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110 A P P E N D I X A Acronyms and Glossary Acronyms A4A Airlines for America ACI Airports Council InternationalâWorld ACIâNA Airports Council InternationalâNorth America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program AEDT Aviation Environmental Design Tool AHU air handling unit AIP Airport Improvement Program ALPA Air Line Pilots Association APU auxiliary power unit ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers ATL HartsfieldâJackson Atlanta International Airport BOS Boston Logan International Airport BTV Burlington International Airport CAA Clean Air Act CAAFI Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative CDD cooling degree days CMMS computerized maintenance management system CO2 carbon dioxide CORSIA Carbon Offset and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation DEN Denver International Airport DFW DallasâFort Worth International Airport FAA Federal Aviation Administration FDOT Florida Department of Transportation GHG greenhouse gas
Acronyms and Glossary 111 MCI Kansas City International Airport MEM Memphis International Airport NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NEPA National Environmental Policy Act NFPA National Fire Protection Association PCA preconditioned air PDX Portland International Airport PFC passenger facility charge PHX Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport PIT Pittsburgh International Airport POU point of use SAN San Diego International Airport SEA SeattleâTacoma International Airport SMF Sacramento International Airport TIM time in mode TLH Tallahassee International Airport TRB Transportation Research Board UPS United Parcel Service USEPA United States Environmental Protection Agency VALE Voluntary Airport Low Emissions ZRH Zurich International Airport GPU ground power unit GSE ground support equipment HDD heating degree days hr hour ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning Hz hertz
112 Optimizing the Use of Electric Preconditioned Air (PCA) and Ground Power Systems at Airports Glossary Air handling unit (AHU): An air handling unit is a system or device used to circulate, clean, heat, cool, and (de)humidify air as part of a larger heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Airport Improvement Program (AIP): The Airport Improvement Program is authorized by Congress and administered by the FAA to provide grant funding to entities for the planning and development of public-use airports. To be eligible, airports must be listed in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems. Air pollution: The presence of one or more substances, chemicals, or particulates in the air in sufficient quantities to cause negative impacts to human health, welfare, flora, and fauna. The substances or chemicals that cause harm are air pollutants. Air Transport Action Group (ATAG): A global commercial aviation industry coalition comprised of member companies formed to advocate for common positions. Auxiliary Power Units (APU): Small turbine engines on aircraft (in addition to the main engines) that are used to provide power to start the main engines and to provide power to onboard electrical systems and cabin air conditioning (and heating) when main engines are off. Carbon dioxide (CO2): Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless gas comprised of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms. CO2 is produced primarily from the combustion of fossil fuels and, to a lesser extent, from naturally occurring sources such as volcanoes and the decay of organic matter. It is one of the primary greenhouse gases responsible for climate change. Carbon monoxide (CO): One of the six criteria pollutants, carbon monoxide is a chemical product of incomplete combustion. CO is produced by motor vehicles and equipment with internal combustion engines. At high concentrations, CO can inhibit the oxygen-carrying capacity of hemoglobin in the blood, which is a health concern particularly for vulnerable populations (for people with certain other health conditions). Carbon Offset and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA): A program developed by the United Nations International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to reduce the growth of greenhouse gas emissions from international aviation. Clean Air Act (CAA): A federal law that regulates air quality and the emission of air pollutants. The CAA was first passed by Congress in 1967 and required that the U.S. government develop air quality regulations and set criteria to protect the âpublic health and welfareâ. The CAA provided the authority for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) regulating six criteria pollutants. Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative (CAAFI): A coalition comprised of airlines, airports, the Federal Aviation Administration, and aerospace manufacturers to advance the development of sustainable alternative aviation fuels through research, collaboration, and policy advocacy. Cooling Degree Days (CDD): A degree day is the difference in temperature between the average outdoor temperature for a given location over a 24-hour period and a standard base temperature. A cooling degree day is a measure of how much energy is needed to cool a building over a 24-hour period.
Acronyms and Glossary 113 Criteria Pollutant: A pollutant determined by the U.S. EPA to be hazardous to human health. The criteria pollutants are regulated under the CAA and the NAAQS. There are six criteria pollutants, including ozone, particulate matter, lead, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. Emissions: A release or discharge of a substance (in this context an air pollutant) into the environment. Load Bank: A load bank is a device used to test power sources by mimicking the electrical load of the equipment that will ultimately be connected to the power source and measuring the output of the power source. This tests the ability of the source to handle the voltage of the system. Heating Degree Days (HDD): A degree day is the difference in temperature between the average outdoor temperature for a given location over a 24-hour period and a standard base temperature. A heating degree day is a measure of how much energy is needed to heat a building over a 24-hour period. Hertz (Hz): A unit of measurement of frequency, with one hertz equaling one cycle per second. 400 Hz is a type of frequency within Alternating Current (AC) electrical power, and is commonly used for powering systems on aircraft. Go/No Go Gauge: In general, a Go/No Go gauge is an inspection device used to test certain components (i.e., pins, hardware, and so on) to ensure they meet acceptable standards or specifications. Greenhouse Gases (GHG): Gases that trap heat in the atmosphere, creating a âgreenhouse effectâ on Earth. GHGs include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorinated gases. Often greenhouse gases are converted to âcarbon dioxide equivalentâ (i.e., for a given amount of a particular GHG, the carbon dioxide equivalent is a measure of the amount of carbon dioxide with the same global warming potential). Ground power units (GPU): Equipment that supplies power to aircraft on the ground in order to run electrical systems onboard the aircraft while the engines are off. GPUs can be mobile (battery or fossil- fuel powered), or provide electricity from the airportâs infrastructure (electricity from the grid). Ground support equipment (GSE): Vehicles and equipment associated with the servicing of aircraft during the airport turnaround process (i.e., ground operations that occur from the time the aircraft arrives at the gate or remote parking position to the time the aircraft leaves the gate). GSE includes fueling trucks, baggage carts, catering vehicles, water carts, equipment used for loading and unloading passengers, ground power units, etc. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS): Air quality regulations developed by the U.S. EPA under the Clean Air Act designed to protect the health and welfare of the population. Primary standards are developed to protect human health (particularly vulnerable populations), and secondary standards are designed to protect property. The NAAQS are periodically updated. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA): A federal law that established the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) and requires federal agencies to consider the environmental impacts of their actions and alternatives. Passenger Facility Charge (PFC): The Passenger Facility Charge program provides a mechanism for publicly owned, commercial service airports to collect fees up to $4.50 per enplaned passenger per
114 Optimizing the Use of Electric Preconditioned Air (PCA) and Ground Power Systems at Airports segment (up to two segments for a one way trip or up to four segments for a round-trip ticket). Airport owners and operators can use fees collected under this program to fund FAA-approved projects, including safety, capacity, security, and noise mitigation or air service-related projects. Preconditioned Air (PCA): Equipment that supplies pre-cooled or heated air to aircraft that are on the ground. PCA can be delivered via central HVAC systems, point-of-use systems (typically attached to a jet bridge), or a fossil-fuel powered mobile unit. Voluntary Airport Low Emissions Program (VALE): A program administered by the Federal Aviation Administration to assist airport sponsors to meet their air quality responsibilities under the Clean Air Act. Eligible airports include those in designated nonattainment or maintenance areas for one of the six criteria pollutants regulated by the NAAQS. Through VALE, airports can apply for grant funding from the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) or use Passenger Facility Charges (PFCs) to finance the purchase of low emission vehicles and related fueling/charging infrastructure, gate electrification equipment, and other airport air quality improvements.