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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Biological Collections: Ensuring Critical Research and Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25592.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Biological Collections: Ensuring Critical Research and Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25592.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Biological Collections: Ensuring Critical Research and Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25592.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Biological Collections: Ensuring Critical Research and Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25592.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Biological Collections: Ensuring Critical Research and Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25592.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Biological Collections: Ensuring Critical Research and Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25592.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Biological Collections: Ensuring Critical Research and Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25592.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

PREPUBLICATION COPY Biological Collections: Ensuring Critical Research and Education for the 21st Century Committee on Ensuring Critical Research and Education for the 21st Century Board on Life Sciences Division on Earth and Life Studies A Consensus Study Report of

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation’s Division of Biological Infrastructure (Contract Number 10003964). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25592 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Cover credits: Fresh kelp seaweed salad sea food vector illustration by Debahuti Bhattacharya on Shutterstock.com; set of cartoon underwater plants and sponges by Natali Snailcat at Shutterstock.com; Escherichia coli bacterium, E.coli, gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria by Kateryna Kon on Shutterstock.com; watercolor vector hand-painted hummingbird by ElenaMedvedeva on iStockphoto.com; DNA blue colored double helix by KvitaJan on iStockphoto.com; modified handwork watercolor illustration of multicolored jellyfish by 4uda4ka on iStockphoto.com; computed tomography (CT) reconstruction of an angler, Lophius piscatorius by Zachary Randall, Florida Museum of Natural History (reference UF 118531); 3D illustration of ammonite fossil by royaltystockphoto.com on Shutterstock.com; Micro-CT scan of a Burundi screeching frog, Arthroleptis schubotzi by David C. Blackburn and Edward L. Stanley, Florida Museum of Natural History; modified hand-drawn honeybees by Val_Iva on iStockphoto.com; handwork watercolor illustration of red vari lemur by lenny777 on iStockphoto.com; watercolor vector hand-painted set with eucalyptus leaves by ElenaMedvedeva on iStockphoto.com; illustration of yeast as part of the archives of Pearson Scott Foresman, donated to the Wikimedia Foundation; watercolor illustration of mushrooms by Darina_V on Shutterstock.com; mouse illustration of a deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) from See Pest & Lawn Solutions, Collegeville, Pennsylvania; digital tree on technology background representing the growth of modern-age digital media by monsitj on iStockphoto.com. Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Biological Collections: Ensuring Critical Research and Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25592. Prepublication Copy

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. Prepublication Copy

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. Prepublication Copy

COMMITTEE ON ENSURING CRITICAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY Co-Chairs JAMES P. COLLINS, Arizona State University SHIRLEY A. POMPONI, Florida Atlantic University Members ANDREW C. BENTLEY, University of Kansas RICK E. BORCHELT, U.S. Department of Energy KYRIA BOUNDY-MILLS, University of California, Davis JOSEPH A. COOK, University of New Mexico LYNN D. DIERKING, Oregon State University SCOTT V. EDWARDS (NAS), Harvard University MANZOUR H. HAZBÓN, American Type Culture Collection TALIA S. KARIM, University of Colorado GEORGE I. MATSUMOTO, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute PAMELA S. SOLTIS (NAS), University of Florida BARBARA M. THIERS, New York Botanical Garden Staff AUDREY THÉVENON, Study Director KEEGAN SAWYER, Senior Program Officer JESSICA DE MOUY, Senior Program Assistant ALYSSA R. FREDERICK, Christine Mirzayan Science & Technology Policy Fellow MATTHEW ANDERSON, Financial Business Partner FRAN SHARPLES, Director (until February 2020) KAVITA BERGER, Director (from July 2020) Consultant ROBERT POOL, Editor Prepublication Copy v

BOARD ON LIFE SCIENCES Chair JAMES P. COLLINS, Arizona State University Members A. ALONSO AGUIRRE, George Mason University VALERIE H. BONHAM, Ropes & Gray LLP DOMINIQUE BROSSARD, University of Wisconsin–Madison NANCY D. CONNELL, Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security SEAN M. DECATUR, Kenyon College JOSEPH R. ECKER (NAS), Howard Hughes Medical Institute SCOTT V. EDWARDS (NAS), Harvard University GERALD L. EPSTEIN, National Defense University ROBERT J. FULL, University of California, Berkeley MARY E. MAXON, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory JILL P. MESIROV, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center ROBERT NEWMAN, The Aspen Institute STEPHEN J. O’BRIEN (NAS), Nova Southeastern University LUCILA OHNO-MACHADO, University of California, San Diego CLAIRE POMEROY (NAM), Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation MARY E. POWER (NAS), University of California, Berkeley SUSAN RUNDELL SINGER, Rollins College LANA SKIRBOLL, Sanofi DAVID R. WALT (NAE, NAM), Harvard Medical School PHYLLIS M. WISE, University of Colorado Staff KAVITA BERGER, Director FRAN SHARPLES, Scholar/Senior Project Director JO HUSBANDS, Scholar/Senior Project Director KATHERINE BOWMAN, Senior Program Officer KEEGAN SAWYER, Senior Program Officer ANDREA HODGSON, Senior Program Officer AUDREY THÉVENON, Program Officer STEVEN MOSS, Associate Program Officer MATTHEW ANDERSON, Financial Business Partner JESSICA DE MOUY, Senior Program Assistant KOSSANA YOUNG, Senior Program Assistant vi Prepublication Copy

