National Academies Press: OpenBook

The Science of Effective Mentorship in STEMM (2019)

Chapter: Appendix A: Glossary

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Science of Effective Mentorship in STEMM. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25568.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Science of Effective Mentorship in STEMM. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25568.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Science of Effective Mentorship in STEMM. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25568.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Science of Effective Mentorship in STEMM. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25568.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Science of Effective Mentorship in STEMM. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25568.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Science of Effective Mentorship in STEMM. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25568.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Science of Effective Mentorship in STEMM. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25568.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Science of Effective Mentorship in STEMM. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25568.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Science of Effective Mentorship in STEMM. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25568.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Science of Effective Mentorship in STEMM. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25568.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Science of Effective Mentorship in STEMM. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25568.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Science of Effective Mentorship in STEMM. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25568.
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A Glossary TERM MEANING Advising A potential career support function that involves providing feedback about specific questions, such as the classes a student needs to take to graduate Affinity A similarity of characteristics Ambient heterosexist “Insensitive verbal and symbolic (but non- harassment assaultive) behaviors that convey animosity toward non-heterosexuality” that “take place within the environment but are not directed at a specific target, such as the telling of [heterosexist] jokes that can be heard by anyone within earshot.” (Silverschanz et al., 2008, pg 180) Antecedents A thing or event that existed before or logically precedes another Assessment Method or tool used to evaluate, measure, and document an educational variable of interest; can be formative—used to change behaviors or practice and to inform decision-making about programs—or summative—used to demonstrate effectiveness and impact of practices, behaviors, or programs 225 PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

226 Th e S c i e n c e o f E f f e c t i v e Me n to r sh i p i n ST E M M TERM MEANING Attrition The loss of participants, such as students, over time Bidirectional Functioning in two directions Cascade mentoring A mentorship structure in which mid-level mentees become mentors to incoming mentees, while maintaining their mentoring relationships with more senior mentors, intended to distribute support and information in a generational fashion Coaching Activities that are most often focused on addressing specific issues for achieving career aspirations or imparting specific competencies in the near term, such as how to write a scientific paper Collective or group Multiple mentors working collaboratively to support mentorship multiple mentees who may also provide each other with peer support Colorblindness The notion that society is nonracial, and that ethnicity and skin color is of no consequence for individual life chances or governmental policy (adapted from Ansell, 2008); an approach to social or professional interactions that include focusing exclusively on individual performance measures without consideration of factors that are highly correlated with performance of their social identities such as social identities, their cultural background, and additional social context. This tends to privilege individuals with better preparation, higher social capital, and fewer additional obligations—often White, male, single, full-time, non-first-generation students from higher socioeconomic backgrounds. Communities of practice “Groups of people who share a concern or passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly” (Lave and Wenger, 1991). Competencies The skills and abilities required to do something successfully or efficiently Construct validity The soundness of the inferences about the conceptual elements of a theory made from the results of a data- gathering process PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Appendix A 227 TERM MEANING Continuing-generation Students that have at least one college-educated students parent Correlates Each of two or more related or complementary things Critical race theory A theory that “analyzes the role of race and racism in perpetuating social disparities between dominant and marginalized racial groups.” Its purpose is to, “unearth what is taken for granted when analyzing race and privilege, as well as the profound patterns of exclusion that exist in U.S. society” (Hiraldo, 2010) Cultural capital The level of comfort a student has in enacting behaviors that are consistent with the dominant culture surrounding them (Bills, 2003) Cultural identity A social identity that is associated with a nationality, ethnicity, religion, social class, generation, or any group defined by a distinct culture Culturally responsive “Using the cultural knowledge, prior experiences, frames of reference, and performance styles of ethnically diverse students to make learning encounters more relevant to and effective for them.” (Gay, 2010) Deep-level similarity Similar identity traits that include shared attitudes, goals, interests, values, and even perceived similarity in problem-solving style Diversity “The similarities and differences between individuals, accounting for all aspects of one’s personality and individual identity. It implies variety in characteristics like race, [gender], or age” (Young, 2018) Dyadic data analysis A general methodology that captures the reciprocal nature of a relationship and its influence on both members in the relationship (Kenny, 1994; Kenny et al., 2006) Dyadic mentorship/ Mentoring relationships involving two individuals mentoring dyads E-mentoring Mentorship that takes place using assistive technology and individuals rarely, if ever, meet in person PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

