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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 207 2019 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation â¢ Environment â¢ Operations and Traffic Management Optimizing the Use of Electric Preconditioned Air (PCA) and Ground Power Systems at Airports Katherine B. Preston Julia Nagy Harris Miller Miller & Hanson, inc. Burlington, MA Jim M. Crites JaMes M. crites, llc Fort Worth, TX Steve Barrett Barrett energy resources group, llc Concord, MA
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 207 Project 02-76 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48077-2 Library of Congress Control Number 2019950406 Â© 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photo: Aircraft connected to PCA and ground power. Cover photo credit: Port of Seattle. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) project 02-76 by Harris Miller Miller & Hanson, Inc. (HMMH), in conjunction with James M. Crites, LLC, and Barrett Energy Resources Group, LLC. Katherine Preston was the principal investigator and project manager. Phil DeVita and Julia Nagy of HMMH provided significant technical support. The ACRP 02-76 research team would like to acknowledge the contribution of the following personnel, airports, airlines, and other organizations for their contributions to the project, for volunteering to par- ticipate in case studies and focus groups, responding to surveys, providing information, and contributing content to the report. Airports Boston Logan International Airport (Stewart Dalzell, Michael Gove, Brian Hennessey, Robert Lynch) DallasâFort Worth International Airport (Emily Conway, Kris Russell, Joseph Zollo) HartsfieldâJackson Atlanta International Airport (Charles Marshall, Frank Misner) Burlington International Airport (Kelly Colling) Denver International Airport (James Glavin, Bruce Goetz, Pat Kelly, Scott Morrissey) Kansas City International Airport (Ian Redhead, Jerome Howard) Memphis International Airport (Nathan Luce) Norman Y. Mineta San JosÃ© International Airport (Patrick Crowley) CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 207 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Megan Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Cassandra Franklin-Barbajosa, Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-76 PANEL Field of Environment Charles F. Marshall, Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, College Park, GA (Chair) Kristen S. Cetin, Iowa State University, Ames, IA Emily M. Conway, PepsiCo, Inc., Plano, TX Bernard J. Deir, Midwest Business Consulting, LLC, Bedford Park, IL Brian Y. Kim, Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, CT Nathan C. Luce, Memphis-Shelby County Airport Authority, Memphis, TN Kyle D. OâNeal, Southwest Airlines, Dallas, TX Michael Lamprecht, FAA Liaison Jeetendra Upadhyay, FAA Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison (continued on page vi)
ACRP Research Report 207 provides guidance in identifying and understanding factors that contribute to the use or non-use of gate electrification systems [electric preconditioned air (PCA) and electric ground power systems] and ways that airports and airlines can optimize the use of the systems. As demand for air travel grows, airport-related emissions are increasing and airports are challenged to reduce associated environmental impacts. In response, expanded regulatory programs and global climate protection initiatives are being developed that require the aviation industryâincluding U.S. airportsâto implement new, clean technologies and to modify operational practices to reduce emissions. One effective option for reducing the emissions associated with aircraft auxiliary power units (APUs) and diesel-powered gate equipment is to convert to electric PCA and electric ground power systems, collectively referred to as âgate electrification systems.â Through the Voluntary Airport Low Emissions (VALE) Program, the FAA enables air- ports located in areas that do not meet EPA air quality standards to meet their air quality responsibilities under the Clean Air Act. The VALE program reduces air emissions through projects such as gate electrification at airports located in areas designated as ânonattainmentâ or âmaintenanceâ to address air quality concerns from criteria pollutants, such as ozone or PM 2.5. Many airports and airlines have supported these initiatives in light of the environ- mental, operational, economic, and other social benefits associated with reduced run times of APUs. Although these systems are installed at many airports, and airline staff interviewed for this project have implemented strategic