At this point in our history it is vitally important to acknowledge the fact that more and more of the species in biological collections will represent species, or certainly populations, that no longer exist as living organisms in nature. As scientists and as a society, we need to protect the specimens that we have, and to take special care with those we are collecting now. Equally important will be ongoing efforts to expand the types of living organisms we culture for research. In many cases, museums and stock centers will, unfortunately, end up having the last remnants of species and populations that will never again exist on Earth. It’s almost as if we had a few days to collect on another planet, and will never be there again. In view of this situation, we need to think deeply and thoughtfully about the preservation of what we have, to collect and culture comprehensive specimens, ones for which material useful for genomic analysis is preserved, and then figure out how to keep our biological collections well maintained for as long as possible. Peter H. Raven, President Emeritus, Missouri Botanical Garden Prepublication Copy vii

Preface Biological collections are a critical component of the scientific infrastructure in the United States and globally. They advance scientific discovery and innovation, enrich education, connect communities to nature and science, and preserve Earth’s biological heritage. Our nation’s natural history and living stock collections enable research to improve health, food security, and national defense. Biological collections are used to reveal the history of life on Earth, study the impacts of humans on biodiversity, advance biomedical research, and develop improved crops, biocontrol agents, and pharmaceuticals. Biological collections house living and preserved specimens that have a record of shedding light on the emergence and spread of pathogens and their hosts. Notably, the committee began working on this report before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic started and finished it in the midst of the viral outbreak. Infectious diseases are a clear point at which living stock and natural history collections intersect in the service of society. COVID-19, for example, reminds us that pandemics and epidemics are not just ancient events, but under the right circumstances, new pathogens can emerge and cause great harm to modern societies. Biological collections provide the specimens needed to understand how infectious diseases emerge and how they might be mitigated before reaching the destructive level of the modern-day COVID-19 pandemic. The ability to store, access, and use collections has significantly improved with new methods of automation, preservation, information extraction, data integration, and related technologies. Yet, despite the rich history of research, discovery, learning, and innovation made possible by biological collections, the infrastructure that supports them and makes them accessible deserves to be valued and appreciated much more than it is. The biological collections community has produced many discerning and detailed reports on the needs, capabilities, and promise of biological collections. This consensus report echoes the findings of preceding publications while bringing new insights and a fresh perspective on ways to maintain, enhance, and expand the full portfolio of resources and assets that reside in biological collections. The report also reminds us that biological collections are part of the world’s scientific infrastructure. Sustaining the priceless biological collections that are our heritage and our legacy is urgent if we are to continue to be able to address world-class scientific questions that depend on these kinds of collections, foster innovation, and support educational needs, now and in the future. We extend our gratitude to the many experts who taught us about the range of challenges and accomplishments of biological collections. Their knowledge and insight through webinars, in-person presentations, and written comments sent through the project website stimulated rich discussion and enhanced the quality of the report. We also thank the external reviewers of the report for helping us to improve its accuracy. This report would not have been possible without the exceptional contributions of the National Academy of Sciences. Our committee is grateful to Audrey Thévenon, our study director, and Keegan Sawyer, Senior Program Officer, for their guidance, dedication, and perseverance. Jessica De Mouy provided exemplary behind-the-scenes technical and logistical support for all of the committee’s activities. Robert Pool substantially improved the language and format in our report. The committee was fortunate to have a diverse and knowledgeable membership. The expertise, perspective, and dedication of the committee members cannot be overstated. We extend a special thank you to our colleagues on the committee who worked tirelessly to thoughtfully and carefully review a large amount of information and prepare this consensus report. It was an honor and privilege to work with all of them. Prepublication Copy ix

