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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidelines for Collecting, Applying, and Maintaining Pavement Condition Data at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25566.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidelines for Collecting, Applying, and Maintaining Pavement Condition Data at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25566.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidelines for Collecting, Applying, and Maintaining Pavement Condition Data at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25566.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidelines for Collecting, Applying, and Maintaining Pavement Condition Data at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25566.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidelines for Collecting, Applying, and Maintaining Pavement Condition Data at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25566.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidelines for Collecting, Applying, and Maintaining Pavement Condition Data at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25566.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidelines for Collecting, Applying, and Maintaining Pavement Condition Data at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25566.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidelines for Collecting, Applying, and Maintaining Pavement Condition Data at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25566.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidelines for Collecting, Applying, and Maintaining Pavement Condition Data at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25566.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidelines for Collecting, Applying, and Maintaining Pavement Condition Data at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25566.
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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 203 2019 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Maintenance and Preservation Guidelines for Collecting, Applying, and Maintaining Pavement Condition Data at Airports David Peshkin Peter-Paul F. Dzwilewski Kyle M. Potvin Katherine Gauthier Monty Wade Applied pAvement technology, inc. Urbana, IL Eric Risner Ryan Robinson Chris Snyder Marianne Cardwell Woolpert, inc. Dayton, OH Kieran Feighan pmS ltd. Dublin, Ireland

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 203 Project 09-17 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48059-8 Library of Congress Control Number 2019945914 © 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photo credit: Applied Pavement Technology, Inc. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under ACRP Project 09-17 by Applied Pavement Technology, Inc. (APTech). Woolpert, Inc., and PMS Ltd. (Ireland) served as subcontractors in this study. From APTech, Mr. David Peshkin, P.E., was the Principal Investigator and his APTech co-authors include Peter-Paul Dzwilewski, P.E.; Kyle Potvin, P.E.; Katherine Gauthier, P.E.; and Monty Wade, P.E. From Woolpert, co-authors include Eric Risner, P.E.; Ryan Robinson, P.E.; Chris Snyder, P.E.; and Marianne Cardwell. The PMS Ltd. co-author is Dr. Kieran Feighan. The authors gratefully acknowledge all of the individuals and agencies that took the time to respond to the project surveys. The following individuals from the airports participating in the case studies went to great lengths to respond to the researchers’ questions, provide additional information, and contribute timely reviews. Their input was invaluable and their contributions are greatly appreciated. • Houston Airport System (Houston, Texas) – Mr. Vince Hamilton, PMP, GISP; Mr. Dev Raj Pokhrel, P.E.; Mr. Scott B. Hill, PMP, SFP (all of HAS) • Salt Lake City Department of Airports (Salt Lake City, Utah) – Nathan Mendenhall and Nathan Bolander • Dublin Airport (Ireland) – Paul Cumiskey • Columbus Regional Airport Authority (Columbus, Ohio) – Mr. David Gotschall • Gerald R. Ford International Airport Authority (Grand Rapids, Michigan) – Mr. Casey Ries • North Dakota (statewide) – Mr. Kyle Wanner, P.E. (NDDOT) • Missouri (statewide) – Mr. Andrew Hanks (MoDOT), Ms. Amy Ludwig (MoDOT), Joe Pestka (Jviation), Cindy Kever (Jviation) CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 203 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Megan A. Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Scott E. Hitchcock, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 09-17 PANEL Field of Maintenance Casey W. Ries, Gerald R. Ford International Airport, Grand Rapids, MI (Chair) Alexander K. Bernier, Stantec, Hartford, CT Angela R. Newland, CCI Engineering Services, Fort Myers, FL Owen K. Silbaugh, Jr., Massachusetts DOT, East Boston, MA Dianne L. Walker, DW LLC, Detroit, MI Kelvin C.P. Wang, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK Gregory D. Cline, FAA Liaison Albert Larkin, FAA Liaison

ACRP Research Report 203: Guidelines for Collecting, Applying, and Maintaining Pavement Condition Data at Airports provides guidance for airports on best practices in collecting and using airfield pavement condition data. As part of the pavement management process the data are used to determine the Pavement Condition Index (PCI), which in turn is used to inform and improve operations, maintenance, and capital improvement programs. The availability of guidance to help airports determine the best approaches to collect, apply, and maintain pavement condition data has not kept pace with rapid changes in the associated technology, and this report was developed to address the need for guidance on the strategies available for pavement condition data collection, use, and storage. Decision tools (decision trees and matrices) are used to present appropriate strategies. Many airports approach this topic differently, and with new technologies deployed, there will continue to be a broad range of practices. The guidelines presented will help those involved in airport pavement condition data to sort through associated decisions related to those practices. Many airports have developed pavement management programs; however, there are challenges related to the collection and use of pavement condition data. Data are being collected in accordance with ATSM D5340, but by a number of different methods and at different levels: network-level, project-level, and maintenance and repair. The collection of pavement condition data and the reporting of PCI are time-consuming and expen- sive. Obstacles such as aircraft operations that limit the ability to collect the data may be addressed by evolving technologies. The data are used in a number of applications, includ- ing determining the need for maintenance and repair; however, the industry is not realizing the full value of the data being collected. In addition, the data are frequently not reported in a manner that is easily usable by airports in creating their operational, maintenance and capital plans. Airports need better guidance to determine the best methods to use in the collection, interpretation, application, and maintenance of pavement condition data. Research for the guidelines under ACRP Project 09-17 included surveys, interviews, and case studies. Applied Pavement Technology, Inc., led the research in association with Woolpert, Inc. and PMS Ltd. Seven case studies of pavement condition data practices high- light the range of approaches that are used, from small- to large-hub airports as well as by agencies responsible for managing multiple airports. The case studies, Appendix B of the report, can be found on the report web page at www.trb.org by searching for “ACRP Research Report 203.” F O R E W O R D By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

