This appendix provides a selection of programs that include some stated goal or element of mentorship. The programs highlighted are not exhaustive and are intended only to be representative. Inclusion here should not be taken as an endorsement of any of the programs or particular aspects of the programs. Attempts were made to provide a range of representative programs in the following categories: federally funded programs, institutionally based programs, and programs that are provided by national organizations. A small number of national awards for mentorship are included as well.
FEDERALLY FUNDED PROGRAMS
Alliances for Graduate Education and the Professoriate (AGEP)
“The Alliances for Graduate Education and the Professoriate (AGEP) program seeks to advance knowledge about models to improve pathways to the professoriate and success for historically underrepresented minority doctoral students, postdoctoral fellows and faculty, particularly African Americans, Hispanic Americans, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, and Native Pacific Islanders, in specific STEM [science, technology, engineering, and mathematics] disciplines and/or STEM education research fields. New and innovative models are encouraged, as are models that reproduce and/or
replicate existing evidence-based alliances in significantly different disciplines, institutions, and participant cohorts.”
“The AGEP program goal is to increase the number of historically underrepresented minority faculty, in specific STEM disciplines and STEM education research fields, by advancing knowledge about pathways to career success. The program objectives include: To support the development, implementation and study of innovative models of doctoral education, postdoctoral training, and faculty advancement for historically underrepresented minorities in specific STEM disciplines and/or STEM education research fields; and to advance knowledge about the underlying issues, policies and practices that have an impact on the participation, transitions and advancement of historically underrepresented minorities in the STEM academy.”
Collins, P. M., and R. Hopson. (eds.). 2014. Building a new generation of culturally responsive evaluators through AEA’s graduate education diversity internship program. In New directions for evaluation, no. 143. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Delaine, D. A., R. Tull, R. Sigamoney, and D. N. Williams. 2016. Global diversity and inclusion in engineering education: Developing platforms toward global alignment. International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy (iJEP) 6(1):56–71.
Di Pierro, M. 2007. Excellence in doctoral education: Defining best practices. College Student Journal 41(2):368–376.
Gonzalez, C. 2001. Undergraduate research, graduate mentoring, and the university’s mission. Science 293(5535):1624–1626.
Griffin, K. A., M. M. Muñiz, and L. Espinosa. 2012. The influence of campus racial climate on diversity in graduate education. The Review of Higher Education 35(4):535–566.
Hrabowski III, F. A. 2014. Institutional change in higher education: Innovation and collaboration. Peabody Journal of Education 89(3):291–304.
Jones, S. M. 2014. Cultivating diversity and inclusion in higher education: The role of graduate school preparation programs. Urban Education Research & Policy Annuals 2(1):28–38.
Tull, R. G., J. C. Rutledge, F. D. Carter, and J. E. Warnick. 2012. PROMISE: Maryland’s Alliance for Graduate Education and the Professoriate enhances recruitment and retention of underrepresented minority graduate students. Academic Medicine 87(11):1562–1569.
Tull, R. G., A. Y. Williams, and S. S. Hester. June 2015. An NSF AGEP program’s unintended effect on broadening participation: Transforming “Non-STEM” graduate students into engineering education faculty, researchers, K–12 educators, and advocates. In Proceedings of the 2015 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition. Washington, DC: American Society of Engineering Education. Pp. 26–204.
Centers of Research Excellence in Science and Technology (CREST) and HBCU Research Infrastructure for Science and Engineering (HBCU-RISE)
“The Centers of Research Excellence in Science and Technology (CREST) program provides support to enhance the research capabilities of minority-serving institutions (MSI) through the establishment of centers that effectively integrate education and research. MSIs of higher education denote institutions that have undergraduate enrollments of 50% or more (based on total student enrollment) of members of minority
groups underrepresented among those holding advanced degrees in science and engineering fields: African Americans, Alaska Natives, American Indians, Hispanic Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Native Pacific Islanders. CREST promotes the development of new knowledge, enhancements of the research productivity of individual faculty, and an expanded presence of students historically underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. CREST Postdoctoral Research Fellowship (PRF) awards provide research experience and training for early career scientists at active CREST Centers. HBCU-RISE awards specifically target HBCUs to support the expansion of institutional research capacity as well as the production of doctoral students, especially those from groups underrepresented in STEM, at those institutions.”
Blake, R. A., J. Liou-Mark, and C. Chukuigwe. 2013. An effective model for enhancing underrepresented minority participation and success in geoscience undergraduate research. Journal of Geoscience Education 61(4):405–414.
Boshoff, N. 2009. Neo-colonialism and research collaboration in Central Africa. Scientometrics 81(2):413–434.
James, S. M., and S. R. Singer. 2016. From the NSF: The National Science Foundation’s investments in broadening participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education through research and capacity building. CBE—Life Sciences Education 15(3):fe7. doi:10.1187/cbe.16-01-0059.
Matthews, C. M. May 1993. Federal research and development funding at historically Black colleges and universities. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.
Michelson, E. S. 2006. Approaches to research and development performance assessment in the United States: An analysis of recent evaluation trends. Science and Public Policy 33(8):546–560.
Historically Black Colleges and Universities – Undergraduate Program (HBCU-UP)
HBCU-UP provides a number of awards intended to strengthen STEM undergraduate education and research at HBCUs, including the following:
- Broadening Participation Research (BPR) awards, which “provide support for research that seeks to create and study new theory-driven models and innovations related to the participation and success of underrepresented groups in STEM undergraduate education.”
- Implementation Projects (IMP) awards, which “provide support to design, implement, study, and assess comprehensive institutional efforts for increasing the number of students receiving undergraduate degrees in STEM and enhancing the quality of their preparation by strengthening STEM education and research.”
- Broadening Participation Research Centers (BPRC) awards, which “provide support to conduct broadening participation research at institutions … are expected to represent the collective intelligence of HBCU STEM higher education,
and serve as national hubs for the rigorous study and broad dissemination of the critical pedagogies and culturally sensitive interventions that contribute to the success of HBCUs in educating African American STEM undergraduates. [BPRCs] are expected to conduct research on STEM education and broadening participation in STEM; perform outreach to HBCUs in order to build capacity for conducting this type of research; and work to disseminate promising broadening participation research in order to enhance STEM education and research outcomes for African American undergraduates across the country.”
Fortenberry, N. 2005. An examination of NSF’s programs in undergraduate education. Journal of STEM Education 1(1). Laboratory for Innovative Technology in Engineering Education (LITEE), https://www.learntechlib.org/p/174279/ (accessed February 23, 2019).
Joseph, J. 2013. The impact of historically Black colleges and universities on doctoral students. New Directions for Higher Education 2013(163):67–76.
Jungck, J. R., H. D. Gaff, A. P. Fagen, and J. B. Labov. 2010. “Beyond BIO2010: Celebration and Opportunities” at the intersection of mathematics and biology. CBE—Life Sciences Education 9(3):143–147.
Lewis, C. W., F. A. Bonner, D. Rice, H. E. Cook, M. V. Alfred, F. M. Nave, and S. S. Frizell. 2011. Chapter 2 African-American, academically gifted, millennial students in STEM disciplines at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs): Factors that impact successful degree completion. In Beyond stock stories and folktales: African Americans’ paths to STEM fields. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Pp. 23–46.
McNair, L. D. 2009. HBCU perspectives and research programs: Spelman College as a model for success in the STEM fields. In Memoriam 85.
Payne, G., and R. H. Dusenbury. 2007. An early intervention program for minority science students: Fall Bridge Program. International Journal of Learning 14(6):23–27.
