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95 The research conducted for this guidebook identified resources that can help airports conduct BCAs of stormwater projects. This appendix includes templates, guides, checklists, frameworks, and other tools developed by public and not-for-profit entities that were identified through the interviews and literature search. This report does not endorse any particular tool, and this is not an exhaustive review (proprietary and commercial tools developed by for-profit companies are not included), but several examples are provided of strategies and resources for identifying and estimating values for benefits and costs. Searches for benefitâcost tools, costâbenefit tools, sustainability guides, sustainability community rating systems, business case evaluations, and other related terms can be used to find additional tools. Excel-Based Templates and Frameworks Several Excel-based BCA and TBL templates are available on the Internet that can be custom- ized for a specific project type, including an airport stormwater project. The user inputs the data, and the worksheets perform the calculations (e.g., NPV, payback schedules, B/C). Two examples follow. 1. Cal-B/C. This tool was developed for the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) for BCA analyses of highway and transit projects. It is generally highway-oriented and would need to be customized or adapted for applicability to aviation settings. It is used for analyses of projects proposed for Californiaâs State Transportation Improvement Pro- gram, the State Highway Operations and Protection Program, and other ad hoc analyses requiring BCAs. The model calculates life-cycle costs, NPV, B/C, internal rates of return, payback periods, and other measures. (http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/tpp/offices/eab/LCBC_ Analysis_Model.html) 2. WateReuse Research Foundation Decision Tool V1.3 for a TBL Framework for Indirect Potable Reuse. This Excel-based tool presents a framework for TBL analysis, executed in an Excel-based tool with a user interface that walks the user through an analysis. The user defines the drivers and project purpose and answers questions to characterize up to six project alternatives to be compared. The tool offers three checklists, one for each TBL criterion type. Two of the three financial criteria require dollar amounts for inputs. (The user needs to have cost estimates for each component.) The financial risk criterion and the social and envi- ronmental criteria are qualitative. The user assigns a qualitative value and an importance ranking. There are two choices for the TBL method: weighted average or compromise pro- gramming. The user sets a P-value. The analysis results in a total score and rank for each alternative. (https://watereuse.org/watereuse-research/framework-for-informed-planning- decisions-regarding-potable-reuse-and-dual-pipe-systems/; https://watereuse.org/wp-content/ uploads/2015/01/WRRF_09-02_webcast.pdf) A P P E N D I X F Stormwater and BCA Tools for Airports
96 BenefitâCost Analyses Guidebook for Airport Stormwater TBL and Sustainability Guides, Checklists, Frameworks, and Rating Systems Following are examples of checklists, guidelines, and frameworks that allow users to assess their projects for sustainability. These resources include a number of social and environmental criteria and, in some cases, provide a rating system as a means of recognizing the achievement of sustainability goals. Those that are highway-oriented may require some adaptation to address airport-specific needs and concerns. 1. The Envision rating system. Developed by the Institute for Sustainable Infrastructure, this rating system applies to civil infrastructure and provides a self-assessment checklist and a credential program to recognize sustainable infrastructure. It is applicable to several areas of infrastructure, including the transportation sector (including airports). The system incorporates TBL, including several quality-of-life, natural resources, climate, and other criteria. Stormwater management is included among the natural resources criteria. (https:// sustainableinfrastructure.org/presentation/the-envision-rating-system/) 2. STAR Community Rating System Version 2.0. This rating system (by STAR Communities) evaluates local sustainability and incorporates economic, environmental, and social criteria. This system is community-based rather than transportation- or engineering-focused. The rating guide can be downloaded for free, and a technical guide can be purchased that has information on calculations, data sources, and case studies. (http://www.starcommunities. org/rating-system/framework/) 3. I-LAST. This rating system guide by the Illinois Department of Transportation is highway- oriented and is intended to provide a list of practices conducive to sustainable highway projects and to encourage the use of innovation. It also serves to evaluate and recognize proj- ects for livability, sustainability, and effects on the environment. It includes a performance metric system and a checklist of potentially sustainable practices. The categories and asso- ciated practices and checklists are detailed and include stormwater management. (http:// www.eastsidehighway.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/I-LAST-Version-2-DRAFT.pdf) 4. GreenLITES. Developed by the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT), GreenLITES is a self-certification program, developed for NYSDOT to evaluate its use of sustainable practices in transportation projects and to encourage further use of sustainable practices. It also provides a means to convey the use of sustainable practices to the public. The rating system has various levels of certification. The website also provides a section with use- ful references and links related to sustainability in transportation. (https://www.dot.ny.gov/ programs/greenlites) Tools and Guides â Websites The information, guidance, and self-evaluation tools that follow are primarily web-based and are user-friendly. As with the sustainability resources, these may require some adaptation to address airport-specific issues. 1. Transportation Economics Committee. Sponsored by TRB, the Transportation Economics Committee has an extensive website on BCA that includes explanations of the concepts and terminology associated with BCA and provides an analysis framework that defines a basic evaluation process structure. Steps include defining alternatives, identifying benefits and costs, life-cycle analysis, and types of measures (B/C, NPV, cost-effectiveness, IRR, payback period, and graphical representation). The benefits and costs section covers a number of types of benefits and costs. The benefits section discusses those benefits that are difficult to
Stormwater and BCA Tools for Airports 97 quantify (e.g., habitat and water quality, community impacts, and noise effects). This web- site also includes a reference list and case studies. Several models are also discussed. (http:// bca.transportationeconomics.org/) 2. INVEST. This FHWA website provides a collection of practices that can be used to incor- porate sustainability into transportation programs and projects and incorporate TBL con- siderations. It includes a free, web-based self-evaluation tool for voluntary use and also provides case studies. (https://www.sustainablehighways.org/875/how-does-invest-measure- sustainability.html)