228 Th e S c i e n c e o f E f f e c t i v e Me n to r sh i p i n ST E M M TERM MEANING Ecological momentary A research technique that “involves repeated assessment sampling of subjects’ current behaviors and experiences in real time, in subjects’ natural environments” (Shiffman et al., 2008) Effect size A statistical concept that measures the strength of the relationship between two outcomes Ego network analysis The study of connections, or lack thereof, of a single individual and the resources available, or not, to the individual through their connections Evaluation The process of determining the merit, worth, value, or impact of a program, practice, or behavior Experience sampling A research technique that asks individuals to “provide systematic self-reports at random occasions during the waking life of a normal week. Sets of these self-reports from a sample of individuals create an archival file of daily experience” (Larson and Csikszentmihalyi, 2014) First-generation students Students who are the first members of their families to attend college Formal mentorship/ formal Mentoring relationships or programs in which an mentoring relationship individual or program has specific responsibilities related to the progress and success of the mentee, and where the parties are formally assigned and expected to engage in mentorship. Such relationships may include an evaluative or supervisory function in which the mentor is responsible for overseeing and evaluating the mentee’s progress and success, such as in a primarily research context in STEM Grey literature References including “trial registries, conference abstracts, books, dissertations, monographs and reports held by…government agencies, academics, business, and industry” (NAS-NAE-IOM, 2011b). Newspapers, magazines, and web pages are also considered to be components of the grey literature. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Appendix A 229 TERM MEANING Holding environment “A reliable environment where individuals feel safe to examine and interact with what their world can and should present, even when they are anxious, inexperienced, challenged, unmotivated, or misdirected” (Audrey Murrell’s remarks at workshop 1) Identity Composite of who a person is, the way one thinks about oneself, the way one is viewed by the world, and the characteristics that one uses to define oneself, such as gender identification, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, nationality, and even one’s profession Identity interference When cultural meanings and stereotypes assigned to social identities cause those with multiple identities to feel that one identity interferes with the successful performance of another identity Implicit bias “Attitudes or stereotypes that affect [the holder’s] understanding, actions, and decisions in an unconscious manner. These biases, which encompass both favorable and unfavorable assessments, are activated involuntarily and without an individual’s [conscious] awareness or intentional control.” (OSU, 2015) Imposter syndrome “an internal experience of intellectual phoniness” (Clance and Imes, 1978) Incivility Low-intensity conduct that lacks a clear intent to harm but nevertheless violates social norms and injures targeted employees (Cortina, 2008) Inclusion Efforts used to embrace differences; also used to describe how much each person feels welcomed, respected, supported, and valued in a given context PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