Pender, M., D. E. Marcotte, M. R. Sto. Domingo, and K. I. Maton. 2010. The STEM pipeline: The role of summer research experience in minority students’ Ph. D. aspirations. Education Policy Analysis Archives 18(30):1–36.
Russell, S. H., C. P. Ailes, M. P. Hancock, J. McCullough, J. D. Rosesner, and C. Storey. 2005. Evaluation of NSF Support for Undergraduate Research Opportunities: 2003-NSF-program Participant Survey. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.
Suitts, S. 2003. Fueling education reform: Historically Black colleges are meeting a national science imperative. Cell Biology Education 2(4):205–206.
Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation (LSAMP)
- Bridge to the Doctorate Programs: http://lsmce.org/lsampcommunity/map-oflsamp-community/bridge-to-doctorate-map/
“Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation (LSAMP) program is an alliance-based program. The program’s theory is based on the Tinto model for student retention.1 The overall goal of the program is to assist universities and colleges in diversifying the nation’s science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) workforce by increas-
1 Clewell, B.C., Cosentino de Cohen, C., Tsui, L. and Deterding, N. (2006). Revitalizing the Nation’s Talent Pool in STEM. Urban Institute. Washington, D.C.
ing the number of STEM baccalaureate and graduate degrees awarded to populations historically underrepresented in these disciplines: African Americans, Hispanic Americans, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, and Native Pacific Islanders.”
“The LSAMP program takes a comprehensive approach to student and retention. Particular emphasis is placed on transforming STEM education through innovative, evidence-based recruitment and retention strategies, and relevant educational experiences in support of racial and ethnic groups historically underrepresented in STEM disciplines.”
“The LSAMP program also supports knowledge generation, knowledge utilization, program impact and dissemination type activities. The program seeks new learning and immediate diffusion of scholarly research into the field. Under this program, funding for STEM educational and broadening participation research activities could include research to develop new models in STEM engagement, recruitment and retention practices for all critical pathways to STEM careers or research on interventions such as mentoring, successful learning practices and environments, STEM efficacy studies, and technology use.”
Chubin, D. E., and W. E. Ward. 2009. Building on the BEST principles and evidence: A framework for broadening participation. In Broadening participation in undergraduate research: Fostering excellence and enhancing the impact. Washington, DC: Council on Undergraduate Research. Pp. 21–30.
Clewell, B. C. 2006. Final report on the evaluation of the National Science Foundation Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation program: Full technical report and appendices. Alexandria, VA: National Science Foundation.
Clewell, B. C., C. C. de Cohen, L. Tsui, and N. Deterding. 2006. Revitalizing the nation’s talent pool in STEM: Science, technology, engineering and math. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
Hamilton, T., and R. Parker. 2011. UMCP LSAMP: 15 years of successful retention and graduation of underrepresented minority students. Paper presented at Women in Engineering ProActive Network 2010 National Conference: Gateway to Diversity: Getting Results Through Strategic Communications, Baltimore, Maryland, April 12-14, 2010.
Hicks, T. 2005. Assessing the academic, personal and social experiences of pre-college students. Journal of College Admission 186:19–24.
Hollands, A. L. C. 2012. Fostering hope and closing the academic gap: An examination of college retention for African-American and Latino students who participate in the Louis Stokes Alliance Minority Participation Program (Learning Community) while enrolled in a predominately White institution. Ed.D. diss., Portland State University. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED545903.
Jiang, X., S. Sarin, M. Williams, and L. Young. 2005. Assessment of the NC-LSAMP project: A longitudinal study. In Proceedings of the 2005 American Society of Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition. Washington, DC: American Society of Engineering Education. Pp. 10.236.1–10.236.7.
May, G. S., and D. E. Chubin. 2003. A retrospective on undergraduate engineering success for underrepresented minority students. Journal of Engineering Education 92(1):27–39.
White, J. L., J. W. Altschuld, and Y. F. Lee. 2008. Evaluating minority retention programs: Problems encountered and lessons learned from the Ohio science and engineering alliance. Evaluation and Program Planning 31(3):277–283.
Programs from the National Institutes of Health (NIH)
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) provides support for a wide array of programs within which mentoring is a prominent role. Program options, leadership, and funding are predominantly based in one or more of the NIH Institutes and Centers (ICs). With a few exceptions, these programs align with stage of career—that is, undergraduate students, postbaccalaureate (nondegree) trainees, postdoctoral fellows, early-career faculty, and established faculty. The design and distribution of programs can vary and evolve within each IC, are separated broadly between awards to individuals (fellowships and career development awards) and institutions (Training Grants, Research Education Awards [R25]). NIH also has an extensive training effort within the intramural research program, the research being done on the NIH campuses.
From a diversity perspective, similarly, each IC established the programs they support consistent with their missions. A more visible and easily navigable listing of all diversity of the diversity-focused programs for both the extramural and intramural programs has recently been compiled at the websites noted above. The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) provides the largest range of programs and funding for diversity-related training and mentoring, both to individual trainees and institutionally based programs. A few of the most long-lived and well-known institutionally based programs include MARC Undergraduate Student Training in Academic Research (U-STAR), Research Initiative for Scientific Enhancement (RISE), Postbaccalaureate Research Education Program (PREP), Bridges to the Baccalaureate, Bridges to the Doctorate, and Initiative for Maximizing Scientific Development (IMSD). Because the design of these programs can be quite varied, only a limited amount of systematic evaluation or research on their outcomes has been done. However, outcome evaluation reports across the programs are available for a few of them as referenced below.
Other examples of programmatic efforts to increase diversity are the NHLBI Programs to Increase Diversity Among Individuals Engaged in Health-Related Research (PRIDE), which focuses on early-career faculty,2 and the NINDS Research Education Program, which supports programmatic efforts across career stages.3
In 2014, a major new research effort spanning the NIH ICs was launched, called the Diversity Program Consortium (DPC).4 Ten multi-institutional sites around the country
2 More information is available at https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/grants-and-training/training-and-careerdevelopment/diversity/programs-increase-diversity-among-individuals-engaged-health-related-researchpride; accessed on May 23, 2019.
3 More information is available at https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Funding/Training-Career-Development/Award/R25-NINDS-Research-Education-Opportunities; accessed on May 23, 2019.
were funded to create new undergraduate programs to focus on increasing the number of underrepresented students who persist into STEM graduate programs. The DPC also established centralized resources to dramatically increase the quality and quantity of mentorship and professional development coaching available (Diversity Program Consortium: Innovating Educational Practice and Evaluation Along the Biomedical Research Pathways, 2015). The element of the DPC focusing on mentorship and professional development is the National Research Mentorship Network (NRMN). Since NRMN’s inception, more than 12,000 individuals have joined the network in various capacities as mentees and mentors. Studies of the impact of these varied mentoring experiences are underway (Jones et al., 2017; Sorkness et al., 2017).
Butler, J., C. S. Fryer, E. Ward, K. Westaby, A. Adams, S. L. Esmond, M. A. Garza, J. A. Hogle, L. M. Scholl, S. C. Quinn, S. B. Thomas, and C. A. Sorkness. 2017. The Health Equity Leadership Institute (HELI): Developing workforce capacity for health disparities research. Journal of Clinical and Translational Science 1(3):153–159.
Butz, A. R., J. Branchaw, C. Pfund, A. Byars-Winston, and P. Leverett. 2018. Promoting STEM trainee research self-efficacy: A mentor training intervention. Understanding Interventions 9(1).
