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83 There are numerous federal, state, and local regulatory drivers that dictate airport stormÂ water collection, management, and treatment practices to ensure safe airport operations and environmental protection. A few of the federal regulatory drivers are summarized in Table C1. The most directly applicable federal regulation is the NPDES (U.S. EPA, 2016a). Section 402 of the CWA mandates that municipal, commercial, and industrial sites must procure an NPDES permit to discharge polluted stormwater into bodies of water regulated under the CWA (U.S. EPA, 2016b). These permits establish maximum pollutant levels for stormwater effluent. As part of the NPDES permit process, airports must develop an SWPPP that includes stormwater treatment BMPs, as well as monitoring, site inspections, and reporting (Shi et al., 2015; Jolley et al., 2017). Properly managed stormwater infrastructure ensures compliance with NPDES perÂ mitting requirements to avoid fines, operational restrictions, and courtÂordered improvement projects. In addition to NPDES permit requirements, the FAA provides regulations and guidance for airport planners, engineers, and facility managers regarding standard practices for the design and construction of stormwater drainage systems (FAA, 2013). AC 150/5320Â5D: Airport Drainage Design is an example of guidance that aids airport engineers and planners in developÂ ing stormwater management practices best suited to their airportsâ geography, design, and needs (FAA, 2013). The document contains information regarding surface hydrology, infraÂ structure design methods and recommendations, and water quality considerations. Although it serves as guidance and is neither binding nor regulatory, other FAA documents do have requirements for airport stormwater practices. AC 150/5200Â33B: Hazardous Wildlife AttracÂ tants on or near Airports presents recommendations applicable to airports anywhere, but it is binding for those that receive federal grantÂinÂaid assistance (FAA, 2007b, 2012). The docuÂ ment discusses the importance of designing stormwater drainage systems that minimize attracÂ tion to wildlife given the risks and costs associated with aircraftÂwildlife collisions. Depending on where an airportâs stormwater is directed once offÂsite, it may be affected by the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Because the pollutants in airport stormwater runoff have potentially harmful effects if introduced to water bodies containing endangered species, the ESA may affect an airportâs stormwater management practices, and additional requirements above NPDES discharge standards may apply (WSDOT, 2008). AC 150/5070Â6B: Airport Master Plans provides background on the consideration of susÂ tainability and environmental impacts in airport projects (FAA, 2015). It provides guidance to planners and environmental specialists on incorporating environmental considerations into airport planning. Acknowledging that all development projects will have an environmental impact, planners should use âprudent planning criteria, along with sound environmental data and analysisâ to âhelp minimize unavoidable environmental impacts and the delay of project A P P E N D I X C Stormwater Regulations and FAA Guidance Documents
84 BenefitâCost Analyses Guidebook for Airport Stormwater design and construction,â ultimately striking a balance between the manmade and natural enviÂ ronment (FAA, 2015). Airport Master Plans also encourages an increased focus on sustainability in airport master plans (FAA, 2015). Planners should consider using National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Instructions for Airport Actions to help guide them in identifying potential environmental impacts (FAA, 2006b; FAA, 2015). They also should consider using the FAAâs Environmental Desk Reference for Airport Actions (FAA, 2007a). Agency Program/Guidance Legislation Description U.S. EPA National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Section 402 of the Clean Water Act Requires an NPDES permit to discharge polluted stormwater into bodies of water regulated under the CWA and development of a stormwater pollution prevention plan (SWPPP). FAA AC 150/5320-5D: Airport Drainage Design N/A Aids airport engineers and planners in developing stormwater management practices best suited to their airportsâ geography, design, and needs (not binding or regulatory). FAA AC 150/5200-33B: Hazardous Wildlife Attractants on or near Airports N/A Recommendations are applicable to all airports but are binding for those receiving federal grant- in-aid assistance. Discusses importance of designing stormwater drainage systems that minimize attraction to wildlife. United States Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service Endangered Species Act (ESA) Because of the potentially harmful effects of pollutants in airport runoff on endangered species, the ESA may affect an airportâs stormwater management practices, and additional requirements above NPDES discharge standards may apply. Sources: EPA, 2016a; FAA, 2013; FAA, 2012; FAA, 2007b; WSDOT, 2008. Table C1. Regulatory drivers of stormwater management at airports.