1 Chapter 1 Introduction 4 Chapter 2 Importance of Pavement Condition Data in Managing Pavements 4 FAA Guidance on Pavement Condition 5 Identify Pavement Maintenance Needs 6 Identify Candidate Pavements for Preservation 9 Report on Pavement Performance, Performance Over Time, and the Rate of Change 12 Prepare Multi-Year CIPs and Communicate Needs 13 Summary 15 Chapter 3 Condition Data Types and Collection Methods 15 Types of Pavement Condition 15 Pavement Distress 16 Longitudinal Profile 17 Surface Characteristics 19 Structural Condition 20 Pavement Condition Collection Methods 20 Pavement Distress 27 Longitudinal Profile 30 Surface Characteristics 31 Structural Condition 33 Summary 34 Chapter 4 Uses of Pavement Condition Data 34 Compliance with FAA Regulations 34 Network-Level Management 35 Pavement Inventory 35 Pavement Condition 35 Pavement Deflection 36 Strategic-Level Management 38 Initial Strategic Planning 43 Strategic Plan Finalization 45 Project-Level Assessment 45 Pavement Condition/Distress Mapping 46 Pavement Deflection 48 Maintenance and Repair Plans 48 Troubleshooting and Forensic Investigations 48 Communication of Conditions and Plans to Stakeholders 50 Summary C O N T E N T S

51 Chapter 5 Shared Uses and Presentation of Condition Data 51 Condition Data User Categories 51 Maintenance 51 Operations 52 Engineering 52 Planning and Management 52 Other Agencies and Groups 53 Project- and Network-Level Condition Data 53 Presentation of Historic Condition Data and Results 53 Hard Copy Report Documents 56 PMP Software and Condition Data Databases 58 Presentation of Current Condition Data and Results 58 Interactive PMP Websites 61 Future Developments 62 Rehabilitation Act Section 508 Compliance 62 Summary 63 Chapter 6 Data Storage, Maintenance, and Access 63 Data Storage 64 Internal Data Storage 65 External Data Storage 66 Cloud-Based Data Storage 66 Software as a Service 67 Maintaining Data Integrity 67 Data Access 68 Geographic Information Systems 70 Data Governance Standards 71 Summary 74 Chapter 7 Data Collection Guidelines 74 Decision Trees 75 Factors Within Decision Trees 76 Inspection Density Background 76 Pavement Condition Data Collection from Non-Manual Inspections 76 Use for FAA Compliance 78 Frequency of Pavement Condition Data Collection 79 Use by Management 81 Use by Engineering or Other Technical Departments 87 Other Uses 90 Condition Data Cost and Value 92 Chapter 8 Next Generation Pavement Condition Data 92 Improved Compliance 93 Faster Data Collection and Processing 93 Lower Costs 94 Greater Accuracy 94 Improved Access to Data 94 Improved Decisions 95 Recommendations for Additional Research

97 References 98 Glossary A-1 Appendix A Decision Tree Example B-1 Appendix B Case Studies

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“Pavement condition data” are essential inputs to the process of managing airport pavements and ensuring safe operations. The technology available today to collect pavement condition data is considerably different from that available even 20 years ago, and new technologies are being developed and introduced into practice at a rapid pace.

ACRP Research Report 203: Guidelines for Collecting, Applying, and Maintaining Pavement Condition Data at Airports provides guidance on the collection, use, maintenance, and application of pavement condition data at airports. Such data include conditions that are visually observed as well as those that are obtained by mechanical measurement or other means. Visually observed distresses on a pavement surface (such as cracking, rutting, patching, and spalling) are widely used and accepted as indicators of pavement performance.

A key part of the background study leading to this report was the development of case studies of seven airports or airport agencies on their experiences with pavement data collection, use, and management. They include: Houston Airport System (Houston, Texas), Salt Lake City Department of Airports (Salt Lake City, Utah), Dublin International (Dublin, Ireland), Columbus Regional Port Authority (Columbus, Ohio), Gerald R. Ford International Airport Authority (Grand Rapids, Michigan), North Dakota (statewide), and Missouri (statewide).

Additional Resources:

  • An Appendix with case studies of airports and agencies based on responses to the project survey, the experience of the project team, and input from the ACRP project panel.
  • This presentation template is based on the content of ACRP Research Report 203. It provides information on airport pavement condition data collection, use, and storage that can be customized by a presenter to cover a subset of the overall ACRP report.
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