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130 RESEARCH Tactical Urbanism/Quick-Build Methodology: These terms are used interchangeably throughout the report. The projects included in the study are most often referred to as âQuick-Buildâ projects, unless âTactical Urbanismâ was a term used by an interviewee(s). Tactical Urbanism is the name of the original movement, the first term to define the methodology. The term Quick-Build has emerged, although both terms are meant to describe the same process for the purposes of this report. Tactical Transit project: A transit Quick-Build project. In this report, all Tactical Transit projects addressed bus or streetcar service (surface transit). Test: Broad term used to describe a project of any duration that sought to test a process, infrastructure, material, etc. Demonstration (Project): Where used, this term describes a test that did not exceed several days. Pilot (Project): Where used, this term describes a project that was a minimum of weeks, months, or even years. This term was also used more frequently by the project teams in describing their own projects. If âpilotâ was used in the Project Name in Figure 1, Project List, it was because the term was intentionally used in the project name by the project team. Intervention: Term used interchangeably with the above, that does not specify a duration of the project. Project Team: The group of entities or individuals who played a role in the featured Quick-Build project, to include the lead and supporting entity(ies). TACTICAL TRANSIT TOOLS/PROJECT TYPES Dedicated/Bus-Only Transit Lane: A lane of roadway restricted to buses, either only during peak hours, for 12 hours, or all-day, often implemented on corridors with frequent headways (10 minutes at peak), or where traffic congestion negatively impacts transit speed and reliability. If motorists travel or park in the lane during operational hours, they are subject to a traffic violation. Shared Bus-Bike Lane: A lane of roadway restricted to buses and bikes, often implemented curbside, and where there is not sufficient roadway to have separate facilities. This is generally recommended on corridors with lower speeds, and moderate headways, as these are not high-comfort bikeways. A variety of pavement markings, like âbike-bus-onlyâ and shared lane markings are used to identify the shared bus-bike lane. Transit Signal Priority (TSP): Modifications to traffic signals (through either reordering phases or adjusting phase lengths) that remove or minimize bus time spent at signalized intersections, and involve synced communication between the buses and signals. These modifications can be instituted for all arriving transit, or only for when transit is running behind schedule (a more sophisticated system). Queue Jump Lanes: A short dedicated transit facility that allows buses to enter an intersection with priority by bypassing queuing traffic through a curbside lane, implemented in tandem with signal priority. BAT Lane (Business Access and Transit Lane): Lanes primarily for dedicated transit use that maintain business and residence access
131 (general circulation) in limited locations. These lanes are particularly applicable on high-volume, highly-congested corridors where marked separation would allow for more efficient transit movement, but turns and driveway access from general traffic are frequent. Leading Pedestrian Interval: A pedestrian signal setting that gives pedestrians typically a 3-7 second head start entering an intersection before the green traffic signal, often implemented at intersections where high right and left turning volumes cause frequent pedestrian-vehicle conflicts. This is also used as a tool to reduce overall traffic signal duration, and speed up travel on a corridor for all modes. Boarding Island: A dedicated waiting and/or boarding area for transit riders that enables in-lane stops, both limiting dwell time at stops for buses and increasing accessibility for pedestrians. These can be curbside, or âfloatingâ (possibly with a bike lane between the island and curb). These are called âbus bulbsâ when they are concrete extensions of the curb that occupy the curbside parking lane width, allowing for in-lane stops. The modual bus boarding islands featured in this report are from a Spanish manufacturer, and are highly customizable. Bus Parklet: A Bus Parklet combines the popular concept of parkletsâ relatively low-cost structures that function as an extension of the sidewalk into the adjacent parking lane and create a flexible public space to meet the needs of the local communityâ with a temporary platform for an enhanced transit boarding experience (AC Transit Bus Parklet Design Manual, 2018). Bus Stop Consolidation: The practice of removing underutilized bus stops to regulate spacing and make for more efficient travel along a corridor (like faster trips and less dwell times). Bus stops with enhanced safety features, that are adjacent to key destinations like parks and health care facilities, etc. are typically prioritized to remain. However, a number of factors unique to the transit corridor influence which stops are removed to better balance the total number and spacing of stops. MATERIALS Thermoplastic: A powder-based pavement marking material that is applied to asphalt with intense heat, and is resistant to roadway oil-based chemicals and freezing temperatures. This is the most permanent of roadway marking materials. Methyl Methacrylate (MMA): A pavement marking material that rapidly cures to the asphalt, and is considered the most durable of traffic paints. The material exists as a solid and is mixed immediately prior to application. It forms a strong bond with the asphalt through a chemical reaction catalyzed by the mixing process. Epoxy Traffic Paint (Epoxy-modified acrylic asphalt paint): A durable pavement marking material created from two components. Epoxy resin is combined with a curing agent, and applied without heat.