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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the In-House Laboratory Independent Research at the Army's Research, Development, and Engineering Centers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25611.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the In-House Laboratory Independent Research at the Army's Research, Development, and Engineering Centers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25611.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the In-House Laboratory Independent Research at the Army's Research, Development, and Engineering Centers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25611.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the In-House Laboratory Independent Research at the Army's Research, Development, and Engineering Centers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25611.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the In-House Laboratory Independent Research at the Army's Research, Development, and Engineering Centers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25611.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the In-House Laboratory Independent Research at the Army's Research, Development, and Engineering Centers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25611.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the In-House Laboratory Independent Research at the Army's Research, Development, and Engineering Centers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25611.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the In-House Laboratory Independent Research at the Army's Research, Development, and Engineering Centers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25611.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the In-House Laboratory Independent Research at the Army's Research, Development, and Engineering Centers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25611.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the In-House Laboratory Independent Research at the Army's Research, Development, and Engineering Centers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25611.
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Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the In-House Laboratory Independent Research at the Army's Research, Development, and Engineering Centers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25611.
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Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the In-House Laboratory Independent Research at the Army's Research, Development, and Engineering Centers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25611.
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PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION Assessment of the In-House Laboratory Independent Research at the Army’s Research, Development, and Engineering Centers Army Research Program Review and Analysis Committee Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences A Consensus Study Report of

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by Contract No. W911NF-18-D-0002 from the U.S. Army. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25611 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the In-House Laboratory Independent Research at the Army’s Research, Development, and Engineering Centers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25611. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

ARMY RESEARCH PROGRAM REVIEW AND ANALYSIS COMMITTEE JENNIE S. HWANG, NAE,1 H-Technologies Group, Chair BRADLEY G. BOONE, Johns Hopkins University DIANE E. GRIFFIN, NAS2/NAM,3 Johns Hopkins University PETER M. KOGGE, University of Notre Dame CHRISTIAN MAILHIOT, Sandia National Laboratories FRANCESCO PAESANI, University of California, San Diego C. KUMAR N. PATEL, NAS/NAE, Pranalytica, Inc. WILLIAM A. SIRIGNANO, NAE, University of California, Irvine EDWIN L. THOMAS, NAE, Rice University EDMUND YEH, Northeastern University Staff LIZA HAMILTON, Program Officer JAMES P. MCGEE, Director ERIK SAARI, Administrative Assistant AANIKA SENN, Program Coordinator PANEL ON REVIEW OF IN-HOUSE LABORATORY INDEPENDENT RESEARCH IN CHEMISTRY AT THE ARMY’S RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND ENGINEERING CENTERS FRANCESCO PAESANI, University of California, San Diego, Chair LYNDEN A. ARCHER, NAE, Cornell University DAVID E. FOSTER, University of Wisconsin, Madison BINGQING WEI, University of Delaware YOUNAN XIA, Georgia Institute of Technology PANEL ON REVIEW OF IN-HOUSE LABORATORY INDEPENDENT RESEARCH IN COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCES AT THE ARMY’S RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND ENGINEERING CENTERS CHRISTIAN MAILHIOT, Sandia National Laboratories, Chair STEVEN L. CROUCH, NAE, University of Minnesota PRABHAT HAJELA, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute PANAGIOTIS TSIOTRAS, Georgia Institute of Technology 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 3 Member, National Academy of Medicine. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION v

PANEL ON REVIEW OF IN-HOUSE LABORATORY INDEPENDENT RESEARCH IN ELECTRONICS AT THE ARMY’S RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND ENGINEERING CENTERS BRADLEY G. BOONE, Johns Hopkins University, Chair RYAN ADAMS, University of North Carolina, Charlotte JOSEPH MAIT, Mait-Optik LLC VLADIMIR B. MARKOV, Advanced Systems and Technologies, Inc. PANEL ON REVIEW OF IN-HOUSE LABORATORY INDEPENDENT RESEARCH IN LIFE SCIENCES AT THE ARMY’S RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND ENGINEERING CENTERS DIANE E. GRIFFIN, NAS/NAM, Johns Hopkins University, Chair JAMES R. BROCKMOLE, University of Notre Dame VINCENT CONTICELLO, Emory University JASPER RINE, NAS, University of California, Berkeley DAVID RUSSELL, NAS, University of Texas DAVID SEPT, University of Michigan PANEL ON REVIEW OF IN-HOUSE LABORATORY INDEPENDENT RESEARCH IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AT THE ARMY’S RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND ENGINEERING CENTERS EDWIN L. THOMAS, NAE, Rice University, Chair KEVIN R. ANDERSON, NAE, Brunswick Corporation DEBORAH D.L. CHUNG, State University of New York, Buffalo MARK EBERHART, Colorado School of Mines OLIVIA A. GRAEVE, University of California, San Diego JOANNA R. GROZA, University of California, Davis MAX SHTEIN, University of Michigan FRANK ZOK, University of California, Santa Barbara PANEL ON REVIEW OF IN-HOUSE LABORATORY INDEPENDENT RESEARCH IN MECHANICAL SCIENCES AT THE ARMY’S RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND ENGINEERING CENTERS WILLIAM A. SIRIGNANO, NAE, University of California, Irvine, Chair CARLOS E.S. CESNIK, University of Michigan PINO MARTIN, University of Maryland PARVIZ MOIN, NAS/NAE, Stanford University KENNETH M. ROSEN, NAE, General Aero-Science Consultants LLC ALEXANDER J. SMITS, NAE, Princeton University PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vi

