National Academies Press: OpenBook

Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts (2019)

Chapter: Appendix A - Further Resources

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Page 98
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Further Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25609.
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Page 98
Page 99
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Further Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25609.
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Page 99
Page 100
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Further Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25609.
×
Page 100
Page 101
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Further Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25609.
×
Page 101
Page 102
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Further Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25609.
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Page 102

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98 As presented in Section 2.2.1, survey respondents were asked to select what type of informa- tion would be most helpful in planning for future GHG reduction initiatives. The options avail- able for selection were funding, technical, and regulatory. Funding The majority of respondents, a total of 59%, selected funding information as being most supportive of future GHG reduction efforts. Table A-1 lists the primary funding sources that have been accessed for funding GHG reduc- tion initiatives presented in this report. The table includes specific programs administered by federal agencies for which all airports may be eligible, as well as state and utility programs that will vary on the basis of an airport’s location. While the list is not meant to be comprehensive, it should provide guidance relative to the specific pathway being pursued. There are websites that supplement the information provided in Table A-1 that provide addi- tional information on potential funding programs. Two such programs are: • Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE): This website, managed by North Carolina State University, provides information on renewable energy and energy efficiency programs by state including those administered by regional and local utility companies. https://www.dsireusa.org. • Energy Star: This website provides information on energy efficiency including systems and appliances that have achieved a technical standard for low energy use receiving Energy Star certification. https://www.energystar.gov/. Airports are also pursuing innovative funding approaches, including the following: • Green Bonds: Many large infrastructure projects are funded in part by bonds, a financial instrument used by borrowers to raise funding from a variety of investors willing to lend them money over a period of years, or even decades. Over the past five years, bonded projects that incorporate significant environmental benefits have been proposed creating a market for so-called green bonds. Credit rating agencies have developed frameworks to determine if projects meet the green credentials proposed. Projects demonstrating green credentials then can access trillions of dollars from international investors seeking to fund green projects. Two airport projects have achieved a green rating in recent years: the New Mexico City Airport and Orlando Internationals South Terminal Complex project. These projects offer examples for other airports looking to fund major expansions with green bonds (Grey, 2017). • Public-Private Partnerships: Public-private partnerships (P3) occur in many different forms at airports. While most commercial airports in the United States are owned and managed by A P P E N D I X A Further Resources

Further Resources 99 Program Administrator Eligible Projects Recipients Voluntary Airport Low Emissions (VALE) FAA Available to airports in areas of poor air quality (designated by the EPA as nonattainment or maintenance); gate electrification, alternatively fueled vehicles, renewable generation when power is consumed on-site Examples included in Chapter 3. Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) FAA Airport on-road, zero emission vehicles (meaning those with all- electric or hydrogen Examples included in Chapter 3. powered drive trains) Energy Efficiency (512) FAA Energy audits, energy efficiency infrastructure, renewable energy FY 2017: Drake Field (AR), Eastern Iowa, Portland Jetport (ME), Gulfport (MS), Charleston Yeager (WV) Airport Improvement Program (AIP) FAA Sustainability management plans, energy management plans, components of large capital projects FY 2017: sustainability plans for Outagamie County (WI), Dayton (OH), Northeast Florida Volkswagen Settlement States GSE vehicles and charging infrastructure, forklifts, other airport on-road fleet vehicles Funding programs may be currently available depending on the state. Clean Diesel Funding Assistance Program (under the Diesel Emissions Reduction Act) Government entities and nonprofits GSE vehicles, other diesel fleet vehicles Massport received funding to electrify ground service equipment (2018); LAX replaced 3 diesel shuttle buses with electric (2018); AUS replaced 5 diesel GSE with electric (2016); SEA facilitated funding for replacement of airline GSE with electric (2016); DFW received funding for CNG replacement vehicles (2015) Table A-1. Funding programs for airport GHG emission reduction projects.

