of Transportation Management Centers in Emergency Operations, FHWA Guide.) Emergency Management Stakeholder Responsibilities This section contains an overview of stakeholders and stakeholders’ responsibilities related to emergency management. The following tables identify roles and responsibilities for the following categories of stakeholders: • Federal agencies, including the U.S. DOT, the DHS, FEMA, and others (Table 6) • Regional organizations, including regional coalitions, such as the I-95 Coalition and the Central Earthquake Consortium, and regional advisory panels/planning councils, such as regional and metropolitan planning agencies (Table 7) • State, territorial, and tribal agencies, including the State Transportation Agency, the State Department of Emergency Management, State Public Works, National Guard, EOCs, and FCs (Table 8) • Local agencies, including law enforcement agencies, fire and rescue, emergency medical services, local utilities, and port authorities (Table 9) • Private partners, such as towing and recovery operators, HAZMAT contractors, insurance companies, and labor unions (Table 10) • Associations, including volunteer organizations, NGOs, CBOs, associations of cities, counties, sheriffs, police, EMS, FBOs, and others (Table 11) • Other organizations and people, such as technical societies, chambers of commerce, and citi- zens groups (Table 12) Regional Coordination Major events often have a regional impact. Smaller communities may be dependent on larger communities with regional infrastructure systems to recover quickly and efficiently. Infrastructure, such as bridges and rail and truck routes in neighboring jurisdictions, can greatly impact the regional economy and traffic flow. Surrounding communities can become host to evacuees from impacted areas, which may require traffic management and increased infrastructure capacity. Because of this, taking a regional approach to emergency manage- ment is a recommended practice. Regional joint planning helps efficiently identify and prepare supplementary support resources.

86 A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies Stakeholder Emergency Management Responsibilities U.S. DOT Serves as head of federal ESF #1. FHWA FHWA publishes accepted practices and planning documents to demonstrate what is being done around the country, including regarding traffic incident and emergency management. Other U.S. DOT Administrations Depending on the mode, other administrations may be stakeholders responsible for coordinating their agencies’ activities. DHS DHS is responsible for homeland security and emergency management as articulated in its mission statement: “We will lead the unified national effort to secure America. We will prevent and deter terrorist attacks and protect against and respond to threats and hazards to the Nation.” FEMA As a major department of DHS, FEMA leads the effort to prepare the nation for all hazards and effectively manage federal response and recovery efforts following any national incident. FEMA also initiates proactive mitigation activities, trains first responders, and manages the National Flood Insurance Program and the U.S. Fire Administration. FEMA is a major provider of emergency management policy and financial support for emergency operations. Transportation Security Administration (TSA) TSA, a major part of DHS, is primarily responsible for the security of airports and the flying public, highways, commercial vehicle operations, and other modes. U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Lead federal agency for the Marine Transportation System (MTS). USCG Marine Transportation System Recovery Unit (MTSRU) provides a holistic coordinating approach and collective informed decisions for reopening the waterways. MTSRUs are established at national, regional or district, and local levels. USCG Captain of the Port provides command and control of port during emergencies. U.S. Secret Service (USSS) Lead federal agency for developing and implementing the operations plan for National Special Security Events (NSSE). Table 6. Federal agencies. Stakeholder Emergency Management Responsibilities Regional Coalitions There are many multistate regional organizations in the nation. One example is the I-95 Corridor Coalition, which provides information exchange, promotes standardization of practices, and provides training. Another example is the Central U.S. Earthquake Consortium, which provides support to multistate response and recovery planning, resource acquisition; public education and awareness; promotion; mitigation; and research associated with earthquake preparedness in the central United States. It also serves as a “coordinating hub” for the region, performing the critical role of coordinating the multistate efforts of the region. Advisory Panels/Planning Councils Multiple stakeholder local, state, federal government and public-/private- sector agency organizations that are involved in preplanning and developing incident management protocols and training exercises. They may address stakeholder interagency coordination and communications roles, responsibilities, and protocols. Table 7. Regional organizations.

