National Academies Press: OpenBook

Fast-Tracked: A Tactical Transit Study (2019)

Chapter: Front Matter

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Fast-Tracked: A Tactical Transit Study. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25571.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Fast-Tracked: A Tactical Transit Study. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25571.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Fast-Tracked: A Tactical Transit Study. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25571.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Fast-Tracked: A Tactical Transit Study. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25571.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Fast-Tracked: A Tactical Transit Study. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25571.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Fast-Tracked: A Tactical Transit Study. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25571.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Fast-Tracked: A Tactical Transit Study. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25571.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Fast-Tracked: A Tactical Transit Study. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25571.
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2019 T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 207 Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subject Areas Public Transportation • Passenger Transportation Fast-Tracked: A Tactical Transit Study Anthony Garcia Dana Wall The STreeT PlanS CollaboraTive, inC. Miami, FL

TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 207 Project J-11/Task 30 ISSN 2572-3782 ISBN 978-0-309-48091-8 © 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permis- sions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photo credit: Ad Hoc Industries NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufac- turers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nation’s growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213—Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration—now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and admin- istrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating proce- dures was executed by the three cooperating organizations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminating TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published research reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors thank the project teams and interviewees who gave their time to share their projects and review their project content, and TransitCenter for providing initial guidance for the research effort. C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 207 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Gwen Chisholm Smith, Manager, Transit Cooperative Research Program Dianne S. Schwager, Senior Program Officer Jarrel McAfee, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications TCRP PROJECT J-11/TASK 30 PANEL Field of Special Projects Julie Kirschbaum, San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, San Francisco, CA (Chair) John Christian Andoh, III, Central Midlands Regional Transit Authority, Columbia, SC Simon Berrebi, Berrebi LLC, Atlanta, GA Greg B. Brady, York Region Transit, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada Kirk Hovenkotter, TransitCenter, New York, NY Jay Monty, Jr., City of Everett, MA Leah Mooney, Chicago Transit Authority, Chicago, IL Ryan Russo, City of Oakland Department of Transportation, Oakland, CA Thomas B. Schwetz, Lane Transit District, Springfield, OR Aaron Villere, National Association of City Transportation Officials, New York, NY Andy Wiley-Schwartz, Bloomberg Associates, New York, NY Jake Sacks, FTA Liaison Matthew Dickens, APTA Liaison Darnell Grisby, APTA Liaison

TCRP Research Report 207 presents the current state of the practice for Quick-Build projects for surface transit (i.e., bus and streetcar), or Tactical Transit projects. Based on Tactical Urbanism, these projects use lower cost, temporary materials and short-term tactics as a way of pilot testing or expediting projects while longer-term planning takes place. The intent is to initiate physical and operational strategies that improve the delivery of surface transit. The audience for this report includes transit agencies, local governments, and citizens seeking ways to improve existing transit services and add new ones. A greater number of communities are using this methodology, not only to accelerate transit projects, but also to support safer and more efficient use of streets. The Street Plans Collaborative (Street Plans) conducted TCRP Project J-11/Task 30 by researching (a) 20 bus and streetcar Tactical Transit projects that improved speed and reliability, access and safety, and rider experience; (b) three advocacy groups; and (c) two funding programs. A project can be considered a Tactical Transit project if it • Is implemented on a much faster timeline than typical capital projects (within 1 to 2 years); • Uses impermanent or low-cost materials; • Is executed with a much smaller budget than a typical capital project (usually less than $100,000); • Seeks to build upon the design of infrastructure; • Is short in duration but part of a larger or longer-term effort; • Is used to accelerate implementation of transportation infrastructure; or • All of the above. The research included 36 interviews plus additional conversations with more than 60 individuals from local govern- ment, transit agencies, advocacy groups, consulting firms, and other agencies. Geographically, the research spanned 11 states across five different regions of the country, with variation in project location, community size, and local government structure. F O R E W O R D By Dianne S. Schwager Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

Following are a few of the key findings across the three project categories: • Speed and reliability projects saw transit travel time savings of from 20% to 50%, with the most common savings being in the range of 20% to 30%. • Projects in the access and safety category showed increases in ridership of up to 17%. • Three of the seven rider experience projects resulted in proposals for dedicated permits or design guidelines to guide future similar projects. This research produced TCRP Research Report 207: Fast-Tracked: A Tactical Transit Study. This report is not a catalog of all current examples, but rather a snapshot of the current state of the practice meant to encourage growth in the application of the Quick-Build methodology for transit projects.

SUMMARY 1 INTRODUCTION 5 Tactical Transit 6 Why This Document? 7 How to Use It 8 METHODOLOGY 9 Online Investigation 10 Interviews 10 Interview Protocol 11 PROJECT LIST + MAP 13 FINDINGS 17 Speed + Reliability: Projects 19 Speed + Reliability: Summary 23 Access + Safety: Projects 31 Access + Safety: Summary 35 Rider Experience 43 Project Summaries 45 5L Fulton Limited Pilot 46 Bancroft West Pilot Project 50 Broadway Bus Lane 53 CTA Prepaid Bus Boarding 57 Denver Moves Broadway 60 Go Ave 26 63 Hands on Exchange 67 Hennepin Avenue Bus Lanes 70 King St. Transit Pilot 73 LA Bus Boarding Platforms 77 Main Street Bus Lane 79 Mass. Avenue Bus Lane 83 Mt. Auburn Street Bus Lanes 86 Nolensville Crossing Treatment 91 NYC Bus Boarding Platforms 94 Oakland Bus Boarding Platforms 97 Rhode Island Avenue Bus Lane 100 Solano Avenue Bus Parklet 103 Streets for People 106 Washington St. Bus Lane 110 SPOTLIGHT: ADVOCACY + FUNDING 113 Spotlight: Advocacy 115 Better Bus Coalition 115 MARTA Army 117 TURBO 120 Spotlight: Funding Programs 123 BostonBRT 123 ETC Program 126 ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY 129 RESOURCES MENTIONED IN THIS REPORT 133 TABLE OF CONTENTS

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As transit agencies, local governments, and citizens look for ways to improve existing, and start new, transit service, many of them are turning to the Quick-Build (Tactical Urbanism) methodology. This approach uses inexpensive, temporary materials and short-term tactics as a way of implementing projects in the short-term, while longer-term planning takes place.

The TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program's TCRP Research Report 207: Fast-Tracked: A Tactical Transit Study documents the current state of the practice with regard to what are called Tactical Transit projects, specifically for surface transit (bus and streetcar). These are both physical and operational strategies that improve the delivery of surface transit projects using this methodology. Tactical Transit projects, operational and physical Quick-Build projects that uniquely focus on transit, have evolved as a way for municipal governments to improve the way they respond to rider needs and increased demand for service.

The report highlights Tactical Transit projects happening in cities across North America and how transit agencies and other entities are using innovative methods to improve transit speed, access, and ridership at a fraction of both the cost and time of conventional projects.

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