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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implications of the California Wildfires for Health, Communities, and Preparedness: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25622.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implications of the California Wildfires for Health, Communities, and Preparedness: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25622.
Page 92
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implications of the California Wildfires for Health, Communities, and Preparedness: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25622.
Page 93
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implications of the California Wildfires for Health, Communities, and Preparedness: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25622.
Page 94

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References Abatzoglou, J. T., and A. P. Williams. 2016. Impact of anthropogenic climate change on wildfire across western U.S. forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113(42):11770–11775. Bedsworth, L., D. Cayan, G. Franco, L. Fisher, and S. Ziaja. 2018. Statewide Summary Report. California’s Fourth Climate Change Assessment. (accessed 2019). Black, C., J. E. Gerriets, J. H. Fontaine, R. W. Harper, N. J. Kenyon, F. Tablin, E. S. Schelegle, and L. A. Miller. 2017. Early life wildfire smoke exposure is associated with immune dysregulation and lung function decrements in adolescence. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 56(5):657–666. British Columbia Centre for Disease Control. 2014. Evidence Review: Reducing Time Outdoors During Wildfire Smoke Events. Vancouver, BC: Environmental Health Services. gallery/Documents/Guidelines%20and%20Forms/Guidelines%20and%20Manuals/Health- Environment/WFSG_EvidenceReview_ReducingTimeOutdoors_FINAL_v6trs.pdf (accessed 2019). Brook, R.D., and S.Rajagopalan. 2017. “Stressed” about air pollution: Time for personal action. Circulation 136(7):628–631. Brown, M. R. G., V. Agyapong, A. J. Greenshaw, I. Cribben, P. Brett-MacLean, J. Drolet, C. McDonald- Harker, J. Omeje, M. Mankowsi, S. Noble, D. Kitching, and P. H. Silverstone. 2019. After the Fort McMurray wildfire there are significant increases in mental health symptoms in grade 7–12 students compared to controls. BMC Psychiatry 19(1):18. California Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board. 2019. California Title 8, Division 1, Chapter 4, Subchapter 7. General Industry Safety Orders, Group 16. Control of Hazardous Substances, Article 107. Dust, Fumes, Mists, Vapors and Gases. Section 5141.1. apprvdtxt.pdf (accessed 2019). Cascio, W. E. 2017. Wildland fire smoke and human health. Science of the Total Environment 624:586– 595. Dai, A., G. J. Carrougher, S. P. Mandell, G. Fudem, N. S. Gibran, and T. N. Pham. 2017. Review of recent large-scale burn disasters worldwide in comparison to preparedness guidelines. Journal of Burn Care and Research 38(1):36–44. Dass, P., B. Z. Houlton, Y. Wang, and D. Warlind. 2018. Grasslands may be more reliable carbon sinks than forests in California. Environmental Research Letters 13(7):074027. David, A. T., J. E. Asarian, and F. K. Lake. 2018. Wildfire smoke cools summer river and stream water temperatures. Water Resources Research 54(10):7273–7290. Department of the Interior and Department of Agriculture. 2014. The National Strategy: The Final Phase in the Development of the National Cohesive Wildland Fire Management Strategy. Apr2014.pdf (accessed 2019). Dodd, W., P. Scott, C. Howard, C. Scott, C. Rose, A. Cunsolo, and J. Orbinski. 2018. Lived experience of a record wildfire season in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health 109(3):327–337. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS R-1