Emergency Management Stakeholders and Regional Collaboration 87 Stakeholder Emergency Management Responsibilities State Transportation Agency or Territorial/Tribal Equivalent The state transportation agency (usually a DOT) is responsible for the operations and maintenance of the highway system. It normally conducts overall planning and implementation of TIM programs. In some regions, it is also involved in developing, implementing, and operating TMCs; providing ITS; and managing incident response patrols. Department of Emergency Management (DEM) The DEM (often called by other names) has the statutory responsibility for overall emergency management at the state level. The state DEM ensures that the state is prepared to respond to emergencies, recover from them, and mitigate their impacts. It typically operates an SEOC, which is activated for governor-declared emergencies (GDE) in response to any major hazard. A number of other state agencies take part in both developing state EOPs and helping staff the SEOC when it is activated. State Public Works Department (DPW) Public works departments primarily support efforts to provide traffic control, ensure public safety, and disseminate information to the motoring public. Responsibilities of public works departments include additional roles, such as debris removal, sanitation, permitting, parking management, and others. State Patrol (SP) or Highway Patrol The State Patrol is generally the state’s largest traffic law enforcement agency, except for large metropolitan police forces. SPs are typically responsible for managing the majority of incidents on all state routes. They are involved in all aspects of TIM from incident detection to clearance and in emergency response from response to recovery. Department of Military (DM) or National Guard The National Guard is generally called up by the governor to keep order, protect life and property, and otherwise assist in emergencies, particularly in evacuations and recovery operations. In some very serious catastrophes, the DM or National Guard may be federalized and operate under the U.S. Department of Defense. Department of Law Enforcement (DLE) DLE’s role is generally confined to criminal investigations. Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) The state DEP is the state’s lead agency for environmental management. The department administers regulatory programs and issues permits for air, water, and waste management. Emergency Operations Center EOCs are the organizations primarily charged with managing emergencies. They are typically operated at the state level (SEOC) for major disasters as well as at the regional (usually county) level (LEOC) for more locally focused incidents or to coordinate with other EOCs for larger incidents. EOCs may be organized in a number of ways, but most tend to follow the guideline outlined in the NRF, namely the 15 Emergency Support Functions, or ESFs. Typically, the SEOC is only activated for a GDE. Regional EOCs may be partially or fully activated by designated local authorities, generally the board of county commissioners (for a general state of emergency), mayor, or county administrator (for local emergencies), and so forth. Each EOP should make clear what the activation levels are, who is activated for each level, and who has the authority to direct the activation. Intelligence Fusion Center (FC) FCs operate as state and major urban area focal points for the receipt, analysis, gathering, and sharing of threat-related information between federal; state, local, tribal, territorial; and private-sector partners. Joint Telecommunications Centers Many states have joint communications groups that operate the state law enforcement radio system or some common telecommunications system. In some states, this group participates in the state law enforcement dispatch centers. Ideally, these should be linked to TMCs as well. In some states, they are co-located with TMCs. Authorities Transportation authorities operate much like states or territories and perform similar functions; however, they are semi-autonomous. Table 8. State, territorial, and tribal agencies.

88 A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies Stakeholder Emergency Management Responsibilities Law Enforcement (Police and Sheriffs) Generally, limited-access and state highways are part of the national transportation system and are primarily patrolled and responded to by the State Patrol; however, some limited-access routes and most state roads within local municipality city limits are the responsibility of the city police. General law enforcement TIM/emergency response responsibilities are as follows: • Assist in incident detection. • Secure the incident scene. • Serve as incident commander. • Clear minor incidents quickly. • Assist disabled motorists. • Provide emergency medical assistance until help arrives. • Direct traffic through/around the incident. • Conduct crash investigations. • Maintain private towing contracts. • Ensure rapid response of recovery and towing contractors. • Safeguard personal property in all emergencies. • Promote laws, policies, practices, and public awareness campaigns to promote quick clearance and recovery. Fire Rescue Fire and rescue services are provided by local fire departments and by surrounding fire departments through mutual aid agreements. The fire department is the primary emergency response incident command agency for fire suppression, HAZMAT spills, rescue, and extrication of trapped crash victims. Typical fire department TIM/emergency response responsibilities include the following: • Protect the incident scene. • Serve as incident commander during fire-related stages. • Provide traffic control until police or state transportation agency arrival. • Provide emergency medical care. • Provide initial HAZMAT response and containment. • Provide fire suppression. • Rescue crash victims from wrecked vehicles. • Rescue crash victims from contaminated environments. • Arrange transportation for the injured. • Assist in incident clearance and emergency recovery. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) The primary responsibility of EMS is the triage, treatment, and transport of crash victims. Private companies often provide patient transport under contract. Typical TIM/emergency response roles and responsibilities assumed by EMS can include the following: • Provide emergency medical care. • Serve as incident commander for medical emergencies. • Determine destination and transportation requirements for the injured. • Coordinate victim evacuation with fire, police, and ambulance or airlift. • Determine approximate cause of injuries for the trauma center. • Remove medical waste from incident scenes. In some locations, EMS is an integral part of fire departments; some fire fighters are dual certified as fire fighters and EMS paramedics. Medical Examiner/Coroner By law, Medical Examiners (or Coroners) are responsible for investigating deaths that result from anything other than natural causes. As such, they play an important role in investigating fatal accidents that occur on roadways and in other emergencies. They can cooperate with other responders by enabling those responders to remove deceased persons from the roadway, and even from the scene—under mutually agreed upon circumstances. Table 9. Local agencies.

