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Suggested Citation:"Table of Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Development of Transactional Data Specification for Demand-Responsive Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25619.
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Suggested Citation:"Table of Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Development of Transactional Data Specification for Demand-Responsive Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25619.
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Suggested Citation:"Table of Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Development of Transactional Data Specification for Demand-Responsive Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25619.
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Suggested Citation:"Table of Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Development of Transactional Data Specification for Demand-Responsive Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25619.
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Suggested Citation:"Table of Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Development of Transactional Data Specification for Demand-Responsive Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25619.
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Table of Contents List of Figures ................................................................................................................................ 4 List of Tables ................................................................................................................................. 5 Executive Summary ...................................................................................................................... 7 : Introduction ............................................................................................................. 13 1.1 About This Research Project ........................................................................................... 13 1.2 What Is Demand Responsive Transportation? .............................................................. 13 1.3 What Is Transactional Data for DRT? ........................................................................... 15 1.4 The Technology and Market Context of Transactional Data Specifications .............. 15 1.5 Examples of Transactional Data Specifications in Transportation ............................. 17 1.6 Who Are the Stakeholders for DRT Data Specifications? ............................................ 18 1.7 Benefits and Challenges of Implementing Specifications .............................................. 20 Benefits ................................................................................................................................. 20 Challenges ............................................................................................................................ 21 1.8 Strategies for Successful Adoption of Data Specifications ............................................ 21 1.9 How This Report Is Organized ........................................................................................ 23 : Principles and Considerations in Developing the Transactional Data Specification................................................................................................................................. 25 Specifications, Standards, Transactional Data Specifications: Understanding the Terminology Used in This Report .................................................... 26 2.1 Core Principles for Successful Specification Approaches ............................................. 26 2.2 Market Considerations ..................................................................................................... 27 2.3 Functional Requirements for DRT Data: The Trip Life Cycle .................................... 29 2.4 Models for Transactional Data Flow ............................................................................... 30 2.5 Recommended Approach for Specification Transactional Flow .................................. 35 2.6 Summary ............................................................................................................................ 35 : Examples of Transportation Industry Data Specifications ................................ 36 3.1 Example 1: Airline Reservations Data Specification (Request–Response) ................. 36 3.2 Example 2: General Transit Feed Specification for Fixed Route Transit (Publish and Subscribe) .......................................................................................................... 39 3.3 Example 3: General Transit Feed Specification for Flexible Transit (Publish and Subscribe) .......................................................................................................... 42

3.4 Example 4: DRT Transactional Data in the Denver Trip Exchange Project (Request–Response, Publish and Subscribe, Open API—hybrid) ..................................... 45 3.5 Example 5: DRT Transactional Data Standards in Scandinavia (Request–Response) ................................................................................................................ 49 3.6 Comparison and Conclusions .......................................................................................... 52 : Summary of the Specification ................................................................................ 55 4.1 Key Concepts ..................................................................................................................... 55 4.2 Telegram Paradigm for DRT Trips ................................................................................ 56 4.2.1 Process of a DRT Transaction .................................................................................. 56 4.2.2 Required versus Optional Data Elements ................................................................ 58 4.3 Telegram Descriptions and Typical Data Flow .............................................................. 59 4.4 Examples of Telegrams ..................................................................................................... 62 Sample Telegram 1: Request a Trip .................................................................................. 62 Sample Telegram 2: Confirm Trip .................................................................................... 65 Sample Telegram 3: Send Trip Information to Vehicle .................................................. 65 Sample Telegram 4: Confirm Delivery of Trip ................................................................ 67 4.5 Approach for Specification-Compliant Data Communication ..................................... 67 Model 1: Point-to-Point ...................................................................................................... 68 Model 2: Point-to-Point via Internal Translator.............................................................. 68 Model 3: Broker Control .................................................................................................... 69 Model 4: Control Module ................................................................................................... 70 Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Model................................................................ 70 4.6 Other Considerations for Government-Funded DRT Services .................................... 72 Rider Attributes .................................................................................................................. 72 Trip Purpose for Reporting/Reimbursement ................................................................... 72 4.7 Data Structure ................................................................................................................... 74 4.8 Summary ............................................................................................................................ 74 : Conclusions and Future Considerations ............................................................... 76 5.1 What We Learned from the DRT Industry Advisory Panel ........................................ 76 5.2 Key Lessons from Transportation-Related Examples of Data Specifications ............ 77 5.3 Considerations in Developing the Specification ............................................................. 78 5.4 Key Elements of the DRT Transactional Data Specification ........................................ 79 5.5 Implementation—Potential Scenarios ............................................................................ 80 5.6 Towards a Formal Governance Approach ..................................................................... 82 Reference List .............................................................................................................................. 85