R-2 IMPLICATIONS OF THE CALIFORNIA WILDFIRES FOR HEALTH, COMMUNITIES, AND PREPAREDNESS Eriksen, C., and D. Hankins. 2014. The retention, revival, and subjugation of indigenous fire knowledge through agency fire fighting in Eastern Australia and California. Society and Natural Resources 27(12):1288–1303. Errett, N. A., H. Roop, C. Pendergrast, B. Kramer, A. Doubleday, K. A. Tran, and T. Busch Isaksen. 2019. Building a practice-based research agenda for wildfire smoke and health: A report of the 2018 Washington Wildfire Smoke Stakeholder Synthesis Symposium. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16(13):2398. Fisk, W. J., and W. R. Chan. 2017. Effectiveness and cost of reducing particle-related mortality with particle filtration. Indoor Air 27(5):909–920. Ford, B., M. Burke, W. Lassman, G. Pfister, and J. R. Pierce. 2017. Status update: Is smoke on your mind? Using social media to assess smoke exposure. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17:7541–7554. Fothergill, A., E. G. Maestas, and J. D. Darlington. 1999. Race, ethnicity and disasters in the United States: A review of the literature. Disasters 23(2):156–173. Gan, R. W., B. Ford, W. Lassman, G. Pfister, A. Vaidyanathan, E. Fischer, J. Volckens, J. R. Pierce, and S. Magzamen. 2017. Comparison of wildfire smoke estimation methods and associations with cardiopulmonary-related hospital admissions. GeoHealth 1(3):122–136. Gaughan, D. M., J. M. Cox-Ganser, P. L. Enright, R. M. Castellan, G. R. Wagner, G. R. Hobbs, T. A. Bledsoe, P. D. Siegel, K. Kreiss, and D. N. Weissman. 2008. Acute upper and lower respiratory effects in wildland firefighters. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 50(9):1019–1028. Gaughan, D. M., P. D. Siegel, M. D. Hughes, C. Y. Chang, B. F. Law, C. R. Campbell, J. C. Richards, S. F. Kales, M. Chertok, L. Kobzik, P. S. Nguyen, C. R. O’Donnell, M. Kiefer, G. R. Wagner, and D. C. Christiani. 2014. Arterial stiffness, oxidative stress, and smoke exposure in wildland firefighters. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 57(7):748–756. Headwaters Economics. 2018. The Full Community Costs of Wildfire. content/uploads/full-wildfire-costsreport.pdf (accessed 2019) Hejl, A. M., R. D. Ottmar, G. Timothy Jannik, T. P. Eddy, S. L. Rathbun, A. A. Commodore, J. L. Pearce, and L. P. Naeher. 2013. Radionuclide activity concentrations in forest surface fuels at the Savannah River Site. Journal of Environmental Management 115:217–226. Henderson, D. E., J. B. Milford, and S. L. Miller. 2005. Prescribed burns and wildfires in Colorado: Impacts of mitigation measures on indoor air particulate matter. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 55(10):1516–1526. Holstius, D. M., D. E. Reid, B. M. Jesdale, and R. Morello-Frosch. 2012. Birth weight following pregnancy during the 2003 Southern California wildfires. Environmental Health Perspectives 120:1340–1345. Houlton, B., and J. Lund. 2018. Sacramento Summary Report. California’s Fourth Climate Change Assessment. SacramentoValley.pdf (accessed 2019). IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2018. Summary for policymakers. In Global Warming of 1.5 C. An IPCC Special Report on the Impacts of Global Warming of 1.5 C above Pre-Industrial Levels and Related Global Greenhouse Gas Emission Pathways, in the Context of Strengthening the Global Response to the Threat of Climate Change, Sustainable Development, and Efforts to Eradicate Poverty. (accessed 2019). Kondo, M. C., A. J. De Roos, L. S. White, W. E. Heilman, M. H. Mockrin, C. A. Gross-Davis, and I. Burstyn. 2019. Meta-analysis of heterogeneity in the effects of wildfire smoke exposure on respiratory health in North America. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16(6):960. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

REFERENCES R-3 Kunii, O., S. Kanagawa, I. Yajima, Y. Hisamatsu, S. Yamamura, T. Amagai, and I. T. Ismail. 2002. The 1997 haze disaster in Indonesia: Its air quality and health effects. Archives of Environmental Health 57(1):16–22. Künzli, N., E. Avol, J. Wu, W. J. Gauderman, E. Rappaport, J. Millstein, J. Bennion, R. McConnell, F. D. Gilliland, D. K. Berhane, F. Lurmann, A. Winer, and J. M. Peters. 2006. Health effects of the 2003 Southern California wildfires on children. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 174(11):1221–1228. Lassman, W., B. Ford, R. W. Gan, G. Pfister, S. Magzamen, E. V. Fischer, and J. R. Pierce. 