Emergency Management Stakeholders and Regional Collaboration 89 Stakeholder Emergency Management Responsibilities City and County Public Works and Traffic Engineering City and county transportation agencies have roles similar to the state transportation agencies but at the local level. They are responsible for the highways not included under the state’s highway system. Transit Agencies (public or private, including school buses) Transit vehicles are a critical component for moving large groups of people to be evacuated, sheltered-in-place, or quarantined. It is important to have agreements in place to activate fleets to carry out this function. Operators need to be trained in fundamental care for disabled and transportation- disadvantaged persons. Port Authorities Organizations, that may own, lease, or operate port cargo terminals, docks, cranes, offices, and other equipment and services. Local Utility Companies (electricity, gas, water, waste management) Ensures needed power, water, and other services are supplied. Table 9. (Continued). Stakeholder Emergency Management Responsibilities Towing and Recovery Operators Towing and recovery service providers are responsible for the safe and efficient removal of wrecked or disabled vehicles and debris from the incident scene. Their typical responsibilities include the following: • Remove vehicles from incident scene. • Protect victims’ property and vehicles. • Remove debris from the roadway. • Provide transportation for uninjured vehicle occupants. Towing and recovery companies that respond to highway incidents are indispensable components of all TIM programs. Even programs that include incident response patrols with relocation capability depend on towing and recovery service providers. The towing and recovery service providers face unique challenges. HAZMAT Contractors HAZMAT contractors are hired by emergency or transportation authorities to clean up and dispose of toxic materials or HAZMAT. Their TIM role and responsibilities include the following: • Determine proper/prudent method of HAZMAT cleanup and disposal. • Dispose of HAZMAT or provide on-site cleanup. • Participate in the unified command at HAZMAT scenes. Asset Maintenance/ Management Contractors When used by the state transportation agency, these contractors serve in the same role as the agency’s maintenance forces. It is important in drafting these contracts to clearly define contractor responsibilities for emergency response and TIM. Motor Carrier Companies Motor carriers, particularly through their professional and trade associations, can improve awareness of good TIM practices to their drivers, such as assisting in quick clearance, which can lead to better incident management overall. Insurance Companies These insure people, vehicles, and property, but they can also promote safe practices in incident response. Traffic Media The media report on incidents, alert motorists, and provide alternate route and other critical information. They are a close partner, and the relationships with incident and emergency management officials must be based on mutual trust. Labor Unions Labor unions ensure appropriate safety, working conditions, and hours of operation for represented workforce. Table 10. Private partners.

90 A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies Table 11. Associations. Stakeholder Emergency Management Responsibilities Volunteer Organizations, NGOs, CBOs, and FBOs The American Red Cross and many other associations are vital partners in emergency response. Their specific role and responsibilities should be well defined in the EOPs. Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster (VOAD) is an association of organizations that mitigate and alleviate the impact of disasters. It provides a forum promoting cooperation, communication, coordination, and collaboration. It also fosters more effective delivery of services to communities affected by disaster. Automobile Associations These organizations assist agencies, support TIM/emergency management programs, and inform motorists of good practices. Technical Societies (e.g., state chapters) These assist agencies, support TIM/emergency management programs, and provide training. Associations of Cities, Counties, Sheriffs, Police, and EMS These assist agencies, support programs, and provide training, but they are more generally involved in emergency management. Chambers of Commerce These could assist agencies by supporting TIM/emergency management programs and engaging businesses in good preparedness practices. Ground/Maritime/Intermodal Trade Associations (e.g., IAEM, AASHTO, American Association of Port Authorities These member organizations support information gathering and sharing and member-issued identification, training, and advocacy. Table 12. Other organizations and people. Stakeholder Emergency Management Responsibilities Citizens for Better Transportation (state-by-state) These groups can assist agencies, support TIM/emergency management programs, and lobby for favorable legislation. Citizens Groups These could be useful channels for outreach, both through speaking engagements as well as programmatic undertakings by the organizations. Individuals and Families All should be encouraged to practice good preparedness, such as having generators, adequate emergency supplies and equipment; making escape and evacuation plans and arrangements for pets; stocking up on fuel, food, and medicines; and identifying vital papers in advance of impending emergencies. Planning practices used by agencies for regional emergency transportation planning include the development of checklists, timetables, and clear, easy-to-follow instructions to carry out traffic control set up and emergency routing orders. The development and coordination of plans for the management of transportation systems during post-event reentry has also been identified as an effective planning strategy. Other findings include the following: • Transportation planning for emergencies was most commonly addressed in regional or state plans and annexes. • Reentry and recovery plans were less common regional practices. • The survey results indicated a lack of planning for using available transportation modes in emergencies and other events. While multiple transportation modes were available in survey respondents’ regions, the percentages of those modes included in emergency plans decreased significantly.