100 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts Congestion Mitigation and Air Federal Highway Available to airports in areas of poor air quality Establishment of a Transportation Management Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ) Administration, Federal Transit Authority (designated by the EPA as nonattainment or maintenance); funds are given to diesel engine retrofits and other effective emission- reduction and congestion- management activities Association for the Manchester-Boston Regional Airport area, with development of traffic reduction regulations; conversion of nine diesel shuttle buses to CNG at Richmond International Airport (2013) Utility Energy Efficiency Rebates Utilities in response to state Energy Policy Rebates for energy efficiency projects including lighting, equipment replacement CMH LED lighting project Clean Cities Program Department of Energy Research projects for more energy efficient transportation networks Advancing transportation hubs’ efficiency using novel analytics at Dallas-Ft. Worth Airport (2018); maximizing energy mobility productivity at Chicago O’Hare using distributed sensing and high- performance computing (2018) Utility Emissions Reductions Utilities in response to state Energy Policy Gate electrification Electrified gates at Nashville Airport funded by the Tennessee Valley Authority State Transportation Emission Reduction • California Air Resources • Zero emission airport shuttle buses, electric GSE • California airports Board • California Energy Commission • Colorado Energy Office • Electric charging stations • Electric charging stations • SFO, Hayward Executive • DEN for 10 fast-charging stations (2015) State Renewable Electricity and Thermal Utilities in response to state Energy Policy Check eligibility for applicable state using the Database for State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website Ketchikan Airport Biomass received Alaska Energy Authority grants Program Administrator Eligible Projects Recipients Table A-1. (Continued).

Further Resources 101 public agencies, there are examples of procurements to attract private investment as own- ers and operators of major airport facilities, including the international arrivals buildings at JFK International Airport and the South Terminal at Austin-Bergstrom International Airport (Winkler, 2017). These investors often consider greenhouse reduction components for long- term cost savings and to meet and exceed environmental requirements and policies. There are many other smaller P3 initiatives at airports focused on greenhouse gas reductions including (1) partnerships between airport operators and the airlines to convert to eGSE and install and use gate electrification systems; (2) lease agreements with solar PV developers to build, own, and operate solar facilities on airport property and pay the airport a lease payment or sell them renewable electricity; and (3) collaborations and contracts with alternative fuel providers and operations and maintenance of associated facilities. • Opportunity Zones: The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 established an opportunity zones tax incentive, which provides a federal capital gains tax deferral and partial exemption for invest- ments in designated opportunity zones. Governors in each state will select Opportunity Zones from an eligible group of low-income census tracts (Katz and Nowak, 2018). Airports located in opportunity zones may attract private investment for airport compatible development proposals. Because the opportunity zones encompass low-income census tracks, airports in the applicable track are often smaller nonhub and general aviation airports with little com- mercial activity. However, other airports may be located in census tracks with a high poverty rate, including Portland International Airport, which is designated as an opportunity zone (Tierney, 2018). Technical Twenty-eight percent of survey respondents selected technical support as being most impor- tant for the development of future GHG reduction efforts. Technical resources useful to airport GHG reduction projects include the following: • ACRP Report 56: – See Appendix A, Fact Sheets, which includes information on each of the practice areas, including potential funding sources and case studies. • Airport Carbon Accreditation (ACA) Program website: – Watch the two-minute video on the home page for an introduction to the program. – Explore the tab “Airport CO2” for more information, including airport sources and case studies. • Airport Carbon Emissions Reporting Tool (ACERT): – This spreadsheet was designed for airports and asks simple questions that can get you to an accurate accounting of an airport’s GHGs. Contact ACI-World in Montreal or see its website. • The Good Traveler Program website: – Calculate carbon emissions resulting from a specific flight and pay to offset the emissions. • EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Equivalency Calculator website: – Calculate CO2 equivalent emissions with easy-to-locate information such as an electricity bill, natural gas bill, or miles driven, and see how that translates to more tangible forms of emissions reductions, such as number of cars driving on the road for a year or acres of forest preserved in a year. • Sustainable Aviation Guidance Alliance (SAGA) website: – Click on the left-hand sidebar to search and review specific airport sustainability practices including those associated with GHG reduction efforts. • ACRP Report 11: Guidebook on Preparing Airport Greenhouse Gas Inventories: – See the Frequently Asked Questions to obtain a layman’s overview of the key elements. Refer the bulk of the guidebook to your technical staff.