Byars-Winston, A. M., V. Womack, A. Butz, R. McGee, S. Quinn, E. Utzerath, and S. Thomas. 2018. Pilot study of an intervention to increase cultural awareness in research mentoring: Implications for diversifying the scientific workforce. Journal of Clinical and Translational Science 2(2):86–94.
Estape, E. S., A. Quarshie, B. Segarra, M. San Martin, R. Ríos, K. Martínez, J. Ali, U. Nwagwu, E. Ofili, and P. Pemu. 2018. Promoting diversity in the clinical and translational research workforce. Journal of the National Medical Association 110(6):598–605.
Guerrero, L. R., J. Ho, C. Christie, E. Harwood, C. Pfund, T. Seeman, H. McCreath, and S. P. Wallace. 2017. Using collaborative approaches with a multi-method, multi-site, multi-target intervention: Evaluating the National Research Mentoring Network. BMC Proceedings 11(suppl. 12):14.
Hall, A., J. Mann, and M. Bender. 2015. Analysis of scholar outcomes for the NIGMS postbaccalaureate research education program. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of General Medical Sciences. https://www.nigms.nih.gov/News/reports/Documents/PREP-outcomes-report.pdf (accessed August 20, 2019).
Hall, A., A. Miklos, A. Oh, and S. D. Gaillard. 2016. Educational outcomes from the Maximizing Access to Research Careers Undergraduate Student Training in Academic Research (MARC U-STAR) Program. https://www.nigms.nih.gov/News/reports/Documents/MARC-paper031416.pdf (accessed August 20, 2019).
Hall, M., J. Engler, J. Hemming, E. Alema-Mensah, A. Baez, K. Lawson, A. Quarshie, J. Stiles, P. Pemu, W. Thompson, D. Paulsen, A. Smith, and E. Ofili. 2018. Using a virtual community (the Health Equity Learning Collaboratory) to support early-stage investigators pursuing grant funding. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15(11):2408.
Harwood, E. M., A. R. Jones, D. Erickson, D. Buchwald, J. Johnson-Hemming, H. P. Jones, S. Manson, R. McGee, A. Smith, C. J. Steer, J. K. Vishwanatha, A. M. Weber-Main, and K. S. Okuyemi. 2019. Early career biomedical grantsmanship self-efficacy: Validation of an abbreviated self-assessment tool. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Advance online publication). https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/nyas.13995 (accessed August 20, 2019).
Hurtado, S., D. White-Lewis, and K. Norris. 2017. Advancing inclusive science and systemic change: The convergence of national aims and institutional goals in implementing and assessing biomedical science training. BMC Proceedings 11(17) doi:10.1186/s12919-017-0086-5.
Jones, H. P., R. McGee, A. M. Weber-Main, D. S. Buchwald, S. M. Manson, J. K. Vishwanatha, and K. S. Okuyemi. 2017. Enhancing research careers: An example of a US national diversity-focused, grant-writing training and coaching experiment. BMC Proceedings 11(suppl. 12):16.
Pfund, C., K. C. Spencer, P. Asquith, S. C. House, S. Miller, and C. A. Sorkness. 2015. Building national capacity for research mentor training: An evidence-based approach to training the trainers. CBE—Life Sciences Education 14(2):ar24.
Rogers, J., C. A. Sorkness, K. Spencer, and C. Pfund. 2018. Increasing research mentor training among biomedical researchers at Clinical and Translational Science Award hubs: The impact of the facilitator training initiative. Journal of Clinical and Translational Science 2(3):118–23.
Rubio, D. M., C. A. Mayowski, and M. K. Norman. 2018. A multi-pronged approach to diversifying the workforce. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15(10):2219.
Sorkness, C. A., C. Pfund, E. O. Ofili, K. S. Okuyemi, J. K. Vishwanatha, and on behalf of the NRMN team. 2017. A new approach to mentoring for research careers: The National Research Mentoring Network. BMC Proceedings 11(suppl. 12):22.
Spencer, K. C., M. McDaniels, E. Utzerath, J. G. Rogers, C. A. Sorkness, P. Asquith, amd C. Pfund. 2018. Building a sustainable national infrastructure to expand research mentor training. CBE—Life Sciences Education 17(3):ar48.
Williams, S. N., B. K. Thakore, and R. McGee. 2016. Career coaches as a source of vicarious learning for racial and ethnic minority PhD students in the biomedical sciences: A qualitative study. PLOS ONE 11(7):e0160038.
Research Experience and Mentoring (REM) Program
“The main goals of the REM Program are to provide research experiences and mentored opportunities to STEM students and/or educators that may ultimately enhance their career and academic trajectories while enhancing EFRI- and ERC-supported research. The REM Program may also enable the building of long-term collaborative partnerships among EFRI- and ERC-supported researchers, community colleges, local four-year colleges, and local school districts.”
“The REM Program supports the active involvement of research participants (high school students, STEM teachers, undergraduate STEM students, faculty, and veterans) in hands-on research in order to bring participants into contact with suitable STEM mentors and expose them to this rich research experience.”
“Requests for supplemental funding must include a Recruitment Plan, describing how at least six members of one or more of the following groups will be recruited as RPs:
- Underrepresented minorities (African-Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders);
- Women and girls;
- Veterans enrolled in post-secondary education; or
- Persons with disabilities.”
McCave, E. J., J. A. Gilmore, T. C. Burg, and K. Burg. (2014). Evaluation of an Introductory Research Program for Minority Students in an Interdisciplinary Tissue Engineering Lab. 2014 40th Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference (NEBEC). IEEE. Boston, MA. doi:10.1109/NEBEC.2014.6972870.
Zhu, Z., W. L. Khoo, C. Santistevan, Y. Gosser, E. Molina, H. Tang, T. Ro, and Y. Tian. (2016) EFRI-REM at CCNY: Research experience and mentoring for underrepresented groups in cross-disciplinary research on assistive technology. 2016 IEEE Integrated STEM Education Conference (ISEC). IEEE. Princeton, NJ. doi:10.1109/ISECon.2016.7457519.
Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REUs)
- REU Sites: http://www.nsf.gov/crssprgm/reu/reu_search.cfm
“The Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program supports active research participation by undergraduate students in any of the areas of research funded by the National Science Foundation [NSF]. REU projects involve students in meaningful ways in ongoing research programs or in research projects specifically designed for the REU program. [The program] features two mechanisms for support of student research: (1) REU Sites are based on independent proposals to initiate and conduct projects that engage a number of students in research. REU Sites may be based in a single discipline or academic department or may offer interdisciplinary or multi-department research opportunities with a coherent intellectual theme. … (2) REU Supplements may be included as a component of proposals for new or renewal NSF grants or cooperative agreements or may be requested for ongoing NSF-funded research projects.”
Auchincloss, L. C., S. L. Laursen, J. L. Branchaw, K. Eagan, M. Graham, D. I. Hanauer, G. Lawrie, C. M. McLinn, N. Pelaez, S. Rowland, M. Towns, N. M. Trautmann, P. Varma-Nelson, T. J. Wetson, and E. L. Dolan. 2014. Assessment of course-based undergraduate research experiences: A meeting report. CBE—Life Sciences Education 13(1):29–40.
Dahlberg, T., T. Barnes, A. Rorrer, E. Powell, and L. Cairco. March 2008. Improving retention and graduate recruitment through immersive research experiences for undergraduates. In ACM SIGCSE Bulletin 40(1):466–470.