initiatives to maximize equipment utilization, gate electrification systems may not be fully utilized for a variety of reasons. This research, led by Harris Miller Miller & Hanson, Inc. (HMMH) in association with James M. Crites, LLC, and Barrett Energy Resources Group, LLC, includes case studies at a variety of types and sizes of airports in different climates; an evaluation of how weather and climate impact utilization; the use and impact of other available ground power and PCA units; consideration of aircraft hardstand operations; and airport and airline practices for optimal equipment utilization. Stakeholders consulted throughout the project include air- ports, airlines, pilots, equipment manufacturers, service providers, and industry asso- ciations. Outreach took the form of in-person focus groups, meetings, telephone inter- views, and online surveys. The report also includes a self-assessment checklist and basic utilization tracking methodology, available on www.trb.org by searching for âACRP Research Report 207.â These tools provide industry stakeholders with a simple approach to obtain this information in the future. F O R E W O R D By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (Rusty Fensworth, Ken McKinney, Cynthia Parker) Pittsburgh International Airport (Dave Collins, Kevin Gurchak, John Halulko, Rusty Hottenfeller, John Ranalli) Portland International Airport (David Breen, Terri Burk, Alan Dakessian) Sacramento International Airport (Bob Churchill, Brian McKenzie, Steve Perez, Bree Taylor) San Diego International Airport (Brendan Reed, Chad Reese, Ralph Redman) SeattleâTacoma International Airport (Stephanie Meyn, Lynn Oliphant, Tim Toerber) Tallahassee International Airport (Alisha Wetherell) Zurich International Airport (Emanuel Fleuti) Airlines Alaska Airlines staff American Airlines staff Delta Air Lines staff JetBlue Airlines staff Southwest Airlines staff United Airlines staff Equipment Manufacturers and Service Providers ADB Safegate Cavotec Honeywell ITW GSE TwistAero Textron Associations Air Line Pilots AssociationâInternational Airlines for America Airports Council InternationalâNorth America American Association of Airport Executives AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (Continued)
1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 4 1.1 Background 8 1.2 Description of Research Approach 10 1.3 Airport and Airline Stakeholders 12 1.4 Summary of Findings 13 Chapter 2 Ground Power and Air Conditioning Systems 13 2.1 Aircraft Gate Power Needs 14 2.2 Power and Cabin-Conditioning Equipment 19 2.3 Operations and Maintenance 22 2.4 Ownership Models for Gate Electrification 23 2.5 Motivations for Installing Gate Electrification Systems 25 Chapter 3 Challenges Affecting Gate Electrification System Utilization 26 3.1 Training and Communications Challenges 28 3.2 Operation of Equipment 29 3.3 Maintenance of Equipment 30 3.4 Resource Constraints 32 3.5 Climatic Factors 33 3.6 Policy and Regulatory Factors 33 3.7 Identification of Challenges at Individual Airports 36 Chapter 4 Solutions to Address Utilization Challenges 36 4.1 Stakeholder Engagement 39 4.2 Operation of Equipment 44 4.3 Maintenance of Equipment 47 4.4 Resource Allocation 47 4.5 Climatic Factors 49 4.6 Data Collection and Automation 51 Chapter 5 Utilization Tracking Methodology 52 5.1 Methodology Background 54 5.2 Methodology Instructions 58 5.3 Next Steps 60 Chapter 6 Airport Case Studies 60 6.1 HartsfieldâJackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL), Atlanta, Georgia 64 6.2 Boston Logan International Airport (BOS), Boston, Massachusetts 67 6.3 Burlington International Airport (BTV), Burlington, Vermont 70 6.4 DallasâFort Worth International Airport (DFW), Dallas, Texas 73 6.5 Denver International Airport (DEN), Denver, Colorado C O N T E N T S
76 6.6 Kansas City International Airport (MCI), Kansas City, Missouri 80 6.7 Memphis International Airport (MEM), Memphis, Tennessee 82 6.8 Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (PHX), Phoenix, Arizona 85 6.9 Pittsburgh International Airport (PIT), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 87 6.10 Portland International Airport (PDX), Portland, Oregon 90 6.11 Sacramento International Airport (SMF), Sacramento, California 93 6.12 San Diego International Airport (SAN), San Diego, California 96 6.13 SeattleâTacoma International Airport (SEA), Seattle, Washington 100 6.14 Tallahassee International Airport (TLH), Tallahassee, Florida 102 6.15 Zurich International Airport (ZRH), Zurich, Switzerland 107 Bibliography 110 Appendix A Acronyms and Glossary 115 Appendix B Airport Survey Summary 130 Appendix C Pilot Survey Summary