2017. Spatial and temporal estimates of population exposure to wildfire smoke during the Washington State 2012 wildfire season using blended model, satellite, and in situ data. GeoHealth 1:106–121. Lewis, H. 1973. Patterns of Indian burning in California: Ecology and ethnohistory. In Ballena Press Anthropological Papers, 1. Ramona, CA: Ballena Press. Liang, S., M. D. Hurteau, and A. L. Westerling. 2018. Large‐scale restoration increases carbon stability under projected climate and wildfire regimes. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 16(4):207–212. Littell, J. S., D. McKenzie, D. L. Peterson, and A. L. Westerling. 2009. Climate and wildfire area burned in western U.S. ecoprovinces, 1916–2003. Ecological Applications 19(4):1003–1021. Liu, D., I. B. Tager, J. R. Balmes, and R. J. Harrison. 1992. The effect of smoke inhalation on lung function and airway responsiveness in wildland fire fighters. American Review of Respiratory Disease 146(6):1469–1473. Martin, P., B. Hooker, and M. Stockton. 2017. Employment and earnings of California farmworkers in 2015. California Agriculture 72(2):107–113. (accessed 2019). McLaughlin, K. A., J. A. Fairbank, M. J. Gruber, R. T. Jones, M. D. Lakoma, B. Pfefferbaum, N. A. Sampson, and R. C. Kessler. 2009. Serious emotional disturbance among youths exposed to Hurricane Katrina 2 years postdisaster. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 48(11):1069–1078. Mott, J. A., P. Meyer, D. Mannino, and S. C. Redd. 2002. Wildland forest fire smoke: Health effects and intervention evaluation, Hoopa, California, 1999. Western Journal of Medicine 176:157–162. Navarro, K. M., M. T. Kleinman, C. E. Mackay, T. E. Reinhardt, J. R. Balmes, G. A. Broyles, R. D. Ottmar, L. P. Naher, and J. W. Domitrovich. 2019. Wildland firefighter smoke exposure and risk of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality. Environmental Research 173:462–468. Okugami, C., R. Sparks, and S. Woolford. 2014. Twitter data offer opportunities for public health professionals. Journal of Health and Medical Informatics 5:e123. Ouelett, M.-C., and C. M. Morin. 2019. Post-traumatic stress among evacuees from the 2016 Fort McMurray wildfires: Exploration of psychological and sleep symptoms three months after the evacuation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16(9):1604. Packenham, J., R. Rosselli, S. Ramsey, H. Taylor, A. Fothergill, J. Slutsman, and A. Miller. 2017. Conducting science in disasters: recommendations from the NIEHS Working Group for Special IRB Considerations in the review of disaster related research. Environmental Health Perspectives 125(9):094503. Rappold, A. G., N. L. Fann, J. Crooks, J. Huang, W. E. Cascio, R. B. Devlin, and D. Diaz-Sanchez. 2014. Forecast-based interventions can reduce the health and economic burden of wildfires. Environmental Science and Technology 48(18):10571–10579. Reid, C. E., and M. M. Maestas. 2019. Wildfire smoke exposure under climate change: Impact on respiratory health of affected communities. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine 25(2):179– 187. Reid, C. E., M. Jerrett, M. L. Petersen, G. G. Pfister, P. E. Morefield, I. B. Tager, S. M. Raffuse, and J. R. Balmes. 2015. Spatiotemporal prediction of fine particulate matter during the 2008 Northern California wildfires using machine learning. Environmental Science and Technology 49(6):3887–3896. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

R-4 IMPLICATIONS OF THE CALIFORNIA WILDFIRES FOR HEALTH, COMMUNITIES, AND PREPAREDNESS Reid, C. E., M. Brauer, F. H. Johnston, M. Jerrett, J. R. Balmes, and C. T. Elliott. 2016. Critical review of health impacts of wildfire smoke exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives 124:1334–1343. Reid, C. E., E. M. Considine, G. L. Watson, D. Telesca, G. G. Pfister, and M. Jerrett. 2019. Associations between respiratory health and ozone and fine particulate matter during a wildfire event. Environment International 129:291–298. Riden, H. E. 2019. Wildfire smoke exposure: Awareness and safety responses in the agricultural workplace. Under Review. Rockefeller Foundation–Lancet Commission on Planetary Health. 