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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Building Capacity for Teaching Engineering in K-12 Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25612.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Building Capacity for Teaching Engineering in K-12 Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25612.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Building Capacity for Teaching Engineering in K-12 Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25612.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Building Capacity for Teaching Engineering in K-12 Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25612.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Building Capacity for Teaching Engineering in K-12 Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25612.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Building Capacity for Teaching Engineering in K-12 Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25612.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Building Capacity for Teaching Engineering in K-12 Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25612.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Building Capacity for Teaching Engineering in K-12 Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25612.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Building Capacity for Teaching Engineering in K-12 Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25612.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS BUILDING CAPACITY FOR TEACHING  ENGINEERING IN K–12 EDUCATION   Committee on Educator Capacity Building in K–12 Engineering Education    National Academy of Engineering Board on Science Education Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education A Consensus Study Report of

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. (1540253). Additional funding was provided by the Samueli Foundation and Robin K. and Rose M. McGuire. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25612 Library of Congress Control Number: Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; www.nap.edu. Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Building Capacity for Teaching Engineering in K–12 Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25612.

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org.

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS Committee on Educator Capacity Building in K-12 Engineering Education ELLEN KULLMAN (NAE), chair, CEO and president, Carbon, CEO and chair (retired), DuPont DIRAN APELIAN (NAE), Alcoa-Howmet Professor of Engineering and Founding Director of the Metal Processing Institute, Worcester Polytechnic Institute RODGER BYBEE, Executive Director (retired), Biological Sciences Curriculum Study JASON COLEMAN, Cofounder and Executive Director, Project SYNCERE DAVID CRISMOND, Associate Professor, School of Education, City College of New York MARSHALL DAVIS, Supervisor for PreK–12 Science, Saint Paul Public Schools CHERYL FARMER, Director of Precollege Engineering Education Initiatives, The University of Texas at Austin JEN GUTIERREZ, K–12 STEM Education Consultant, Arizona TANNER HUFFMAN, Assistant Professor, Department of Integrative STEM Education, School of Engineering, The College of New Jersey BRYAN KIND, Vice President of Programs, Project Lead the Way CHENTEL NEAT, STEM Magnet Coordinator, Colbert Museum Magnet school BRIAN J. REISER, Professor of Learning Sciences, Northwestern University MARIA SIMANI, Executive Director, California Science Project BLAIRE THRASHER, Engineering and Technology Education Instructor, East Coweta Middle School, Georgia BRUCE WELLMAN, Engineering Chemistry Teacher & Extreme Conditions Robotics Teacher, Engineering Academy, Olathe Northwest High School, Kansas SUZANNE WILSON, Neag Endowed Professor of Teacher Education, University of Connecticut Staff GREG PEARSON, Study Director and Scholar, National Academy of Engineering ELIZABETH T. CADY, Senior Program Officer, National Academy of Engineering KENNE DIBNER, Program Officer, Board on Science Education, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine CAMERON H. FLETCHER, Senior Editor, National Academy of Engineering MICHAEL HOLZER, Senior Program Assistant, National Academy of Engineering (since May 2017) MARIBETH KEITZ, Web Communications Manager, National Academy of Engineering JAY LABOV, Senior Advisor for Education and Communication, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (until November 2018) HEIDI SCHWEINGRUBER, Director, Board on Science Education, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine JASON WILLIAMS, Senior Financial Associate, National Academy of Engineering (until May 2017) v

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS Acknowledgments This Consensus Study Report represents the work of many individuals, especially those who served on the committee and participated in the committee’s open sessions. The first thanks are to the committee members for their deep knowledge and contributions to the study. The committee employed several consultants who collected and analyzed data that appears in the report. Thanks go to Jackie DeLisi, Lisa Marco-Bujosa, and Quincy Chang (Education Development Center); Michael de Miranda (Texas A&M University); and Daniel Kuehn (Urban Institute). The committee benefited from presentations by several individuals who participated in our fact-finding workshops in April and August of 2017. In addition to committee members and consultants, workshop presenters were David Evans (National Science Teaching Association), Okhee Lee (New York University), Douglas Clements (University of Denver), James Basham (University of Kansas), Matt Irvin (University of South Carolina), Christine Cunningham (then of Engineering is Elementary), Bernie Zubrowski (EDC), Jose Rivas (Lennox Math, Science and Technology Academy), Amy Morriss (Academy of Our Lady), Brandon Hernandez (Olathe Public Schools Engineering Academy), Glenn Bradbury (Bozeman High School), Julia Harth (HB Whitehorne Middle School), Christopher Kohnke (Colbert Elementary School), Adrianne Wheeler (Project SYNCERE), Angie Brayford (SHINE), Jim Short (Carnegie Corporation of New York), Pam Lottero-Perdue (Towson University), Karen Worth (Wheelock College), Ken Welty (University of Wisconsin–Stout), Robin Adams (Purdue University), Tamara Moore (Purdue University), Deidre Sessoms (CSU-Sacramento), Pat Yongpradit (Code.org), Maria Hyler (Learning Policy Institute), Madelyn Gardner (Learning Policy Institute), Jennifer Ryan Crozie (IBM International Foundation), and Maura Banta (IBM). This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Joan Harper-Neeley, STEM Education, National Institute of Aerospace’s Center for Integrative STEM Education Kenneth L. Huff, Science Department, Mill Middle School, Williamsville, NY Richard Lehrer, Department of Teaching and Learning, Peabody College of Vanderbilt University Judith Warren Little, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Berkeley Julie A. Luft, Department of Mathematics and Science Education, College of Education, University of Georgia Mitchell J. Nathan, Departments of Educational Psychology, Curriculum & Instruction, and Psychology, Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin– Madison Tiffany Neill, Curriculum and Instruction, Oklahoma State Department of Education Darryll J. Pines, A. James Clark School of Engineering, University of Maryland vi

