National Academies Press: OpenBook

Benefit–Cost Analyses Guidebook for Airport Stormwater (2019)

Chapter: Appendix C - Stormwater Regulations and FAA Guidance Documents

« Previous: Appendix B - FAA BCA Requirements
Page 83
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Stormwater Regulations and FAA Guidance Documents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Benefit–Cost Analyses Guidebook for Airport Stormwater. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25617.
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Page 83
Page 84
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Stormwater Regulations and FAA Guidance Documents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Benefit–Cost Analyses Guidebook for Airport Stormwater. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25617.
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Page 84

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83 There are numerous federal, state, and local regulatory drivers that dictate airport storm­ water collection, management, and treatment practices to ensure safe airport operations and environmental protection. A few of the federal regulatory drivers are summarized in Table C1. The most directly applicable federal regulation is the NPDES (U.S. EPA, 2016a). Section 402 of the CWA mandates that municipal, commercial, and industrial sites must procure an NPDES permit to discharge polluted stormwater into bodies of water regulated under the CWA (U.S. EPA, 2016b). These permits establish maximum pollutant levels for stormwater effluent. As part of the NPDES permit process, airports must develop an SWPPP that includes stormwater treatment BMPs, as well as monitoring, site inspections, and reporting (Shi et al., 2015; Jolley et al., 2017). Properly managed stormwater infrastructure ensures compliance with NPDES per­ mitting requirements to avoid fines, operational restrictions, and court­ordered improvement projects. In addition to NPDES permit requirements, the FAA provides regulations and guidance for airport planners, engineers, and facility managers regarding standard practices for the design and construction of stormwater drainage systems (FAA, 2013). AC 150/5320­5D: Airport Drainage Design is an example of guidance that aids airport engineers and planners in develop­ ing stormwater management practices best suited to their airports’ geography, design, and needs (FAA, 2013). The document contains information regarding surface hydrology, infra­ structure design methods and recommendations, and water quality considerations. Although it serves as guidance and is neither binding nor regulatory, other FAA documents do have requirements for airport stormwater practices. AC 150/5200­33B: Hazardous Wildlife Attrac­ tants on or near Airports presents recommendations applicable to airports anywhere, but it is binding for those that receive federal grant­in­aid assistance (FAA, 2007b, 2012). The docu­ ment discusses the importance of designing stormwater drainage systems that minimize attrac­ tion to wildlife given the risks and costs associated with aircraft­wildlife collisions. Depending on where an airport’s stormwater is directed once off­site, it may be affected by the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Because the pollutants in airport stormwater runoff have potentially harmful effects if introduced to water bodies containing endangered species, the ESA may affect an airport’s stormwater management practices, and additional requirements above NPDES discharge standards may apply (WSDOT, 2008). AC 150/5070­6B: Airport Master Plans provides background on the consideration of sus­ tainability and environmental impacts in airport projects (FAA, 2015). It provides guidance to planners and environmental specialists on incorporating environmental considerations into airport planning. Acknowledging that all development projects will have an environmental impact, planners should use “prudent planning criteria, along with sound environmental data and analysis” to “help minimize unavoidable environmental impacts and the delay of project A P P E N D I X C Stormwater Regulations and FAA Guidance Documents

84 Benefit–Cost Analyses Guidebook for Airport Stormwater design and construction,” ultimately striking a balance between the manmade and natural envi­ ronment (FAA, 2015). Airport Master Plans also encourages an increased focus on sustainability in airport master plans (FAA, 2015). Planners should consider using National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Instructions for Airport Actions to help guide them in identifying potential environmental impacts (FAA, 2006b; FAA, 2015). They also should consider using the FAA’s Environmental Desk Reference for Airport Actions (FAA, 2007a). Agency Program/Guidance Legislation Description U.S. EPA National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Section 402 of the Clean Water Act Requires an NPDES permit to discharge polluted stormwater into bodies of water regulated under the CWA and development of a stormwater pollution prevention plan (SWPPP). FAA AC 150/5320-5D: Airport Drainage Design N/A Aids airport engineers and planners in developing stormwater management practices best suited to their airports’ geography, design, and needs (not binding or regulatory). FAA AC 150/5200-33B: Hazardous Wildlife Attractants on or near Airports N/A Recommendations are applicable to all airports but are binding for those receiving federal grant- in-aid assistance. Discusses importance of designing stormwater drainage systems that minimize attraction to wildlife. United States Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service Endangered Species Act (ESA) Because of the potentially harmful effects of pollutants in airport runoff on endangered species, the ESA may affect an airport’s stormwater management practices, and additional requirements above NPDES discharge standards may apply. Sources: EPA, 2016a; FAA, 2013; FAA, 2012; FAA, 2007b; WSDOT, 2008. Table C1. Regulatory drivers of stormwater management at airports.

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Many airports undertake stormwater projects to accommodate facility expansion, address obsolescence, and respond to evolving regulatory requirements. Often, stormwater infrastructure is installed or upgraded on a project-by-project and piecemeal basis, resulting in mismatches of sizes, material types, ages, and conditions.

When airports are considering expanding or improving their stormwater facilities, the immediate need for stormwater infrastructure modification may not be clear, and a benefit–cost analysis (BCA) is needed.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Research Report 208: Benefit–Cost Analyses Guidebook for Airport Stormwater provides guidance on using BCAs to identify, evaluate, and select airport stormwater management projects. The guidance focuses on a triple bottom line approach that considers an airport’s finances and environmental and societal impacts. The guidance will be particularly helpful for small airports that may not have BCA expertise or experience with innovative stormwater projects.

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