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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

EVOLVING THE GEODETIC INFRASTRUCTURE TO MEET NEW SCIENTIFIC NEEDS Committee on Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Committee on Seismology and Geodynamics Division on Earth and Life Studies Consensus Study Report of Prepublication — Subject to further editorial revisions.

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Grant No. 80NSS- C18K0176 and the National Academy of Sciences’ Arthur L. Day Fund. Any opinions, findings, conclu- sions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organi- zation or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: International Standard Book Number-10: Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25579 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Front cover: Illustration of the Icesat-2 satellite measuring sea ice thickness, an important climate change variable, in the Arctic. The sea ice height measurement depends on the cm-accuracy laser range measure- ment as well as cm-accuracy tracking using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) of the geodetic infrastructure. Images courtesy of NASA. Back cover: The four geodetic measurement techniques of the geodetic infrastructure: Very Long Baseline Interferometry (top left), GNSS (top right), SLR (bottom left), and Doppler Orbitography and Radioposi- tioning Integrated by Satellite (bottom right). Images courtesy of NASA. Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25579. Prepublication — Subject to further editorial revisions.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues re- lated to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contribu- tions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the Nation- al Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct oth- er activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Acad- emies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowl- edge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. Prepublication — Subject to further editorial revisions.

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an au- thoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommen- dations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. Prepublication — Subject to further editorial revisions.

COMMITTEE ON EVOLVING THE GEODETIC INFRASTRUCTURE TO MEET NEW SCIENTIFIC NEEDS DAVID T. SANDWELL (NAS), Chair, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California SRINIVAS BETTADPUR, The University of Texas at Austin GEOFFREY BLEWITT, University of Nevada, Reno JOHN J. BRAUN, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado ANNY CAZENAVE (NAS), Centre National d’Études Spatiales, Toulouse, France NANCY GLENN, Boise State University, Idaho, and University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia KRISTINE M. LARSON, University of Colorado Boulder (emeritus) R. STEVEN NEREM, University of Colorado Boulder MICHELLE SNEED, U.S. Geological Survey, Sacramento, California ISABELLA VELICOGNA, University of California, Irvine National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Staff ANNE LINN, Study Director, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources ERIC EDKIN, Program Coordinator, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Prepublication — Subject to further editorial revisions. v

BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES ISABEL P. MONTAÑEZ, Chair, University of California, Davis ESTELLA A. ATEKWANA, University of Delaware, Newark BRENDA B. BOWEN, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City CHRISTOPHER (SCOTT) CAMERON, Geological Consulting, LLC, Houston, Texas NELIA W. DUNBAR, New Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources, Socorro RODNEY C. EWING (NAE), Stanford University, California CAROL P. HARDEN, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville ROBERT L. KLEINBERG (NAE), Institute for Sustainable Energy, Boston University, Massachusetts THORNE LAY (NAS), University of California, Santa Cruz ZELMA MAINE-JACKSON, Washington State Department of Ecology, Richland MICHAEL MANGA (NAS), University of California, Berkeley MARTIN W. MCCANN, Stanford University, California JEFFREY N. RUBIN JAMES A. SLUTZ, National Petroleum Council, Washington, District of Columbia SHAOWEN WANG, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ELIZABETH J. WILSON, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Staff ELIZABETH EIDE, Director ANNE LINN, Scholar DEBORAH GLICKSON, Senior Staff Officer SAMMANTHA MAGSINO, Senior Staff Officer NICHOLAS ROGERS, Financial Business Partner COURTNEY DEVANE, Administrative Coordinator ERIC EDKIN, Program Coordinator RAYMOND (REMY) CHAPPETTA, Senior Program Assistant/Research Assistant Prepublication — Subject to further editorial revisions. vi