Hirsch, L. S., A. Perna, J. Carpinelli, and H. Kimmel. October 2012. The effectiveness of undergraduate research programs: A follow-up study. In 2012 Frontiers in Education Conference Proceedings. Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Pp. 1–4.
Hirsch, P. L., S. J. Bird, and M. D’Avila. 2003. Enriching the research experience for undergraduates (REUs) in biomedical engineering. In Proceedings of the 2003 American Society of Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition. Washington, DC: American Society of Engineering Education. Pp. 283–292.
Knox, D. L., P. J. DePasquale, and S. M. Pulimood. 2006. A model for summer undergraduate research experiences in emerging technologies. ACM SIGCSE Bulletin 38(1):214–218.
NASEM (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine). 2017. Undergraduate research experiences for STEM students: Successes, challenges, and opportunities, edited by J. Gentile, K. Brenner, and A. Stephens. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Peckham, J., F. Mili, D. Raicu, and I. Russell. 2008. REUs: Undergraduate research experiences and funding. Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges 23:208–211.
Peckham, J., P. Stephenson, J. Y. Hervé, R. Hutt, and M. Encarnação. March 2007. Increasing student retention in computer science through research programs for undergraduates. In ACM SIGCSE Bulletin 39(1):124–128.
Tamer, B., and J. G. Stout. February 2016. Understanding how research experiences for undergraduate students may foster diversity in the professorate. In Proceedings of the 47th ACM Technical Symposium on Computing Science Education. New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery. Pp. 114–119.
Tribal Colleges and Universities Program (TCUP)
“The Tribal Colleges and Universities Program (TCUP) provides awards to Tribal Colleges and Universities, Alaska Native-serving institutions, and Native Hawaiian-serving institutions to promote high quality science (including sociology, psychology, anthropology, economics, statistics, and other social and behavioral sciences as well as natural sciences), technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education, research, and outreach. Support is available to TCUP-eligible institutions (see the Additional Eligibility subsection of Section IV of this solicitation) for transformative capacity-building projects through Instructional Capacity Excellence in TCUP Institutions (ICE-TI), Targeted STEM Infusion Projects (TSIP), TCU Enterprise Advancement Centers (TEA Centers), and Preparing for TCUP Implementation (Pre-TI). Collaborations that involve multiple institutions of higher education led by TCUP institutions are supported through Partnerships for Geoscience Education (PAGE) and Partnerships for Documentary Linguistics Education (PADLE). Finally, research studies that further the scholarly activity of individual faculty members are supported through Small Grants for Research (SGR) and Science Education Alliance Phage Hunters Advancing Genomics and Evolutionary Science in Tribal Colleges and Universities (SEA-PHAGES in TCUs). Through the opportunities highlighted above, as well as collaborations with other National Science Foundation (NSF) units and other organizations, TCUP aims to increase Native individuals’ participation in STEM careers and improve the quality of STEM programs at TCUP-eligible institutions. TCUP strongly encourages the inclusion of activities that will benefit veterans.”
Cullinane, J. 2009. Diversifying the STEM pipeline: The model replication institutions program. Washington, DC: Institute for Higher Education Policy.
Jacobs, B., J. Roffenbender, J. Collmann, K. Cherry, L. Lee Bitsói, K. Bassett, and C. H. Evans Jr. 2010. Bridging the divide between genomic science and indigenous peoples. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 38(3):684–696.
Kostelnick, J. C., R. J. Rowley, D. McDermott, and C. Bowen. 2009. Developing a GIS program at a tribal college. Journal of Geography 108(2):68–77.
Mannel, S., K. Winkelman, S. Phelps, and M. Fredenberg. 2007. Applications of a GIS program to tribal research: Its benefits, challenges and extensions to the community. Journal of Geoscience Education 55(6):574–580.
Tinant, C. J., J. M. Kant, H. E. LaGarry, J. J. Sanovia, and S. R. Burckhard. 2014. Building trust, experiential learning, and the importance of sovereignty: Capacity building in pre-engineering education – A tribal college perspective. Paper presented at the Pre-Engineering Education – A Tribally Controlled College Perspective. The 2014 ASEE North Midwest Section Conference, Iowa City, October 16–17, 2014.
Ward, C., K. W. Jones, R. Coles, L. Rich, S. Knapp, and R. Madsen. 2014. Mentored research in a tribal college setting: The Northern Cheyenne case. Journal of Research in Rural Education 29(3):1–17.
Wheeler, G. 2004. Emergence, alliances, and vision: The tribal college and beyond. Indigenous Nations Studies Journal 5(1):1–14.
Biology Fellows Program at the University of Washington
“The Biology Fellows Program provides freshmen and sophomores with opportunities to develop skills for success in the rigorous bioscience curriculum and biology-related career paths. Hallmarks of the program include its support for a diverse cohort of students and its strong emphasis on community. The program introduces Biology Fellows to exciting opportunities in science to help them make the most of their undergraduate experiences at the UW.”
Haak, D. C., J. HilleRisLambers, E. Pitre, and S. Freeman. 2011. Increased structure and active learning reduce the achievement gap in introductory biology. Science 332(6034):1213–1216.
Hurtado, S., N. L. Cabrera, M. H. Lin, L. Arellano, and L. L. Espinosa. 2009. Diversifying science: Underrepresented student experiences in structured research programs. Research in Higher Education 50(2):189–214.
Usher, D. C., T. A. Driscoll, P. Dhurjati, J. A. Pelesko, L. F. Rossi, G. Schleiniger, K. Pusecker, and H. B. White. 2010. A transformative model for undergraduate quantitative biology education. CBE—Life Sciences Education 9(3):181–188.
Whitmer, A., L. Ogden, J. Lawton, P. Sturner, P. M. Groffman, L. Schneider, and N. Bettez. 2010. The engaged university: Providing a platform for research that transforms society. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 8(6):314–321.
Biology Scholars Program at the University of California, Berkeley
“The Biology Scholars Program (BSP) at UC Berkeley is a program that challenges the ‘by the numbers’ popular view (e.g., SATs and high school GPAs as good predictors of success) about who can and should do science. Over the past 26 years, of the more than 3,000 BSP graduates, 60% have been underrepresented minorities (African American, Hispanic, and American Indian), 70% women, and 80% from low-income backgrounds and/or the first in their family to attend college.” BSP members are selected “based on their strengths (potential to contribute to the BSP community and society) rather than their need for support (e.g., financial and academic challenges).” There are two primary programs: the Expanding Undergraduate Success in STEM (EUSS) Conferences and the Gift it Forward Study. The EUSS Conferences focus on inclusive practices in teaching, mentoring, and advising. The Gift it Forward study is a longitudinal study of BPS students.5
5 Preliminary results of the Gift it Forward Study are available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TbassEAkPZQ&feature=youtu.be; accessed on May 23, 2019.
Koenig, R. 2009. Minority retention rates in science are sore spot for most universities. Science 324(5933):1386–1387.
Matsui, J., R. Liu, and C. M. Kane. 2003. Evaluating a science diversity program at UC Berkeley: More questions than answers. Cell Biology Education 2(2):117–121.
Biology Undergraduate Scholars Program (BUSP) at the University of California, Davis
“The Biology Undergraduate Scholars Program (BUSP) is an intensive enrichment program for undergraduates who have a strong interest in undergraduate research in biology. BUSP, sponsored by the College of Biological Sciences, enriches your undergraduate experience by providing exciting and challenging opportunities to learn about and participate in the biological sciences. BUSP students enroll in a specially designed, rigorous academic program during their first two years of college, can work in a biology research laboratory during their sophomore year, and meet regularly with skilled advisers who offer academic guidance and personal support.”
