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Page 129
Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Foreseeing the Impact of Transformational Technologies on Land Use and Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25580.
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Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Foreseeing the Impact of Transformational Technologies on Land Use and Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25580.
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Page 130
Page 131
Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Foreseeing the Impact of Transformational Technologies on Land Use and Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25580.
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Page 132
Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Foreseeing the Impact of Transformational Technologies on Land Use and Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25580.
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Page 132

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III-5 5G wireless Fifth-generation wireless communication standard using the portion of the spectrum in the 600 MHz to 6 GHz range. Devices using 5G wireless have a target maximum data transfer rate of 20 Gigabits/second, with latency of 1 millisecond (adapted from Wikipedia). Active demand management (ADM) The use of information and pricing to adjust travel demand to better fit the capacity available in the transportation system. ADM uses information and technology to dynamically manage demand, which could include redistributing travel to less congested times of day or routes or reducing overall vehicle trips by influencing a mode choice (https://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/ atdm/approaches/adm.htm). Active traffic management (ATM) ATM makes use of the ability to dynamically manage recurrent and non-recurrent congestion based on prevailing and predicted traffic conditions. Focusing on trip reliability, it maximizes the effectiveness and efficiency of the facility. It increases throughput and safety through use of integrated systems with new technology, including the automation of dynamic deployment to optimize performance quickly and immediately that occurs when operators must deploy operational strategies manually. ATM approaches focus on influencing travel behavior with respect to lane/facility choices and operations (adapted from https://ops. fhwa.dot.gov/atdm/approaches/atm.htm). Active transportation and demand management (ATDM) The combination of the multimodal version of ATM with ADM. Artificial intelligence (AI) AI, or machine learning, is the ability of a computer program to identify relationships between input data and desired results without human guidance. Training of the AI machine requires extensive data giving examples of “right” and “wrong” results for a wide range of input conditions. Automated/autonomous vehicle (AV) AVs may have a range of driver assist capabilities, starting with partial automation of certain driver tasks and continuing up to and including full automation (self-driving. AVs). This report focuses on the transformational impacts of fully self-driving AVs (Level 5 in the SAE classification); however, references in the literature may apply the abbreviation AV more broadly. Glossary

III-6 Foreseeing the Impact of Transformational Technologies on Land Use and Transportation Bluetooth (BT) A wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances using short-wavelength UHF radio waves (Wikipedia). Car sharing (round-trip, one-way, and peer-to-peer) Travelers subscribe to rent or use a car on a timeshare basis. Round-trip rentals require the vehicle to be returned to its starting point. One-way rentals allow the traveler to drop the vehicle off closer to the destination. Peer-to-peer car sharing usually involves shared ownership and use of a vehicle by several users rather than use of a vehicle owned by a third party. Cellular network A mobile communication network wherein the last link is wireless. The network is distributed over land areas called cells. Each cell is served by at least one fixed-location transceiver, but more normally by three cell sites or base transceiver stations (Wikipedia). Connected vehicle (CV) A vehicle that is equipped with internet access and usually also with a wireless local area network. The technology allows the car to share internet access with other devices both inside and outside the vehicle. Often, the car also is outfitted with special technologies that tap into the internet or wireless LAN and provide additional benefits to the driver. For safety-critical applications, it is anticipated that cars will also be connected using dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) devices that operate in the FCC-granted 5.9 GHz band with very low latency (Wikipedia). DSRC Dedicated Short-Range Communications. At present, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has designated a portion of the wireless communications spectrum (around 5.9 GHz) for short-range to medium- range vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications of safety and vehicle status information. The designation is not permanent, however, and requests have been made to open this communications band to other purposes. Dynamic fares and pricing The adjustment of tolls, parking costs, and other transportation prices to reflect demand. Dynamic high-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes Toll lanes for which the fee charged and/or the number of occupants required to access the lanes may vary by day or by time of day. Electronic tolling on HOT lanes facilitates use of the lanes by single-occupant vehicles that pay a per-trip surcharge. Dynamic rideshare matching The use of algorithms to match ride-seekers to the most readily available ride-givers. Dynamic routing Analysis of the roadway network and real-time traffic conditions to guide a user to the fastest route to a destination. E-scooters Electric motor-powered scooters. Depending on the model, drivers may stand or sit.