Acknowledgments This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse per- spectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, ob- jectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Zuheir Altamimi, University of Paris Laura Bourgeau-Chavez, Michigan Tech Research Institute Don Chambers, University of South Florida Clara Chew, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Shin-Chan Han, University of Newcastle Sean Healy, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Tom Herring, Massachusetts Institute of Technology George Hilley, Stanford University Martin Horwath, University of Dresden Paul Segall, Stanford University Yolande Serra, University of Washington John Vidale, University of Southern California Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Danny Reible, Texas Tech University, and Keith Clarke, University of California, Santa Barbara. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. Prepublication — Subject to further editorial revisions. vii

Contents SUMMARY.................................................................................................................................................1 1 INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................................9 Committee’s Tasks and Approach, 10 Geodetic Infrastructure and Terrestrial Reference Frame, 12 Organization of This Report, 18 References, 18 2 PROGRESS IN MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING THE GEODETIC INFRASTRUCTURE..................................................................................21 Maintaining and Improving the Geodetic Infrastructure, 21 Enhancing Specific SLR and VLBI Sites, 23 International Geodetic Network, 24 GNSS/GPS National Network, 24 International Geodetic Services and the ITRF, 25 Federal Geodetic Service, 26 Geodesy Workforce, 26 Summary, 27 References, 28 3 SEA-LEVEL CHANGE..............................................................................................................29 Science Overview, 30 Sea-Level Change, 33 Thermal Expansion—Ocean Heat Storage, 36 Ice Sheets and Glacier Mass Changes, 37 Land Water Hydrology, 39 Vertical Land Motion, 39 Summary, 40 References, 42 Prepublication — Subject to further editorial revisions. ix

x Contents 4 TERRESTRIAL WATER CYCLE.............................................................................................45 Science Overview, 45 Elastic Loading, 46 Aquifer-System Compaction (Land Subsidence), 48 Surface Water Monitoring by Satellite Altimetry, 52 Water Cycle Monitoring with Satellite Gravity, 53 Calibration/Validation and GNSS-IR, 54 Summary, 54 References, 56 5 GEOLOGICAL HAZARDS: EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANOES..................................59 Science Overview, 59 Required Measurements and Links to the Terrestrial Reference Frame, 62 Summary, 65 References, 66 6 WEATHER AND CLIMATE......................................................................................................69 GNSS for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, 69 Improvements in Weather Models, 70 Reducing Uncertainty in Climate Projections, 76 Summary, 77 References, 78 7 ECOSYSTEMS............................................................................................................................81 Vegetation Dynamics, 81 Lateral Transport of Carbon, Nutrients, Soil, and Water, 84 Global Soil Moisture, 87 Permafrost and Changes in the Arctic, 89 Summary, 89 References, 91 8 PRIORITIES FOR MAINTAINING AND ENHANCING THE GEODETIC INFRASTRUCTURE..................................................................................97 Accuracy and Stability of the TRF, 97 Accuracy and Stability of Satellite Orbits, 98 Accuracy of the Low-Degree Geopotential Harmonics, 99 Augmentation of the GNSS Station Network, 99 Supporting Software, Models, Data, and Expertise, 99 Summary, 101 Reference, 102 APPENDIXES A Science and Applications Traceability Matrixes..........................................................................103 B Speakers and Workshop Participants...........................................................................................123 C Biographical Sketches of Committee Members..........................................................................125 D Acronyms and Abbreviations.......................................................................................................129 Prepublication — Subject to further editorial revisions.

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Satellite remote sensing is the primary tool for measuring global changes in the land, ocean, biosphere, and atmosphere. Over the past three decades, active remote sensing technologies have enabled increasingly precise measurements of Earth processes, allowing new science questions to be asked and answered. As this measurement precision increases, so does the need for a precise geodetic infrastructure.

Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs summarizes progress in maintaining and improving the geodetic infrastructure and identifies improvements to meet new science needs that were laid out in the 2018 report Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Focusing on sea-level change, the terrestrial water cycle, geological hazards, weather and climate, and ecosystems, this study examines the specific aspects of the geodetic infrastructure that need to be maintained or improved to help answer the science questions being considered.

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