Barlow, A. E., and M. Villarejo. 2004. Making a difference for minorities: Evaluation of an educational enrichment program. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 41(9):861–881.
Jones, M. T., A. E. Barlow, and M. Villarejo. 2010. Importance of undergraduate research for minority persistence and achievement in biology. Journal of Higher Education 81(1):82–115.
Ovink, S. M., and B. D. Veazey. 2011. More than “getting us through”: A case study in cultural capital enrichment of underrepresented minority undergraduates. Research in Higher Education 52(4):370–394.
Villarejo, M., and A. E. Barlow. 2007. Evolution and evaluation of a biology enrichment program for minorities. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering 13(2):119–144.
Whittaker, J. A., and B. L. Montgomery. 2012. Cultivating diversity and competency in STEM: Challenges and remedies for removing virtual barriers to constructing diverse higher education communities of success. Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education 11(1):A44.
Fisk-Vanderbilt Bridge Program
“The Fisk-Vanderbilt Master’s to PhD Bridge Program exists to improve the demographic representation in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Studies indicate that underrepresented minority (URM) students are more likely to use the master’s degrees as a stepping stone to the PhD. Hence, to increase the number of URM students engaged in PhD-level STEM research, a relationship between Fisk University, which is an accredited Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU), and Vanderbilt University was conceived.”
Haruch, S. January 2, 2014. A graduate program works to diversify the science world. In Code Switch: Race and Identity, Remixed. https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2013/12/17/251957062/a-graduate-program-worksto-diversify-the-science-world.
Roach, R. August 12, 2015. Tennessee schools expand minority STEM Ph.D. effort. Diverse: Issues in Higher Education. https://diverseeducation.com/article/77220/ (accessed August 20, 2019).
Stassun, K. G., A. Burger, and S. E. Lange. 2010. The Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge Program: A model for broadening participation of underrepresented groups in the physical sciences through effective partnerships with minority-serving institutions. Journal of Geoscience Education 58(3):135–144.
Stassun, K. G., S. Sturm, K. Holley-Bockelmann, A. Burger, D. J. Ernst, and D. Webb. 2011. The Fisk-Vanderbilt Master’s-to-PhD Bridge Program: Recognizing, enlisting, and cultivating unrealized or unrecognized potential in underrepresented minority students. American Journal of Physics 79(4):374–379.
Gateways to the Laboratory at Weill Cornell/Rockefeller/Sloan Kettering Tri-Institutional MD–PhD Program
“The mission of the Gateways to the Laboratory Program is to increase the number of students from backgrounds traditionally underrepresented in medicine and science who are prepared to become competitive applicants, successful MD-PhD students, and future leaders in biomedical research and academic medicine.”
“College freshmen and sophomores who are US citizens or permanent residents and are from racial or ethnic backgrounds shown to be underrepresented in biomedical research, individuals from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds, and/or individuals with disabilities, as described by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).6 This summer program is for students who are seriously considering pursuing a career as a physician scientist. This is not an appropriate summer program for those students who know they only wish to attend medical school in the future.”
According to Gotian et al., “Among the 245 alumni who had “graduated” from Gateways as of 2013, 88% have pursued or completed advanced degrees. Among these, 74% completed or are pursuing MD, PhD, or MD–PhD degrees; and 17% completed or are pursuing combined MD–PhD degrees, over one-third of whom are enrolled in the Tri-Institutional MD–PhD Program. Gateways outcomes are compared to other programs with similar missions, which shows that Gateways has been successful at preparing URMs for MD–PhD Programs. The program serves as a model for how to increase the national pool of competitive URM MD–PhD applicants.”
Gotian, R., J. Raymore, S.-K. Rhooms, L. Liberman, and O. S. Andersen. 2017. Gateways to the laboratory: How an MD-PhD program increased the number of minority physician-scientists. Academic Medicine 92(5):628–634.
Meyerhoff Scholars Program at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County
“The Meyerhoff Scholars Program is at the forefront of efforts to increase diversity among future leaders in science, engineering, and related fields. The UMBC Meyerhoff family is now more than 1300 strong, with over 1000 alumni across the nation and nearly 300 students enrolled in graduate and professional programs.”
“The nomination-based application process is open to prospective undergraduate students of all backgrounds who plan to pursue doctoral study in the sciences or engineering and who are interested in the advancement of minorities in those fields. The program’s success is built on the premise that, among like-minded students who work closely together, positive energy is contagious. By assembling such a high concentration of high-achieving students in a tightly knit learning community, students continually inspire one another to do more and better.”
Two universities, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Pennsylvania State University Park, have implemented programs based on the model of Meyerhoff Scholars Program. Each campus has adopted and adapted various elements of the original to suit the particular needs and goals of their environments.
Carter, F. D., M. Mandell, and K. I. Maton. 2009. The influence of on-campus, academic year undergraduate research on STEM Ph.D. outcomes: Evidence from the Meyerhoff Scholarship Program. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 31(4):441–462.
Lee, D. M., and K. Harmon. 2013. The Meyerhoff Scholars Program: Changing minds, transforming a campus. Metropolitan Universities 24(2):55–70.
Maton, K. I., T. S. Beason, S. Godsay, M. R. Sto. Domingo, T. C. Bailey, S. Sun, and F. A. Hrabowski III. 2016. Outcomes and processes in the Meyerhoff Scholars Program: STEM PhD completion, sense of community, perceived program benefit, science identity, and research self-efficacy. CBE—Life Sciences Education 15(3):ar48.
Maton, K. I., F. A. Hrabowski III, and C. L. Schmitt. 2000. African American college students excelling in the sciences: College and postcollege outcomes in the Meyerhoff Scholars Program. Journal of Research in Science Teaching: The Official Journal of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching 37(7):629–654.
Maton, K. I., S. A. Pollard, T. V. McDougall Weise, and F. A. Hrabowski. 2012. Meyerhoff Scholars Program: A strengths-based, institution-wide approach to increasing diversity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine: A Journal of Translational and Personalized Medicine 79(5):610–623.
Pender, M., D. E. Marcotte, M. R. Sto. Domingo, and K. I. Maton. 2010. The STEM pipeline: The role of summer research experience in minority students’ Ph.D. aspirations. Education Policy Analysis Archives 18(30):1.
Santo Domingo, M. R., S. Sharp, A. Freeman, T. Freeman, K. Harmon, M. Wiggs, V. Sathy, A. T. Panter, L. Oseguera, S. Sun, M. E. Williams, J. Templeton, C. L. Folt, E. J. Barron, F. A. Hrabowski, K. I. Maton, M. Crimmins, C. R. Fisher, and M. F. Summers. 2019. Replicating Meyerhoff for inclusive excellence in STEM. Science 364(6438):335.
Stolle-McAllister, K., M. R. Sto. Domingo, and A. Carrillo. 2011. The Meyerhoff way: How the Meyerhoff scholarship program helps black students succeed in the sciences. Journal of Science Education and Technology 20(1):5–16.
Program for Research Initiatives in Science and Math (PRISM) at John Jay College
The Program for Research Initiatives in Science and Math (PRISM) at John Jay College provides four different types of support: mentored undergraduate research opportunities, academic support and advising, support before and during the transition from an affiliated City University of New York Community Colleges into the forensic sciences program, and scholarships for students in STEM with unmet financial need. The program was started in 2006 to address a significant retention issue in the forensic sciences program at John Jay College, particularly among underrepresented students.