Acronyms and Glossary ............................................................................................................. 87 Acronyms ................................................................................................................................. 87 Glossary ................................................................................................................................... 88 Appendix 1: Industry Advisory Panel List of Members ......................................................... 95 Appendix 2: Engaging Industry Experts .................................................................................. 96 A2.1 Industry Advisory Panel Approach and Composition ............................................... 96 A2.2 Industry Advisory Panel Interviews ............................................................................. 97 A2.2.1 Interview Process ........................................................................................................ 97 A2.2.2 Interview Findings ...................................................................................................... 97 A2.2.2.1 Interview Findings on Industry and Roles ............................................................ 97 A2.2.2.2 Interview Findings on Benefits ............................................................................... 99 A2.2.2.3 Interview Findings on Challenges ........................................................................ 100 A2.2.2.4 Summary of Interviews ......................................................................................... 102 A2.3 Industry Advisory Panel Quarterly Meetings ........................................................... 102 A2.4 Governance of the Specification ................................................................................. 104 A2.5 Conclusions from Industry Advisory Panel Involvement ........................................ 105 A2.6 Interview Protocol ........................................................................................................ 106 Appendix 3: Industry Advisory Panel Final Meeting Presentation ..................................... 108 Appendix 4: Detailed Specification Description .................................................................... 122 Approach ............................................................................................................................... 122 Flow of Telegrams ................................................................................................................. 124 Telegram 1:A – Request a Trip ........................................................................................... 126 Telegram 1:B – Trip Request Response.............................................................................. 127 Telegram 2:A – Order Confirmation .................................................................................. 128 Telegram 2:A:1 – Customer Information ........................................................................... 129 Telegram 2:B – Confirm Trip Scheduled ........................................................................... 130 Telegram 2:BB – Vehicle Confirmation ............................................................................. 131 Telegram 3:A – Vehicle Trip Task ...................................................................................... 132 Telegram 3:B – Confirm Trip Task .................................................................................... 133 Telegram 4:A – Completed Trip Data ................................................................................ 134 Telegram 4:B – Confirm Trip Data Received and Payment Status ................................. 135 Telegram 5 – Vehicle Current Status .................................................................................. 136 Customer Attributes ............................................................................................................. 137 Reporting Trip Purpose ....................................................................................................... 138

Appendix 5: XML Listing of Specification ............................................................................. 139 Appendix 6: Validation Tool .................................................................................................... 159 Appendix 7: Marketing Document .......................................................................................... 162 Appendix 8: Request for Proposals (RFP) Language ............................................................ 164 List of Figures Figure 1-1: Examples of Vehicles Used for DRT Service ........................................................ 14 Figure 1-2: Definition of Transactional Data ........................................................................... 15 Figure 1-3: DRT Transactional Specification in Transit Data Context ................................. 16 Figure 2-1: Terminology for Specifications .............................................................................. 26 Figure 2-2: Core Principles for the Specification Development ............................................. 26 Figure 2-3: Trip Life Cycle Steps .............................................................................................. 29 Figure 2-4: Three Models for Transactional Data Flow ......................................................... 34 Figure 3-1: Standard versus Specification ................................................................................ 36 Figure 3-2: Airline Passenger Name Record (PNR) Contents ................................................ 37 Figure 3-3: Summary of Airline Passenger Name Record Example ...................................... 39 Figure 3-4: Google Transit Interface, which relies on GTFS data ......................................... 40 Figure 3-5: Mandatory GTFS Content ..................................................................................... 41 Figure 3-6: Discovery versus Transactional Data .................................................................... 41 Figure 3-7: Summary of GTFS Example .................................................................................. 42 Figure 3-8: Examples of Changes to Mandatory GTFS Files in GTFS-flex ......................... 43 Figure 3-9: Summary of GTFS-flex Example .......................................................................... 44 Figure 3-10: Denver Trip Exchange Hub Structure ................................................................ 48 Figure 3-11: Summary of the Denver DRT Trip Exchange Example ................................... 49 Figure 3-12: SUTI Message Format .......................................................................................... 51 Figure 3-13: Summary of the SUTI Standard Example.......................................................... 52 Figure 4-1: DRT Trip Process from Initial Request to Execution and Payment .................. 57 Figure 4-2: Basic Data Elements Needed for the DRT Trip Process ..................................... 58 Figure 4-3: Senders/Receivers of Telegrams ............................................................................ 59 Figure 4-4: Telegram Flow ......................................................................................................... 61 Figure 4-5: Point-to-Point Communication Approach ............................................................ 68 Figure 4-6: Point-to-Point with Internal Translator Approach ............................................. 69 Figure 4-7: Broker Control Approach ...................................................................................... 69 Figure 4-8: Control Model Approach ....................................................................................... 70 Figure A4-0-1: Steps for a DRT Trip from Ordering to Completion and Payment........... 122 Figure A4-0-2: Functional Needs for a DRT Trip Use Case ................................................. 123 Figure A4-0-3: Data Needs for a DRT Trip Use Case ........................................................... 124 Figure A4-0-4: Telegram Flow ................................................................................................ 125 Figure A5-5: Control Module Approach ................................................................................ 160 Figure A5-6: Screenshot of Website with the Transactional Data Specification Validator .................................................................................................... 160