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS Helen R. Quinn, Particle Physics and Astrophysics, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Paul R. Gray, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, and Joseph Krajcik, College of Natural Science and College of Education, Michigan State University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. Thanks are also due to the project staff: Greg Pearson, Beth Cady, Kenne Dibner, Cameron Fletcher, Michael Holzer, Maribeth Keitz, Jay Labov, Kirsten Sampson-Snyder, Heidi Schweingruber, and Jason Williams. Ellen Kullman (Chair), CEO and president of Carbon, CEO and chair (retired) DuPont vii

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS Table of Contents Committee on Educator Capacity Building in K-12 Engineering Education ................................. v  Acknowledgments.......................................................................................................................... vi  Table of Contents ......................................................................................................................... viii  Summary ......................................................................................................................................... 1  1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 11  A Brief Background on Engineering in K–12 Education ......................................................... 11  Statement of Task ...................................................................................................................... 14  Addressing the Statement of Task ............................................................................................. 16  The Basis for Evidence Used in the Report .............................................................................. 17  Study Process ............................................................................................................................ 18  Audiences .................................................................................................................................. 18  Report Organization .................................................................................................................. 19  References ................................................................................................................................. 19  2 Engineering and K–12 Education .............................................................................................. 22  What Is Engineering? ................................................................................................................ 22  Engineering’s Relationship to Science, Technology, and Mathematics ................................... 27  Learning Objectives for K–12 Engineering Education ............................................................. 28  Conclusion ................................................................................................................................. 34  References ................................................................................................................................. 35  3 Goals of K–12 Engineering Education ...................................................................................... 38  The Goal of Developing Engineering Literacy ......................................................................... 38  The Goal of Improving Mathematics and Science Achievement through Integrated STEM Learning .................................................................................................................................... 41  The Goal of Improving Preparation for College and Career ..................................................... 43  The Goal of Preparing for Matriculation in Engineering Programs.......................................... 45  Emphasis and Overlap of the Four Goals.................................................................................. 46  Conclusion ................................................................................................................................. 48  References ................................................................................................................................. 48  4 The Workforce of K–12 Teachers of Engineering .................................................................... 54  Characteristics of the Workforce............................................................................................... 54  Professional Learning Experiences for K–12 Teachers of Engineering ................................... 63  Credentialing Pathways and Policies ........................................................................................ 72  Conclusion ................................................................................................................................. 76  viii

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS Appendix 4-A: EDC Data Collection Methodology ................................................................. 77  Appendix 4-B: EDC Survey...................................................................................................... 81  Appendix 4-C: EDC Follow-up Interview Protocol ................................................................. 88  References ................................................................................................................................. 90  5 Professional Learning ................................................................................................................ 94  Learning Needs for Teaching Engineering ............................................................................... 94  Teacher Learning Opportunities.............................................................................................. 114  Conclusion ............................................................................................................................... 129  References ............................................................................................................................... 129  6 Creating a System of Support for K–12 Engineering Teachers ............................................... 143  Federal Legislation .................................................................................................................. 145  State Policies ........................................................................................................................... 145  School and District Policies and Culture................................................................................. 147  Higher Education..................................................................................................................... 148  Research Infrastructure ........................................................................................................... 151  Conclusion ............................................................................................................................... 152  References ............................................................................................................................... 153  7 Conclusions and Recommendations ........................................................................................ 157  Context for the Preparation of K–12 Teachers of Engineering ............................................... 157  Preparing K–12 Teachers of Engineering ............................................................................... 159  Key Influences on the System ................................................................................................. 161  Directions for Research ........................................................................................................... 162  Final Thoughts......................................................................................................................... 163  Appendix A: Committee Biographies ......................................................................................... 165  Appendix B: Workshop 1 Agenda .............................................................................................. 173  Appendix C: Workshop 2 Agenda .............................................................................................. 176  ix

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Engineering education is emerging as an important component of US K-12 education. Across the country, students in classrooms and after- and out-of-school programs are participating in hands-on, problem-focused learning activities using the engineering design process. These experiences can be engaging; support learning in other areas, such as science and mathematics; and provide a window into the important role of engineering in society. As the landscape of K-12 engineering education continues to grow and evolve, educators, administrators, and policy makers should consider the capacity of the US education system to meet current and anticipated needs for K-12 teachers of engineering.

Building Capacity for Teaching Engineering in K-12 Education reviews existing curricula and programs as well as related research to understand current and anticipated future needs for engineering-literate K-12 educators in the United States and determine how these needs might be addressed. Key topics in this report include the preparation of K-12 engineering educators, professional pathways for K-12 engineering educators, and the role of higher education in preparing engineering educators. This report proposes steps that stakeholders - including professional development providers, postsecondary preservice education programs, postsecondary engineering and engineering technology programs, formal and informal educator credentialing organizations, and the education and learning sciences research communities - might take to increase the number, skill level, and confidence of K-12 teachers of engineering in the United States.

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