102 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts • ACRP Report 141: Renewable Energy as a Revenue Source: – See Chapter 5 for a list of 21 airports that have implemented renewable energy projects and a short summary of how each was achieved. • ACRP Synthesis 69: Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports: – For smaller airports, there is a useful list of sustainability case examples in Chapter 4, many of which lead to GHG reductions. Regulatory A smaller, yet still significant portion, 13%, of survey respondents selected regulatory support as being most helpful to future GHG reduction efforts. Regulatory programs associated with airport GHG reduction efforts have been described in detail in other ACRP reports including ACRP Report 56, Section 4.6, Regulations and Voluntary Reporting and Mitigation, and ACRP Report 78, Section 3.2, Federal Regulations and Programs Applicable to GSE. These support a general summary of regulatory issues for consideration as part of this report. Many GHG reduction efforts are supported by environmental protection regulations that seek to encourage emissions reduction projects either by creating standards (e.g., defining energy efficient equipment), incentives (e.g., rebates for EnergyStar and other high-efficiency equipment), and mandates (e.g., phasing out incandescent light bulbs). Grant funds are also tied to many regulatory programs to assist affected parties in transitioning equipment, such as the FAA’s VALE Program directed to airports in EPA-designated air quality nonattainment zones. Regulatory programs that may inhibit the development of GHG efforts are associated with permits for siting and construction activity and agency comments regarding impacts on existing resources and uses. For urban projects, an example could be locating a hub for electric charging stations to ensure that existing uses and equipment are not adversely impacted by siting and construction. For an undeveloped site, such as a ground-mounted solar facility, the regulatory review could consider impacts on existing habitats for rare species or effects on drainage. It is important to understand state initiatives because state and even municipal legislatures may have enacted laws providing incentives or increasing regulation that may affect the eco- nomic feasibility of a GHG reduction effort. For example, California has enacted renewable fuels incentives beyond those available under federal legislation, which has made the conversion to alternative fuels more cost effective. Many states have also enacted legislation creating incentives for solar energy development. Federal, state, and local programs may be limited in scope and time; therefore, it is important to stay apprised of changing laws and regulations. Either for funding or permitting, coordination with local, state, and federal agencies early in the project can facilitate transfer of information to identify successful pathways for implementa- tion. Existing members of the airport’s in-house and contracted team can also represent a valuable resource for airport project managers.

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Airports in the United States are responding to the demand for increased air travel with sustainable development that incorporates more energy-efficient and lower-emission technologies. Funding for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions-reducing technologies, such as electrification, alternative fuels, and renewable energy, has also become more accessible as technologies are proven to be safe, reliable, and cost-effective.

Newer strategies and programs to reduce GHG emissions reach beyond airport operations to incorporate the traveling public. These are among the findings in the TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 100: Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts. The report assesses (1) the state of practice of GHG emissions reduction initiatives at airports, and (2) the lessons learned to support the successful implementation of future GHG reduction projects.

The report also finds that large airports are taking the lead in moving beyond reduction strategies for their own emissions and tackling those produced by tenants and the traveling public by supporting the use of alternative fuels and directing passengers to airport carbon offset platforms.

It is clear that airports regard energy-efficiency measures to be the most effective practice to reducing GHG emissions. Smaller airports, in particular, are adopting new technologies associated with more efficient heating and cooling infrastructure and lighting systems because they decrease energy consumption and make economic sense. GHG reduction projects are being implemented by different types of airports across the industry because of the cost savings and the environmental benefits of the new technology.

Airports are actively benchmarking emission-reduction progress in comparison with similar efforts at airports around the world by using frameworks employed by the industry globally, such as the Airport Carbon Accreditation Program and the airport carbon emissions reporting tool (ACERT), to measure their GHG emissions.

Innovative approaches are allowing airports to address rapidly changing consumer behaviors, like those presented in recent years by transportation network companies (TNCs) such as Uber and Lyft. These policy-based solutions offer the potential for wider adoption as they enable airports to act without significant capital expenditures.

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