Carpi, A., D. M. Ronan, H. M. Falconer, H. H. Boyd, and N. H. Lents. 2013. Development and implementation of targeted STEM retention strategies at a Hispanic-serving institution. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education 12(3):280–299.
Carpi, A., D. M. Ronan, H. M. Falconer, and N. H. Lents. 2017. Cultivating minority scientists: Undergraduate research increases self-efficacy and career ambitions for underrepresented students in STEM. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 54(2):169–194.
The Sloan University Centers of Exemplary Mentoring (UCEMs)
As part of their Minority Ph.D. program, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation currently supports nine University Centers of Exemplary Mentoring at the following institutions:
- Cornell University
- Duke University
- Georgia Institute of Technology
- University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
- University of Iowa
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- Penn State University Park
- University of California, San Diego
- University of South Florida
The institutions were chosen based on criteria including “historical success in recruiting and mentoring doctoral students from underrepresented minorities” and “strength of institutional commitment to furthering education for underrepresented minorities in the natural and physical sciences, mathematics, and engineering.” The funding provided to the institutions goes to students in the form of scholarships or to professional development and faculty- and peer-mentoring activities.
Summer Research Opportunities Program
“The Summer Research Opportunities Program (SROP) is a gateway to graduate education at Big Ten Academic Alliance universities. The goal of the program is to increase the number of underrepresented students who pursue graduate study and research careers. SROP helps prepare undergraduates for graduate study through intensive research experiences with faculty mentors and enrichment activities.”
“Now in its 33rd year, SROP celebrates the achievements of its alumni. To date, 610 program alumni have earned a Ph.D. degree and are now preparing the next generation of SROP scholars as mentors and teachers. Thousands of others have completed graduate training and are pursuing successful careers in government, business, and non-profit agencies.”
Big Ten Academic Alliance Member Universities:
- University of Illinois
- Indiana University
- University of Iowa
- University of Maryland
- University of Michigan
- Michigan State University
- University of Minnesota
- University of Nebraska–Lincoln
- Northwestern University
- Pennsylvania State University
- Purdue University
- Rutgers University
- The Ohio State University
- University of Wisconsin–Madison
Allen, B. M., and Y. Zepeda. 2007. From baccalaureate to the professoriate: Cooperating to increase access to graduate education. New Directions for Higher Education 138:75–82.
Crockett, E. T. 2014. A research education program model to prepare a highly qualified workforce in biomedical and health-related research and increase diversity. BMC Medical Education 14(1):202–222.
Davis, D. J. 2010. The academic influence of mentoring upon African American undergraduate aspirants to the professoriate. The Urban Review 42(2):143–158.
Foertsch, J., B. B. Alexander, and D. Penberthy. 2000. Summer research opportunity programs (SROPs) for minority undergraduates: A longitudinal study of program outcomes, 1986–1996. Council of Undergraduate Research Quarterly 20(3):114–119.
Girves, J. E., Y. Zepeda, and J. K. Gwathmey. 2005. Mentoring in a post-affirmative action world. Journal of Social Issues 61(3):449–479.
Love, E. 2009. A simple step: Integrating library reference and instruction into previously established academic programs for minority students. The Reference Librarian 50(1):4–13.
Pender, M., D. E. Marcotte, M. R. Sto. Domingo, and K. I. Maton. 2010. The STEM pipeline: The role of summer research experience in minority students’ Ph.D. aspirations. Education Policy Analysis Archives 18(30):1–36.
University of California, Irvine, Graduate Division Mentoring Programs
The University of California, Irvine (UCI) Graduate Division houses several mentorship programs for undergraduate and graduate students. All students who mentor on behalf of the graduate division are required to complete a 12-hour evidence-based mentor training program over 6 weeks. Training topics include Communications and Interpersonal Connections, Building a Mentoring Relationship, Mentoring Across Differences, Resilience and Balancing Academics and Wellness, Conflict Resolution, and Relationship Ethics. Mentors participate in either the Summer Research Program for potential UCI applicants or the Graduate Pre-entry program for students who have been admitted to UCI. The Graduate InterConnect Program is designed to foster academic and professional success and personal well-being for the international graduate student population. There is also the DECADE Program, which provides tailored, student-centric resources to a diverse set of graduate students, including a faculty mentor, and the DECADE PLUS Program, in which graduate students act as leadership coaches for undergraduate students.
University of Pittsburgh
“The Pitt EXCEL Program is a comprehensive undergraduate diversity program committed to the recruitment, retention, and graduation of academically excellent engineering undergraduates, particularly individuals from groups historically under-
represented in the field. Over 250 students participate in Pitt EXCEL and have access to academic counseling, peer mentoring, tutoring, engineering research, graduate school preparation and career development workshops, as well as a two-week intensive study skills, math and science review session for pre-freshmen.”
“INVESTING NOW, created in 1988, is a [University of Pittsburgh, Swanson School of Engineering] college preparatory program created to stimulate, support, and recognize the high academic performance of pre-college students from groups that are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering and mathematics majors and careers. The purpose of the program is to ensure that participants are well prepared for matriculation at the University of Pittsburgh.” Programming includes advising, tutoring, mentoring, workshops, summer enrichment programs, and parental involvement.
Reed, G. F. 2008. A powerful initiative at Pitt. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine 6(2):70–77.
Shih, K. 2009. Pennsylvania news nuggets. Diverse Issues in Higher Education 26(22):5.
Women in STEM (WiSTEM) Mentoring Program at the University of Connecticut
“The Women in STEM (WiSTEM) Mentoring Program of the [University of Connecticut’s] Women’s Center is an initiative designed to support underclasswomen pursuing STEM degrees through the mentorship of their upperclasswomen peers. The program spans the full academic year and is structured around monthly meetings designed to provide both the mentor and mentee with resources to flourish in the STEM fields.”
“Through this program, mentees are matched with a mentor who can provide personal support, academic advice, and knowledge about career development. WiSTEM hopes to prepare our mentees for a successful outcome in STEM at UConn by addressing possible obstacles, including gateway (“weed-out”) courses, GPA recovery, social balance, access to research labs, and communication with professors. Ultimately, we want to enhance the role of women in STEM at UConn through discussion and education about women’s issues, gender equity and stereotypes, and female representation.”
Foertsch, J., B. B. Alexander, and D. Penberthy. 2000. Summer research opportunity programs (SROPs) for minority undergraduates: A longitudinal study of program outcomes, 1986–1996. Council of Undergraduate Research Quarterly 20(3):114–119.
National Association of Multicultural Engineering Program Advocates (NAMEPA)
The National Association of Multicultural Engineering Program Advocates (NAMEPA) identifies and replicates tools and disseminates best practices in college engineering diversity programs. “[S]ince 1974, [NAMEPA] has contributed to attracting, retaining, and graduating underrepresented minority engineers, more than quadrupling the number of engineers of color in a field that has traditionally lacked diversity. Additionally, through [their] K12 initiatives, many other professionals can trace their start along the STEM pathway to a program administered by a NAMEPA member institution that exposed them to the exciting careers in STEM.” Their mission is to “provide quality services, information, and tools for our stakeholders, develop and matriculate a diverse pool of engineers and scientists from K–16, and achieve equity and parity in the nation’s workforce.” Their mission is to “be recognized as the national expert in the development and matriculation of extraordinary engineers and scientists from historically underrepresented populations; African American, Hispanic American and Native American, Native Alaskan, Native Pacific Islanders.”