Emergency Management Stakeholders and Regional Collaboration 91 • Regions with some type of a planning organization were predominately represented; however, planning organizations’ participation in transportation around emergencies and planned events was not a widespread practice. • Barriers to effective regional transportation planning for emergencies, disasters, planned special events, or events of national significance were issues related to funding, limited time and staff resources, communication between agencies and across various organizational levels, and traditional stovepipes in and between organizations. Role of MPOs The paper titled The Role of the Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) in Preparing for Security Incidents and Transportation System Response focused on the role of the MPOs in security incidents, both before and after the event occurs. Due to their function as a forum for cooperative decision-making, the MPO can play an instrumental role in the coordinated planning efforts to address the threats of terrorist attacks and natural disasters. The MPO has a critical role to play for three primary reasons: the MPO’s role of being capable of technically analyzing the transportation network, as a forum for cooperative decision-making, and as a funder of regional transportation strategies. The most basic method in which security can be incorporated into the metropolitan transportation planning process is by explicitly considering, prioritizing, and selecting transportation projects and planning studies that enhance security in the region. . . . Planning studies that examine vulnerabilities of the region’s transportation system can be an effective way to enhance the region’s security as well. Source: The Role of The Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) in Preparing for Security Incidents and Transportation System Response, Michael D. Meyer, Ph.D., P.E., Georgia Institute of Technology (2002). The paper concluded that the MPO “. . . has a critical role to play” as a medium for collabo- ration, as a financial resource for planning, and as a resource for transportation system analysis. MPOs can form a critical partners group or take part in existing groups focused on emergency management. Developing a dialogue and documenting the existing regional emergency response and incident management chains of command and communication channels are necessary to identify areas for possible increased coordination and collaboration. Examples of the role that MPOs can play in emergency management include the following: • Act as forum for regional assessment. • Plan and coordinate regional evacuation routes. • Coordinate signage and public education and information dissemination strategies with regional emphasis. • Maintain a database of critical transportation routes and traffic flow, infrastructure, and shel- tering. Cooperation with regional stakeholders is important in defining regionally significant transportation infrastructure for which data and information should be continually collected and monitored by the MPO. • Coordinate all-hazards training exercises and activities with neighboring jurisdictions, and state and federal agencies. • Be a central point of distribution for planning and recovery strategies and policies. • Establish and sustain regional emergency management partnerships. – Evaluate its existing Public Participation Plan (PPP) to ensure adequate input is provided for entities involved in incident management and emergency management. – Identify regionally significant entities involved in incident management and emergency management and response as it develops all its major modal plans as well as smaller subarea and corridor studies. A Case Study of California MPOs is included in Appendix B.

92 A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies Mutual Aid and Emergency Management Assistance Compact State DOTs provide and receive mutual aid to and from other states and organizations using mutual aid agreements and mutual aid plans. Mutual aid operational plans include a schedule of training and exercises for validation of plan design, concept, implementation and commu- nications, logistics, and administrative structure, and it affords practice opportunities to emer- gency response providers (Draft 2017 NIMS Guideline for Mutual Aid). EMAC is an example of interstate/tribe/territory mutual aid compact, and it is described in Section 2. Understanding and being able to execute tasks related to EMAC and other mutual aid agreements are important and require appropriate training.

Next: Section 6 - Emergency Management Training and Exercises »
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State transportation agencies will always fulfill a role in the emergency-management effort - for all incidents, from the routine traffic incident through major emergencies to catastrophic events. State agency plans and procedures are expected (indeed required if the agency seeks federal compensation) to be related to state and regional emergency structures and plans. This involves multi-agency, multi‐jurisdictional cooperation in emergency planning and operations.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Research Report 931: A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies is an update to a 2010 guide that provided an approach to all‐hazards emergency management and documented existing practices in emergency-response planning.

Significant advances in emergency management, changing operational roles at State DOTs and other transportation organizations, along with federal guidance issued since 2010, have resulted in a need to reexamine requirements for state transportation agency emergency-management functions, roles, and responsibilities.

The report is accompanied by NCHRP Web-Only Document 267:Developing a Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies and a PowerPoint presentation that offers an overview and key findings, among other information.

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