PANEL ON REVIEW OF IN-HOUSE LABORATORY INDEPENDENT RESEARCH IN NETWORK SCIENCES AT THE ARMY’S RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND ENGINEERING CENTERS EDMUND YEH, Northeastern University, Chair A. BRINTON COOPER III, Johns Hopkins University JOSE M.F. MOURA, NAE, Carnegie Mellon University RADIA PERLMAN, NAE, EMC Corporation ATHINA PETROPULU, Rutgers University JONATHAN M. SMITH, University of Pennsylvania PANEL ON REVIEW OF IN-HOUSE LABORATORY INDEPENDENT RESEARCH IN PHYSICS AT THE ARMY’S RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND ENGINEERING CENTERS C. KUMAR N. PATEL, NAS/NAE, Pranalytica, Inc., Chair IAIN BOYD, University of Michigan DENNIS K. KILLINGER, University of South Florida PIERRE MEYSTRE, University of Arizona SHAUL MUKAMEL, NAS, University of California, Irvine PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vii

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Michael Ettenberg, NAE,1 Dolce Technologies, Joe G.N. Garcia, NAM,2 University of Arizona, Jacqueline G. Gish, NAE, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (retired), Gary S. Grest, NAE, Sandia National Laboratories, Bruce Hajek, NAE, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Ann R. Karagozian, NAE, University of California, Los Angeles, Jeffrey S. Moore, NAS,3 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, and Eva Tardos, NAS/NAE, Cornell University. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Kathleen C. Taylor, NAE, General Motors Corporation (retired). She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Medicine. 3 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION ix

Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 9 The U.S. Army’s Research, Development, and Engineering Command and Its Research, Development, and Engineering Centers, 10 In-House Laboratory Independent Research, 11 Approach to the Assessment, 11 Assessment Criteria, 12 Report Contents, 13 2 CHEMISTRY 14 Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center, 14 Communications–Electronics Research, Development, and Engineering Center, 16 Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, 18 Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center, 20 Overarching Findings and Recommendations, 25 3 COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCES 27 Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center, 27 Communications–Electronics Research, Development, and Engineering Center, 29 Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center, 30 4 ELECTRONICS 34 Communications–Electronics Research, Development, and Engineering Center, 34 5 LIFE SCIENCES 45 Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center, 45 Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, 47 Overarching Finding and Recommendation, 51 6 MATERIALS SCIENCE 52 Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center, 52 Communications–Electronics Research, Development, and Engineering Center, 55 Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, 57 Natick Soldier Research, Development, and Engineering Center, 58 Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center, 61 Overarching Findings and Recommendation, 73 7 MECHANICAL SCIENCES 74 Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center, 74 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xi

8 NETWORK SCIENCES 83 Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center, 83 Communications–Electronics Research, Development, and Engineering Center, 86 Overarching Findings and Recommendations, 90 9 PHYSICS 92 Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center, 92 Communications–Electronics Research, Development, and Engineering Center, 94 Natick Soldier Research, Development, and Engineering Center, 96 Space and Missile Defense Command, 98 Overarching Findings and Recommendations, 101 10 CROSSCUTTING RECOMMENDATIONS 103 APPENDIXES A Army Research Program Review and Analysis Committee Biographical Information 108 B Acronyms 113 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xii

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This report evaluates the In-House Laboratory Independent Research (ILIR) conducted at the Research, Development, and Engineering Centers (RDECs) of the U.S. Army’s Research, Development, and Engineering Command (RDECOM) during 2018. It reviews and offers recommendations for each of the eight areas of ILIR research: chemistry, computational sciences, electronics, life sciences, materials science, mechanical sciences, network sciences, and physics.

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