Glossary III-7 Electric vehicle (EV) A vehicle that is powered by an electric motor. For all- electric EVs, the electricity source may be a battery, third rail, overhead wire, solar cells, or fuel cells; for hybrid vehicles, electricity also may be generated from an internal combustion engine. GPS Global positioning system. A satellite-based radio navigation system owned by the U.S. government (Wikipedia). The accuracy of GPS positioning varies depending on the number of visible satellites, the presence of signal obstructions (like buildings), and the software used to enhance accuracy of estimated position. Hybrid vehicle A vehicle that uses a combustion engine to drive an electric generator that in turn powers the electric motor. Hybrid vehicles can be considered a subset of EVs. Integrated corridor management (ICM) Integrated corridor management (ICM) is institutional collaboration to aggressively and proactively integrate existing infrastructure along major corridors. Through an ICM approach, transportation professionals manage the corridor as a multimodal system and make operational decisions for the benefit of the corridor as a whole (from https://www.its.dot.gov/ research_archives/icms/index.htm). Intelligent transportation system (ITS) A system that integrates advanced communication technologies into vehicles and infrastructure in a way that improves transportation safety and mobility and enhances American productivity (adapted from https://www.its.dot.gov/ resources/fastfacts.htm). Internet-of-things (IoT) The network of physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and connectivity that enables them to exchange data, creating opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, resulting in efficiency improvements, economic benefits, and reduced human intervention (Wikipedia). LiDAR Light detection and ranging using pulsed laser light, return times, and wave lengths to generate 3-D representations of the physical environment (Wikipedia). Location-based service (LBS) Smart phone applications that provide users with information on nearby services. Long-term evolution (LTE) A communications standard for high-speed data transfer with mobile devices. Sometimes called 4G LTE or Advanced 4G, but not strictly 4G. LTE is a registered trademark owned by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) (Wikipedia). Microtransit Privately owned and operated transit service. Current microtransit providers include Bridj, Chariot, Lyft Shuttle, Split, and Via, among others (Wikipedia). Mobility-as-a-service (MaaS) Methods for traveling that do not require purchase or ownership of a vehicle.

III-8 Foreseeing the Impact of Transformational Technologies on Land Use and Transportation On-demand transit Dynamic transit routing that adjusts transit capacity to respond to demand. Original equipment manufacturer (OEM) In the context of this report, OEMs are the manufacturers of vehicles. Outside of this report, OEMs include equipment manufacturers and equipment suppliers of all kinds. Transfer connection protection The practice of guaranteeing rides to riders’ final destinations in the event that a connection is late or missed. Transformational technologies (TTs) Any of a broad range of evolving new applications of science, engineering, and societal organization that have the potential to transform how people and institutions use land and transportation systems. Transportation network company (TNC) A TNC, or mobility service provider, connects travelers needing a ride with drivers willing to provide one (adapted from Wikipedia). Wireless, Wi-Fi Wireless local area network using devices based on IEEE 802.11 standards. Wi-Fi is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance (Wikipedia). Zone-based pricing The practice of charging drivers a fee to drive within or into a congested area.

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Examples of transformational technologies—many are discussed in technical and popular media—include wireless telecommunications, shared vehicles, connected vehicles, fully autonomous vehicles, alternative-fuel vehicles, smart cities and communities, big data analytics, internet-of-things, as well as UAVs or drones, 3-D printing, and more.

Public agencies face significant challenges continuing to perform their governmental functions in the face of the private sector’s prodigious output of these new technologies. Agencies need to rethink how they develop their policies and plans—and they need to obtain new expertise.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Research Report 924: Foreseeing the Impact of Transformational Technologies on Land Use and Transportation reviews the characteristics of new transportation-related technologies and their applications in the transportation sector and explores a wide variety of potential impacts on areas such as travel and land use and planning projects.

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