Preface We hope that the committee’s recommendations will provide inspiration and an evidence-based framework to build and support the nation’s biological collections, which are crucial contributors to our capacity for discovery, innovation, and competitiveness now and for future generations. James P. Collins and Shirley A. Pomponi, Co-Chairs Committee on Biological Collections: Ensuring Critical Research and Education for the 21st Century x Prepublication Copy

Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: MEGAN BANG, Spencer Foundation ANN BARTUSKA, Resources for the Future PHILIPPE DESMETH, Belgian Science Policy Office SARAH GEORGE, University of Utah GRETCHEN B. JORDAN, University of Maryland PETER M. KAREIVA, University of California, Los Angeles MICHELLE KOO, University of California, Berkeley JAY LABOV, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (retired) MICHAEL LOMAS, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences KEVIN MCCLUSKEY, Kansas State University MURIEL POSTON, Pitzer College FLOYD SHOCKLEY, Smithsonian Institution SUSAN SINGER, Rollins College JOSHUA TEWKSBURY, University of Colorado Boulder Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by PETER H. RAVEN, Missouri Botanical Garden, and JOEL CRACRAFT, American Museum of Natural History. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. Prepublication Copy xi

Contents SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................................. 1 1 THE REPOSITORY OF LIFE ......................................................................................................... 12 Purpose of the Study, 13 The Promise of Biological Collections, 17 Challenges, 24 Vision for the Next Decade, 27 References, 29 2 ADVANCING DISCOVERY, INSPIRING INNOVATION, AND INFORMING SOCIETAL CHALLENGES ............................................................................................................. 34 A Vast Data-Rich Repository, 34 Fundamental Ways in Which Biological Collections Support Scientific Research, 35 Evaluating the Impact, 46 Conclusion, 50 References, 51 3 CONTRIBUTING TO SCIENCE EDUCATION AND LIFELONG LEARNING ..................... 59 Increasing Student Knowledge and Understanding in Formal Education Settings, 59 Inspiring a Lifelong Appreciation for Science in Informal Education Settings, 63 Broadening Participation in STEM, 64 Evaluating Impacts on Formal Education and Lifelong Learning, 66 Conclusions, 68 References, 68 4 BUILDING AND MAINTAINING A ROBUST INFRASTRUCTURE ....................................... 71 The Promise of Biological Collections Infrastructure, 71 Challenges, 75 The Way Forward, 82 Conclusions, 87 Recommendations for the Next Steps, 88 References, 89 5 GENERATING, INTEGRATING, AND ACCESSING DIGITAL DATA .................................. 93 Current State of Digitization, Data, and Cyberinfrastructure, 93 Challenges, 98 The Way Forward, 103 Conclusions, 111 Recommendations for the Next Steps, 112 References, 112 Prepublication Copy xiii

Contents 6 CULTIVATING A HIGHLY SKILLED WORKFORCE ........................................................... 118 The Biological Collections Workforce Ecosystem, 118 Challenges, 122 The Way Forward, 126 Conclusions, 130 Recommendations for the Next Steps, 130 References, 131 7 SECURING FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY ............................................................................ 136 Challenges, 136 Range of Options for Addressing the Issue of Financial Sustainability, 141 Conclusions, 146 Recommendations for Next Steps, 147 References, 148 8 TAKING COLLABORATIVE ACTION ...................................................................................... 150 Recommendations for the Next Steps, 155 References, 155 APPENDIXES A STATEMENT OF TASK................................................................................................................. 157 B PUBLIC MEETING AGENDAS .................................................................................................... 159 C LIST OF WEBINARS...................................................................................................................... 162 D BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS AND STAFF ........................ 163 xiv Prepublication Copy

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Biological collections are a critical part of the nation's science and innovation infrastructure and a fundamental resource for understanding the natural world. Biological collections underpin basic science discoveries as well as deepen our understanding of many challenges such as global change, biodiversity loss, sustainable food production, ecosystem conservation, and improving human health and security. They are important resources for education, both in formal training for the science and technology workforce, and in informal learning through schools, citizen science programs, and adult learning. However, the sustainability of biological collections is under threat. Without enhanced strategic leadership and investments in their infrastructure and growth many biological collections could be lost.

Biological Collections: Ensuring Critical Research and Education for the 21st Century recommends approaches for biological collections to develop long-term financial sustainability, advance digitization, recruit and support a diverse workforce, and upgrade and maintain a robust physical infrastructure in order to continue serving science and society. The aim of the report is to stimulate a national discussion regarding the goals and strategies needed to ensure that U.S. biological collections not only thrive but continue to grow throughout the 21st century and beyond.

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