List of Tables Table 3-1: Parties Involved in the Trip Exchange Project ...................................................... 46 Table 4-1: Telegrams and Their Roles ...................................................................................... 60 Table 4-2 : Telegram 1:A – Request a Trip .............................................................................. 64 Table 4-3 : Telegram 1:B – Trip Request Response (Confirmation) ..................................... 65 Table 4-4 : Telegram 3:A – Vehicle/Trip Task ........................................................................ 66 Table 4-5 : Telegram 3:B – Confirm Trip Task ....................................................................... 67 Table 4-6 : Special Attributes – Service Needs ......................................................................... 73 Table 4-7 : Special Attributes – Mobility Aids ......................................................................... 73 Table 4-8 : Trip Purpose Codes (Examples)............................................................................. 74 Table 5-1: Steps to Implementing the DRT Specification ....................................................... 81 Table 5-2: Potential Models for Governance of the Specification .......................................... 82 Table 5-3: Governance Models with Key Strengths and Weaknesses ................................... 84 Table A2-1: State of DRT Industry and Implications for this Project ................................ 102 Table A2-2: Benefits and Challenges of Common Data Specifications ................................ 102 Table A2-3: Potential Models for Governance of the Specification ..................................... 104 Table A4-0-1: Telegram 1:A – Request a Trip ....................................................................... 126 Table A4-0-2: Telegram 1:B – Trip Request Response ......................................................... 127 Table A4-0-3: Telegram 2:A – Order Confirmation ............................................................. 128 Table A4-0-4: Telegram 2:A:1 – Customer Information ...................................................... 129 Table A4-0-5: Telegram 2:B – Confirm Trip Scheduled ...................................................... 130 Table A4-0-6: Telegram 2:BB – Vehicle Confirmation ......................................................... 131 Table A4-0-7: Telegram 3:A – Vehicle Trip Task ................................................................. 132 Table A4-0-8: Telegram 3:B - Confirm Trip Task ................................................................ 133 Table A4-0-9: Telegram 4:A – Completed Trip Data ............................................................ 134 Table A4-0-10: Telegram 4:B – Confirm Trip Data Received and Payment Status .......... 135 Table A4-0-11: Telegram 5 – Vehicle Current Status ........................................................... 136 Table A4-0-12: Special Attributes ........................................................................................... 137 Table A4-0-13: Trip Purpose Codes ........................................................................................ 138

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Development of Transactional Data Specification for Demand-Responsive Transportation Get This Book
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In the current U.S. climate of on-demand transportation services, the development of transactional data specifications for demand-responsive transportation (DRT)—sometimes referred to as “on-demand services”—will help facilitate interaction between software systems that manage DRT services in the United States.

The TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program's TCRP Research Report 210: Development of Transactional Data Specification for Demand-Responsive Transportation documents the development of the new data specifications for DRT.

A primary purpose of a transactional data specification is to enable DRT services in the U.S. to more fully and easily participate in an era of “New Mobility” by facilitating interactions among the software systems that manage them. New mobility refers to a new generation of technology-enabled urban transportation services that include bike sharing, car sharing, electric scooters, and on-demand transportation services operated by both private-sector and public-sector entities, including Uber and Lyft as well as public transit agencies.

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