2015. Safeguarding human health in the Anthropocene epoch. The Lancet 386(10007):1972–2028. Rohde, R. 2018. Berkeley Earth. Available at Schreiber, M. 2011. Children’s Disaster and Emergency Mental Health Concept of Operations. Oklahoma City: Terrorism and Disaster Center at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center. (accessed 2019). Semmens, E. O., J. Domitrovich, K. Conway, and C. W. Noonan. 2016. A cross-sectional survey of occupational history as a wildland firefighter and health. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 59(4):330–335. Slaughter, J. C., J. Q. Koenig, and T. E. Reinhardt. 2004. Association between lung function and exposure among firefighters at prescribed burns. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 1:45–49. State of California. 2019. Map of counties in California. Employment Development Department, Data Library. (accessed 2019). Stephens, S. L., R. E. Martin, and N. E. Clinton. 2007. Prehistoric fire area and emissions from California’s forests, woodlands, shrublands, and grasslands. Forest Ecology and Management 251:205–216. Sugerman, D. E., J. M. Keir, D. L. Dee, H. Lipman, S. H. Waterman, M. Ginsberg, and D. B. Fishbein. 2012. Emergency health risk communication during the 2007 San Diego wildfires: Comprehension, compliance, and recall. Journal of Health Communication 17:698–712. Swetnam, T. W., C. H. Baisan, A. C. Caprio, P. M. Brown, R. Touchan, R. S. Anderson, and D. J. Hallett. 2009. Multi-millennial fire history of the Giant Forest, Sequoia National Park, California, USA. Fire Ecology 5(3):120–150. Taylor, A. H., V. Trouet, C. N. Skinner, and S. Stephens. 2016. Socioecological transitions trigger fire regime shifts and modulate fire–climate interactions in the Sierra Nevada, USA, 1600–2015 CE. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113(48):13684-13689. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and California Air Resources Board. 2016. Wildfire Smoke: A Guide for Public Health Officials. Available at Westerling, A. L. 2018. Wildfire simulations for the fourth California climate assessment: Projecting changes in extreme wildfire events with a warming climate. California’s Fourth Climate Change Assessment, California Energy Commission. Publication number CCCA4-CEC-2018-014. Westerling, A. L., H. G. Hidalgo, D. R. Cayan, and T. W. Swetnam. 2006. Increases in western U.S. forest wildfire associated with warming and advances in the timing of spring. Science 313:940– 943. WHO (World Health Organization). 2018. COP24 Special Report: Health and Climate Change. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Yao, J., M. Brauer, S. M. Raffuse, and S. Henderson. 2018. A machine learning approach to estimate hourly exposure to fine particulate matter for urban, rural, and remote populations during wildfire seasons. Environmental Science and Technology 52(22):13239–13249. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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California and other wildfire-prone western states have experienced a substantial increase in the number and intensity of wildfires in recent years. Wildlands and climate experts expect these trends to continue and quite likely to worsen in coming years. Wildfires and other disasters can be particularly devastating for vulnerable communities. Members of these communities tend to experience worse health outcomes from disasters, have fewer resources for responding and rebuilding, and receive less assistance from state, local, and federal agencies. Because burning wood releases particulate matter and other toxicants, the health effects of wildfires extend well beyond burns. In addition, deposition of toxicants in soil and water can result in chronic as well as acute exposures.

On June 4-5, 2019, four different entities within the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop titled Implications of the California Wildfires for Health, Communities, and Preparedness at the Betty Irene Moore School of Nursing at the University of California, Davis. The workshop explored the population health, environmental health, emergency preparedness, and health equity consequences of increasingly strong and numerous wildfires, particularly in California. This publication is a summary of the presentations and discussion of the workshop.

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