230 Th e S c i e n c e o f E f f e c t i v e Me n to r sh i p i n ST E M M TERM MEANING Inclusive excellence A philosophical approach to higher education administration and processes that means attending to both the demographic diversity of students/ trainees and the need for developing climates and cultures in institutions so that all have a chance to succeed in STEMM. For purposes of this report, this includes a mindset where excellence and inclusion are synonymous, a concern for equity in STEMM, active work to develop mentee’s capacities and assets, and a commitment to their success by faculty and the institution. This definition is close to the original term developed by AAC&U initiatives and adopted by its Board of Directors. More information is available at www.aacu.org/about/statements/2013/ diversity; accessed on August 17, 2019. Informal mentorship/ Mentoring relationships that evolve spontaneously informal mentoring and informally (Ragins and Cotton, 1999), with no relationship specified responsibilities and involve no evaluative or supervisory function Intentionality A calculated and coordinated method of engagement to effectively meet the needs of a designated person or population within a given context Intersectionality The complex, cumulative way in which the effects of multiple elements of identity (such as race, gender, and class) combine, overlap, or intersect especially in the experiences of marginalized individuals or groups Intervention An action or set of actions taken to improve a situation Learning organization “An organization skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge, and at modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights” (Garvin, 1993, p. 80) Meaningful others People an individual identifies from whom acceptance matters (Carlone and Johnson, 2007, p. 1192). Measure An indication or means of assessing the degree, extent, or quality of processes and outcomes Mentoring The unidirectional process commonly associated with mentorship PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Appendix A 231 TERM MEANING Mentoring networks The constellations of mentors, mentoring relationships, and mentorship resources that a mentee can engage for support Mentorship Mentorship is a professional, working alliance in which individuals work together over time to support the personal and professional growth, development, and success of the relational partners through the provision of career and psychosocial support Mentorship ecosystem A set of interconnected participants including university leadership (e.g., presidents, provosts, deans), department chairs, program leaders (e.g., research, training, and graduate program directors), mentors (faculty members, staff, and others who have extensive contact with graduate and undergraduate students), and mentees (undergraduate and graduate students participating in mentoring programs and other mentoring relationships), and agencies that fund mentorship programs Mentorship education All types of learning and development activities directed toward the development of the skills, competencies, and effective behaviors of mentors or mentees Meta-analysis Quantitatively combining and analyzing data from multiple studies to determine aggregate effect sizes for relationships between variables across multiple quantitative studies Microaggressions “The everyday verbal, nonverbal, and environmental slights, snubs, or insults, whether intentional or unintentional, which communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative messages to target persons based solely upon their marginalized group membership. In many cases, these hidden messages may invalidate the group identity or experiential reality of target persons, demean them on a personal or group level, communicate they are lesser human beings, suggest they do not belong with the majority group, threaten and intimidate, or relegate them to inferior status and treatment.” (Sue, 2010) PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

232 Th e S c i e n c e o f E f f e c t i v e Me n to r sh i p i n ST E M M TERM MEANING Negative mentoring Dysfunctional elements or problematic events that experiences can occur during a mentoring relationship Ombudsperson A person designated as a neutral or impartial dispute resolution practitioner, whose major function in this capacity is to provide confidential and informal assistance as a counselor, shuttle diplomat, mediator, fact-finder, and agent for orderly systems change, and whose office is located outside ordinary line and staff structures (Rowe, Simon and Bensinger, 1993) Peer/near-peer mentorship Mentoring relationships formed between individuals who are at approximately the same stage of career development Power differential The “perceived difference between mentor and mentee with regard to status, authority, and self- efficacy. High power-differentials limit the ways in which mentor and mentee regard one another, resulting in decreased mentee empowerment, creativity, and initiative” (Starr-Glass, 2014) Predictive validity The soundness of the predictive inferences made from the results of a data-gathering process Program director A manager with the overall responsibility for the success of a program Psychosocial Relating to the interrelation of social and psychological factors Psychosocial support A nontherapeutic intervention relating to social and psychological factors that helps a person cope with stressors at home or at work. Adapted from https://medicaldictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ psychosocial+support; accessed August 17, 2019 Reciprocal Bearing on or binding each of two parties equally Reflectivity Internal dialogue related to one’s own concerns and the social contexts Role modeling A potential psychosocial support function in which a mentor serves as an inspirational example of the norms, attitudes, and behaviors necessary to achieve success (Lockwood and Kunda, 1997) PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Appendix A 233 TERM MEANING Science “The intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of structures and behaviors through observation, experiment, and theory” Adapted from https://www.realclearscience.com/ blog/2012/11/we-talk-about-science-a-lot-but-what- is-it.html; accessed on August 16, 2019. Science identity A professional identity within the scientific culture; an identity that is connected strongly to science, including three overlapping dimensions— competence in one’s own mind and as judged by others, performance in terms of having the skills and opportunities to act like a scientist, and recognition by oneself and meaningful others Self-efficacy An individual’s belief in their capacity to execute behaviors necessary to attain specific performance goals Sexual and gender minorities Individuals with sexual orientation identities such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and asexual, as well as gender identities such as pre- and post-transition transgender, intersex, and non-binary Social capital The ability of individuals to secure benefits by virtue of membership in social networks or other social structures (Portes, 1998) Sociocultural An emphasis on the environmental factors of society, culture, and social interaction Sociodemographic An emphasis on the social and demographic factors such as race, ethnicity, age, sex, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, (dis)ability status, religion, education, migration background, and culture Social identities Identities based on assigned characteristics (e.g., race, ethnicity, or gender) or self-determined characteristics (e.g., scientist or student) and are shaped within a social context (Barker, 2012, 2016; Eggerling-Boeck, 2002) Sponsorship A potential career support function that involves a senior person publicly acknowledging the achievements of and advocating for a mentee PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