National Society of Black Engineers (NSBE)
“With more than 500 chapters and nearly 16,000 active members in the U.S. and abroad, the National Society of Black Engineers (NSBE) is one of the largest student-governed organizations based in the United States. NSBE … founded in 1975, supports and promotes the aspirations of collegiate and pre-collegiate students and technical professionals in engineering and technology. NSBE’s mission is ‘to increase the number of culturally responsible Black Engineers who excel academically, succeed professionally and positively impact the community.’”
“NSBE offers its members leadership training, professional development activities, mentoring, career placement services, community service opportunities and more. NSBE comprises 515 active chapters—288 collegiate, 82 professional and 145 pre-collegiate—located in six geographic regions.”
NSBE – Women in Science and Engineering (WISE) Initiative
“Our mission is to Enlighten, Engage, and Empower not only NSBE women in STEM but foster relationships and collaborate with communities and institutions outside of NSBE. We also want to continue to build and establish WISE as a foundational special interest group for both NSBE Collegiate and professional members.”
National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP)
“Founded in 1977 at Morgan State University, the mission of the National Society of Black Physicists is to promote the professional well-being of African American physicists and physics students within the international scientific community and within society at large. The organization seeks to develop and support efforts to increase opportunities for African Americans in physics and to increase their numbers and visibility of their scientific work. It also seeks to develop activities and programs that highlight and enhance the benefits of the scientific contributions that African American physicists provide for the international community. The society seeks to raise the general knowledge and appreciation of physics in the African American community.”
Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers (SHPE)
“Since 1974 … SHPE has been changing lives by empowering the Hispanic community to realize its fullest potential and impact the world through STEM awareness, access, support, and professional development. … SHPE’s members—the Familia—are the heartbeat of the organization. Toward that end, SHPE quickly established two student chapters, creating a base that would grow to what we are today—a national organization with over 10,000 student and professional members and more than 225 chapters throughout the nation and in countries outside the United States.”
“Today, SHPE’s educational programs and events directly serve tens of thousands each year representing a diverse Hispanic community, include: 1) children; 2) undergraduate and graduate students; and 3) academic and industry professionals. Many of these individuals are first-generation Americans and the first in their families to graduate college.”
Society of Women Engineers (SWE)
“SWE [aims to give] women engineers a unique place and voice within the engineering industry. [Their] organization is centered around a passion for our members’ success and continues to evolve with the challenges and opportunities reflected in today’s exciting engineering and technology specialties.” Their mission is to “empower women to achieve full potential in careers as engineers and leaders, expand the image of the engineering and technology professions as a positive force in improving the quality of life, and demonstrate the value of diversity and inclusion.” Their vision is “a world with gender parity and equality in engineering and technology.”
Selected Publications About National Organizations
Alonso, R. A. R. 2015. Engineering identity development of Latina and Latino members of the Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers. In Proceedings of the 122nd Annual ASEE Conference and Exposition. Washington, DC: American Society for Engineering Education. Pp. 1–13.
Bogue, B., B. Shanahan, R. M. Marra, and E. T. Cady. 2012. Outcomes-based assessment: Driving outreach program effectiveness. Leadership and Management in Engineering 13(1):27–34.
Brazziel, W. F., and M. E. Brazziel. 1997. Distinctives of high producers of minority science and engineering doctoral starts. Journal of Science Education and Technology 6(2):143–153.
Brown, A. R., C. Morning, and C. B. Watkins. October 2004. Implications of African American engineering student perceptions of campus climate factors. In 34th Annual Frontiers in Education, 2004. FIE 2004. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE. Pp. S1G–20.
Brown, A. R., C. Morning, and C. Watkins. 2005. Influence of African American engineering student perceptions of campus climate on graduation rates. Journal of Engineering Education 94(2):263–271.
Camacho, M. M., and S. M. Lord. 2013. Latinos and the exclusionary space of engineering education. Latino Studies 11(1):103–112.
Collins, G. D. Y., S. G. Adams, and J. P. Martin. June 2014. Non-curricular activities help African-American students and alumni develop engineer of 2020 traits: A quantitative look. In Proceedings of the 2014 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition. Washington, DC: American Society for Engineering Education. Pp. 24–937.
Daily, S. B., W. Eugene, and A. D. Prewitt. 2007. The development of social capital in engineering education to improve student retention. Paper presented at the 2007 ASEE Southeast Section Conference, Louisville, Kentucky, April 1–3, 2007.
Fortenberry, N. L. 1994. Engineering, education, and minorities: Where now? Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering 1(2):89–97.
Fries-Britt, S., and K. M. Holmes. 2012. Prepared and progressing: Black women in physics. In Black female undergraduates on campus: Successes and challenges. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Pp. 199–218.
Fries-Britt, S. L., T. K. Younger, and W. D. Hall. 2010. Lessons from high-achieving students of color in physics. New Directions for Institutional Research 148:75–83.
Johnson, M. J., and S. D. Sheppard. 2004. Relationships between engineering student and faculty demographics and stakeholders working to affect change. Journal of Engineering Education 93(2):139–151.
Lucena, J. C. 2000. Making women and minorities in science and engineering for national purposes in the United States. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering 6(1).
Lucena, J., G. Downey, B. Jesiek, and S. Elber. 2008. Competencies beyond countries: The re-organization of engineering education in the United States, Europe, and Latin America. Journal of Engineering Education 97(4):433–447.
Madsen Camacho, M., and S. M. Lord. 2011. Quebrando fronteras: Trends among Latino and Latina undergraduate engineers. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education 10(2):134–146.
McNeely, C. L., and L. M. Frehill. 2011. Assessing U.S. minority engineering programs: Outline of a research agenda. George Mason University School of Public Policy Research Paper, no. 2011-25.
Mwangi, C. A. G., and S. Fries–Britt. 2015. Black within Black: The perceptions of Black immigrant collegians and their U.S. college experience. About Campus 20(2):16–23.
Orr, M. K., S. M. Lord, R. A. Layton, and M. W. Ohland. 2014. Student demographics and outcomes in mechanical engineering in the U.S. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education 42(1):48–60.
Parry, E., P. Lottero-Perdue, and S. Klein-Gardner. 2016. Engineering professional societies and pre-university engineering education. In Pre-university Engineering Education. Rotterdam, NL: SensePublishers. Pp. 205–220.
Pérez, W., R. D. Cortés, K. Ramos, and H. Coronado. 2010. “Cursed and blessed”: Examining the socioemotional and academic experiences of undocumented Latina and Latino college students. New Directions for Student Services 2010(131):35–51.
Reid, K. W. 2013. Understanding the relationships among racial identity, self-efficacy, institutional integration and academic achievement of Black males attending research universities. Journal of Negro Education 82(1):75–93.
Rosa, K., and F. M. Mensah. 2016. Educational pathways of Black women physicists: Stories of experiencing and overcoming obstacles in life. Physical Review Physics Education Research 12(2):020113.
Ross, M., and N. Yates. 2016. Paving the way: Engagement strategies for improving the success of underrepresented minority engineering students. Institutional Engagement Strategies for Success in Engineering. https://diversityrecognition.asee.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/22/2019/03/Paving-the-Way-NSBE-White-Paper-Reid-Ross-YatesResource.pdf (accessed August 20, 2019)
Strayhorn, T. L., L. Long III, J. A. Kitchen, M. S. Williams, and M. E. Stenz. 2013. Academic and social barriers to Black and Latino male collegians’ success in engineering and related STEM fields. https://commons.erau.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1338&context=publication (accessed August 20, 2019).
