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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 212 2020 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation â¢ Operations and Traffic Management â¢ Vehicles and Equipment Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems Volume 2: Incorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructureâ Planning Guidebook Booz Allen HAmilton McLean, VA i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h emBry-riddle AeronAuticAl university Daytona Beach, FL HogAn lovells Washington, DC Kimley-Horn And AssociAtes Raleigh, NC novel engineering Melbourne, FL toltz, King, duvAll, Anderson, And AssociAtes St. Paul, MN vAnAsse HAngen Brustlin, inc. Watertown, MA Astrid AviAtion And AerospAce Spring Hill, FL
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 212, VOLUME 2 Project 03-42 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48148-9 Library of Congress Control Number 2020937206 Â© 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.nationalacademies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank the following airports and individuals: Atlantic City International Airport Middle Georgia Regional Airport Sebring Regional Airport Eastern Oregon Regional Airport Darryl Abling Wayne Green Steve Chrisman Brandon Guillot CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 212, VOLUME 2 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Megan Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Sreyashi Roy, Editor ACRP PROJECT 03-42 PANEL Field of Policy and Planning Heather Hasper, DHJ Alaska, San Jose, CA (Chair) Kerry L. Ahearn, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC Stephen K. Cusick, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL Adam Durrin, Independent Consultant, Greenwich, NY Amit Lagu, Independent Consultant, Sunnyvale, CA GaÃ«l Le Bris, WSP USA, Raleigh, NC Michael R. Scott, Reno-Stead Airport, Reno, NV Jeremy Worrall, Alaska DOT and Public Facilities, Fairbanks, AK Michael DiPilato, FAA Liaison Jared Raymond, FAA Liaison Justin Barkowski, American Association of Airport Executives Liaison Tracy Lamb, Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International Liaison Christopher J. Oswald, Airports Council InternationalâNorth America Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison
ACRP Research Report 212 provides guidance for airports on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the following areas: Topic AâManaging UAS Operations in the Vicinity of an Airport educates airport operators in best practices for managing non-airport-sponsored UAS and small UAS (sUAS) activities applicable to airports of all types and categories. Topic BâEngaging Stakeholders in UAS assists airport operators to effectively engage stakeholders regarding UAS. The guidance helps airport operators identify potential stakeholders, assess the positive and negative impacts that UAS operations may have on them, and determine the best strategy to exchange this information. Topic CâIncorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructure and Planning provides guidance on the planning, development, and integration required to review and implement near-term, mid-term, and long-term facility-use improvements needed to support UAS at an airport. Topic DâPotential Use of UAS by Airport Operators explores the use of UAS to enhance the efficiency of airport operations with guidance materials to help identify, evaluate, and select UAS-related technologies, including (1) identification and evalu- ation of the different use cases and the types of enablers needed to support each use case such as cost-benefit analysis, training, and certification and (2) a framework for safety management system application and identification of potential risks associated with UAS. ACRP Research Report 212 is published in 3 volumes. Topics A and B have been incorpo- rated in Volume 1: Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports, Topic C has been included in Volume 2: Incorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructureâ Planning Guidebook, and Topic D has been included in Volume 3: Potential Use of UAS by Airport Operators. This report is supplemented by ACRP Web-Only Document 42: Toolkits and Resource Library for Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems, which can be found on the TRB website by searching for âACRP Research Report 212.â The guidance provided in ACRP Research Report 212 expands upon the guidance provided in ACRP Report 144: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Airports: A Primer. UAS activity continues to grow for recreational and non-recreational uses. Recreational uses include applications in photography, racing, and sport. Non-recreational uses include law enforcement, emergency response, media coverage, delivery services, surveying, and utility inspection. Many airport operators see the potential benefits of using UAS for inspec- tions, wildlife hazard management, security management, and emergency response to increase efficiency and reduce cost. The rapid increase in UAS activityâcoupled with the F O R E W O R D By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
diverse stakeholders employing the technology and the evolving regulatory landscapeâhas also resulted in airports facing new challenges as they strive to provide users, tenants, and cus- tomers with a safe, secure, and predictable operating environment. Airports need guidance, tools, and other resources to effectively address UAS issues and integrate UAS into their day- to-day operations and planning. There was a need to build on ACRP Report 144: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Airports: A Primer and ACRP Legal Research Digest 32: Evolving Law on Airport Implications by Unmanned Aerial Systems to provide additional guidance and information related to UAS at airports. A thorough literature review, which included outreach with UAS technology manufac- turers, former air traffic controllers, airline pilots, and several technical UAS subject matter experts, was conducted. Case studies were conducted to evaluate guidance methods target- ing audiences in a variety of stakeholder groups. Research under ACRP Project 03-42 was led by Booz Allen Hamilton in association with Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University; Hogan Lovells; Kimley-Horn and Associates; Novel Engineering; Toltz, King, Duvall, Anderson, and Associates; Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc.; and Astrid Aviation and Aerospace. The research identifies airport-specific infrastructure and facilities needed to support UAS and describes field demonstrations to test various use cases for potential use of UAS by airport operators.
1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Background 2 1.2 Guidebook Organization 3 Chapter 2 UAS Terminology and Classifications 5 Chapter 3 Current Conditions 5 3.1 Current Regulations 7 3.2 Current UAS Forecasts of Industry Demand 8 3.3 UAS Airport Design Guidance Summary 11 3.4 Recent Examples of UAS Infrastructure Planning 14 Chapter 4 Airport Opportunities, Issues, and Challenges 14 4.1 Opportunities 16 4.2 Issues and Challenges 17 Chapter 5 Airport Infrastructure Planning for UAS 17 5.1 UAS and Airport Planning Documentation 18 5.2 Initial Needs Assessment and Pre-Planning 21 5.3 Suggested Planning Documents Scope 22 5.4 Airport Strategic Vision and Objectives 22 5.5 Existing Conditions 22 5.6 Forecast Process 24 5.7 Determining Critical Aircraft 26 5.8 Airport Capacity Evaluation 26 5.9 UAS Facility and Infrastructure Needs 44 5.10 UAS and Airport Operational Guidance 45 5.11 Development of Alternatives 46 5.12 Airport Compliance 48 5.13 Facilities Implementation Plan 50 5.14 Financial Feasibility Analysis 51 5.15 Airport Layout Plan 51 5.16 Airport Readiness Steps 54 5.17 UAS and Airport Facility and Operations Checklist 54 5.18 Summary 56 Chapter 6 Anticipated Future Conditions 57 6.1 Public Acceptance 58 6.2 Market Demand 59 6.3 Improvements in Technology 60 6.4 Regulations 61 6.5 Infrastructure Needs 64 6.6 Findings and Anticipated Future Conditions 67 6.7 Final Thoughts C O N T E N T S
69 References 74 Acronyms A-1 Appendix A PDT Airport Master Plan B-1 Appendix B General Airport Issues and Challenges with UAS C-1 Appendix C UAS Forecast Process D-1 Appendix D UAS and Airport Operational Guidance E-1 Appendix E âHow toâ Tools F-1 Appendix F Case Studies G-1 Appendix G Other Resources Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.