234 Th e S c i e n c e o f E f f e c t i v e Me n to r sh i p i n ST E M M TERM MEANING Stereotype threat A “socially premised psychological threat that arises when one is in a situation or doing something for which a negative stereotype about one’s group applies.” According to stereotype threat theory, members of a marginalized group experience that a negative stereotype exists in reference to their group, and they demonstrate apprehension about confirming the negative stereotype by engaging in particular behaviors or thoughts that can compromise their performance in a given domain (Steele and Aronson, 1995) Surface-level similarity Similar identity traits that include normally readily detectable attributes such as race, ethnicity, gender, and age Theory A framework for understanding human behavior, including students’ decision-making processes and choices Triadic mentorship/ Consist of two mentors (typically one senior mentor mentoring triads or primary investigator [PI] and one postgrad [graduate student or postdoctoral scientist] mentor) working with a mentee (typically an undergraduate) Underrepresented groups Women of all racial/ethnic groups and individuals (UR) specifically identifying as Black, Latinx, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. (Where possible, the report specifies if the UR groups to which the text refers are Black, Latinx, or of American Indians/ Alaska Natives heritage.) Unidirectional Operating in a single direction Whole network analysis The study of a complete system to determine the resources offered by its members, such as expertise and information; the diversity of its members; which relationships within the network are most influential; how interconnected members must be for the network to be valuable to its members; where there might be gaps in the network; and which members of the network serve as hubs for information or resources such as high quality feedback PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Appendix A 235 TERM MEANING Working Alliance A conscious and active collaboration between members—in this report, mentors and mentees— with three characteristic features: “an agreement on goals, an assignment of task or a series of tasks, and the development of bonds” (Bordin, 1979) PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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Next: Appendix B: A Selection of STEMM Intervention Programs that Include Mentoring Experiences »
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Mentorship is a catalyst capable of unleashing one’s potential for discovery, curiosity, and participation in STEMM and subsequently improving the training environment in which that STEMM potential is fostered. Mentoring relationships provide developmental spaces in which students’ STEMM skills are honed and pathways into STEMM fields can be discovered. Because mentorship can be so influential in shaping the future STEMM workforce, its occurrence should not be left to chance or idiosyncratic implementation. There is a gap between what we know about effective mentoring and how it is practiced in higher education.

The Science of Effective Mentorship in STEMM studies mentoring programs and practices at the undergraduate and graduate levels. It explores the importance of mentorship, the science of mentoring relationships, mentorship of underrepresented students in STEMM, mentorship structures and behaviors, and institutional cultures that support mentorship. This report and its complementary interactive guide present insights on effective programs and practices that can be adopted and adapted by institutions, departments, and individual faculty members.

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