AGU Mentoring Programs
AGU Mentoring Network
The American Geophysical Union (AGU) Mentoring Network facilitates group mentoring experiences that include two senior scientists and six early-career scientists, who can also serve as peer mentors. These groups meet virtually once a month for 1 year. At the conclusion of 1 year, mentees can stay in their peer group, but the mentor is shifted to another network group. Mentors and mentees must be AGU members in good standing. Mentors are required to attend a mentor training call.
AGU Sharing Science Mentoring Program
Sharing Science connects graduate students with established scientists and communication professionals who are also enthused about and engaged in sharing their science with public audiences. The goal is to help build a support network within the scientific community for those doing both science and outreach.
Mentoring365 is a virtual mentoring program designed to facilitate the exchange of knowledge, expertise, skills, insights, and experiences. Mentors and mentees are expected to communicate frequently, and in that interest, are provided with structured relationship-building tools to advance career goals of students and early-career scientists. This tool is exclusively for members of partner professional societies (AGU, American Meteorological Society [AMS], Association for Women Geoscientists [AWG], Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology [IRIS], and Society of Exploration Geophysicists [SEG]).
Mentoring 365 Live
Mentoring365 Live is the in-person mentoring program complement to Mentoring365. Mentoring365 Live pairs selected students, graduate students, and early-career professionals with more experienced attendees for 30-minute meetings during the AGU annual meeting. Mentors can provide advice that ranges from résumé or curriculum vitae feedback to guidance throughout the meeting.
APS National Mentoring Community
“The APS [American Physical Society] National Mentoring Community (NMC) facilitates and supports mentoring relationships between African American, Hispanic American, and Native American undergraduate physics students and local physics mentors. Membership in the NMC is free for both Mentors and Mentees.” They have hosted a conference for physics Bridge Programs, a mentor webinar series, and “Día de la Física” with the National Society of Hispanic Physicists.
“Entry Point!, a signature program of the AAAS [American Association for the Advancement of Science] Project on Science, Technology, and Disability, is a national effort to discover and develop talent among undergraduate and graduate students with disabilities who demonstrated a talent and interest in pursuing a STEM career. The primary goal of the project is to increase the diversity of the scientific and engineering
workforce at the professional level. Entry Point! recruits, screens, and refers qualified candidates to company and university research program partners for 10-week summer internships.”
EngineerGirl is a website sponsored by the National Academy of Engineering that provides resources on engineering disciplines and women throughout history who have contributed to the field of engineering. The website’s target demographic is middle school students. A major feature of the website is the tool that allows students to submit questions to real women engineers who volunteer and have their profiles featured on the site. The questions tool allows informal mentoring experiences, as students can directly connect with engineering role models and receive valuable advice on such topics as finding scholarships, choosing an engineering degree, and learning what skills are used in different disciplines. As a web-based platform, EngineerGirl is able to reach broad audiences and reach students who do not have access to engineering role models in their own communities.
The EngineerGirl Ambassadors Program also encompasses mentorship. High school participants design, create, and implement a project in their local communities to inspire and engage younger students in engineering. The EngineerGirl staff and each ambassador’s sponsor provide year-long mentorship and support to the ambassadors as they complete their projects. The ambassadors, in turn, serve as mentors to the students they engage with during the year. Ultimately, successful applicants are selected based on evidence in their applications that they have a passion and motivation to complete their projects and inspire younger students and that they will benefit from the mentorship and other resources provided by the program.
When developing the structure for the EngineerGirl Ambassadors Program, the steering committee performed a thorough investigation of the current studies and best practices on youth mentoring. High school students were selected as mentors for the program, since they tend to be more ingrained in their local communities, are closer in age to the students they work with, and mentoring could provide them with many benefits. The Ambassadors Program provides an opportunity for high school students to tackle a big project and overcome challenges and failures. To better confront these challenges, it is beneficial for the ambassadors to have the support and guidance of mentors who can help them figure out strategies to face adversity and learn that failure is okay and often a natural step in the process (Kekelis et al., 2017).
Eby, L. T., T. D. Allen, S. C. Evans, T. Ng, and D. L. DuBois. 2008. Does mentoring matter? A multidisciplinary meta-analysis comparing mentored and non-mentored individuals. Journal of Vocational Behavior 72:254–267.
DuBois, D. L., N. Portillo, J. E. Rhodes, N. Silverthorn, and J. C. Valentine. 2011. How effective are mentoring programs for youth? A systematic assessment of the evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest 12:57–91.
Kekelis, L., J. J. Ryoo, and E. McLeod. 2017. Making and mentors: What it takes to make them better together. Afterschool Matters 26:8–17.
HHMI Gilliam Fellowships for Advanced Study
The Howard Hughes Medical Institute Gilliam Fellowships for Advanced Study supports underrepresented Ph.D. students and their dissertation advisors in biomedical and life science disciplines, including plant biology, evolutionary biology, biophysics, chemical biology, biomedical engineering, and computational biology. Application is by invitation only. The intent of the fellowships is “to increase the diversity among scientists who are prepared to assume leadership roles in science, particularly as college and university faculty,” and the pairs are selected not only for their excellence in their scientific discipline but also for a commitment to diversity and inclusion in science. Mentorship education is integral to the Gilliam program.
Institute for African-American Mentoring in Computing Sciences
The Institute for African-American Mentoring in Computing Sciences (iAAMCS) “serves as a national resource for all African-American computer science students and faculty.” Goals of iAAMCS include the following:
- Increase the number of African-Americans receiving Ph.D. degrees in computing sciences
- Promote and engage students in teaching and training opportunities
- Add more diverse researchers into the advanced technology workforce.
iAAMCS hosts the National Society for Blacks in Computing conference, which provides mentoring and networking opportunities for Black/African American undergraduates, graduate students, faculty, and research scientists. iAAMCS also has a partnership with MentorNet to recruit more Black/African American mentors in computing while yielding more opportunities for Black/African American students to receive mentoring. This effort supports other iAAMCS programs while also providing training for participating mentors.
NATIONAL MENTORSHIP AWARDS
Presidential Awards for Excellence in Science, Mathematics and Engineering Mentoring (PAESMEM)
The Presidential Awards for Excellence in Science, Mathematics and Engineering Mentoring (PAESMEM) were established in 1995 to recognize exceptional mentorship of underrepresented mentees by individual mentors and mentoring programs. The mentorship is expected to have been measureable, sustained (over a 5-year period), and STEM or STEM related. Nearly 300 individuals and groups have received the annual award, which is administered through NSF on behalf of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. The recipients receive $10,000 in addition to attending a ceremony in Washington, D.C.
AAAS Mentor Awards
“The two categories of the AAAS Mentor Awards (Lifetime Mentor Award and Mentor Award) both honor individuals who during their careers demonstrate extraordinary leadership to increase the participation of underrepresented groups in science and engineering fields and careers. These groups include: women of all racial or ethnic groups; African American, Native American, and Hispanic men; and people with disabilities.”
“Both awards recognize an individual who has mentored and guided significant numbers of students from underrepresented groups to the completion of doctoral studies or who has impacted the climate of a department, college, or institution to significantly increase the diversity of students pursuing and completing doctoral studies.”
Smith, D., and Y. S. Goerge. 2018. STEM mentoring: Emerging strategies for inclusion. Washington, DC: The American Association for the Advancement of Science. https://www.aaas.org/sites/default/files/2019-04/19-018%20AAAS%20STEM%20Mentoring_final_web.pdf (accessed September 19, 2019).