National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: Chapter 6 - Airport Case Studies
Page 107
Suggested Citation:"Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Optimizing the Use of Electric Preconditioned Air (PCA) and Ground Power Systems for Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25623.
×
Page 107
Page 108
Suggested Citation:"Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Optimizing the Use of Electric Preconditioned Air (PCA) and Ground Power Systems for Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25623.
×
Page 108
Page 109
Suggested Citation:"Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Optimizing the Use of Electric Preconditioned Air (PCA) and Ground Power Systems for Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25623.
×
Page 109

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

107 Abdel-Fadil, R., A. Eid, and M. Abdel-Salam. Electrical Distribution Power Systems of Modern Civil Aircrafts. Presented at 2nd International Conference on Energy Systems and Technologies, Cairo, Egypt, 2013. https:// www.researchgate.net/publication/235932771_Electrical_distribution_power_systems_of_modern_civil_ aircrafts. Aero Systems Engineering, Inc. Feasibility Study: Pre-conditioned Air, Salt Lake City International Airport Proposed South Concourse Gates 1–36, 38 & 40. Marietta, Ga., 2013. Airport Carbon Accreditation. Accredited Airports Across the World, North America. 2018. https:// www.airportcarbonaccreditation.org/airport/participants/north-america.html. Airports Council International–Europe. Airport Carbon Accreditation Annual Report 2017–2018. Geneva, Switzerland, 2018. https://airportcarbonaccreditation.org/component/downloads/downloads/132.html. Airports Council International. Aircraft Ground Energy System–Simulator (AGES-S) v.1. 2018. https://aci.aero/ about-aci/priorities/environment/ages-s/. Accessed Oct. 23, 2018. Air Transport Action Group. Aviation: Benefits Beyond Borders. Geneva, Switzerland, 2018. https://www.atag.org/ our-publications/latest-publications.html. American Airlines. 2017 Corporate Responsibility Report. 2017. http://s21.q4cdn.com/616071541/files/ doc_downloads/crr/CRR-Report-2017.pdf. The Boeing Company. Airports with Noise and Emissions Restrictions. 2018. http://www.boeing.com/commercial/ noise/list.page. California Air Resources Board. 2009. California Code of Regulations. Title 17, §95101. 2009. https://www.arb.ca.gov/ cc/reporting/ghg-rep/regulation/mrr-2016-unofficial-2017-10-10.pdf?_ga=2.22897531.1520631629. 1552073070-1816738388.1552073070. Cavotec. Skyway Terminal & GSE Utilization. PowerPoint presentation. 2018. CDM Federal Programs Corporation, KB Environmental Sciences, Inc., and Ricondo and Associates, Inc. ACRP Report 78: Airport Ground Support Equipment (GSE): Emission Reduction Strategies, Inventory, and Tutorial. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2012. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.17226/22681. Dallas–Fort Worth International Airport. 2017 Environmental, Social and Governance Report. 2018. https://www. dfwairport.com/cs/groups/webcontent/documents/webasset/p2_950004.pdf. Accessed Nov. 24, 2018. Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. Technical Data to Support FAA’s Advisory Circular on Reducing Emissions from Commercial Aviation. Memorandum. Arlington, Va., 1995. http://www.forces.org/evidence/download/ airplane.pdf. Environmental Protection Agency, Part II: 40 CFR Parts 86, 87, 89 et al. Mandatory Reporting of Green- house Gases: Final Rule. Federal Register, Vol. 74, No. 209, Fri., Oct. 30, 2009, pp. 56260–56519. https:// www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-2009-10-30/pdf/E9-23315.pdf. Environmental Protection Agency. Reviewing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS): Scientific and Technical Information. 2017. https://www.epa.gov/naaqs. Environmental Science Associates, AERO Systems Engineering, Inc., Synergy Consultants, Inc., and Wyle, Inc. ACRP Report 64: Handbook for Evaluating Emissions and Costs of APUs and Alternative Systems. Transporta- tion Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2012. https://doi.org/10.17226/22797. FAA. Voluntary Airport Low Emission Program Technical Report, Version 7. Report DOT/FAA/AR-04/37. U.S. Department of Transportation, 2010. https://www.faa.gov/airports/environmental/vale/media/ vale_techreport_v7.pdf. FAA. United States Aviation Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Plan. U.S. Department of Transportation, 2012. https://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/apl/environ_policy_guidance/policy/media/ Aviation_Greenhouse_Gas_Emissions_Reduction_Plan.pdf. Bibliography

108 Optimizing the Use of Electric Preconditioned Air (PCA) and Ground Power Systems at Airports FAA. Airport Improvement Program Handbook. FAA Order 5100.38D U.S. Department of Transportation, 2014. https://www.faa.gov/airports/aip/aip_handbook/media/AIP-Handbook-Order-5100-38D.pdf. FAA. Environmental Impacts: Policies and Procedures. Order 1050.1F. U.S. Department of Transportation, 2015A. https://www.faa.gov/documentlibrary/media/order/faa_order_1050_1f.pdf. FAA. Aviation Emissions and Air Quality Handbook, Version 3, Update 1. U.S. Department of Transportation, 2015B. https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/policy_guidance/envir_policy/airquality_handbook/ media/Air_Quality_Handbook_Appendices.pdf. FAA. United States Aviation Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Plan. U.S. Department of Transportation, 2015C. https://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/Lists/ActionPlan/Attachments/30/UnitedStates_ Action_Plan-2015.pdf. FAA. Voluntary Airport Low Emissions (VALE) Program: Federal Support for Clean Air and Airport Emissions Reduction Initiatives. U.S. Department of Transportation, 2017. https://www.faa.gov/airports/environmental/ vale/media/VALE-brochure-2017.pdf. FAA. Voluntary Airport Low Emissions Program Grant Summary: Fiscal Year (FY) 2005–2018. U.S. Department of Transportation, 2018. https://www.faa.gov/airports/environmental/vale/media/VALE-grant-summary.pdf. Fleuti, E., and C. Ruf. Aircraft Ground Energy Systems at Zurich Airport, Version 2. Flughafen Zurich AG, Zurich, Switzerland, 2013. Fleuti, E., and C. Ruf. Aircraft Ground Energy Systems at Zurich Airport, Version 3. Flughafen Zurich AG, Zurich, Switzerland, 2018. https://www.zurich-airport.com/∼/media/flughafenzh/dokumente/das_unternehmen/ laerm_politik_und_umwelt/luft/2018_zrh_aircraft-ground-energy-system_20180214.pdf. Golder Associates. Pre-Conditioned Air and Ground Power Unit Usage at Canadian Airports. Report No. 1415067. 2015. International Civil Aviation Organization. Operational Opportunities to Minimize Fuel Use and Reduce Emissions. Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 2003. International Civil Aviation Organization. Airport Air Quality Manual, 1st edition. Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 2011. https://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/Documents/Publications/FINAL.Doc% 209889.1st%20Edition.alltext.en.pdf. International Civil Aviation Organization. ICAO Environmental Report 2016: Aviation and Climate Change. Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 2016. https://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/Documents/ICAO% 20Environmental%20Report%202016.pdf. KB Environmental Sciences, Inc. ACRP Report 149: Improving Ground Support Equipment Operational Data for Airport Emissions Modeling. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.17226/22084. Kim, B., K. Nakada, R. Wayson, S. Christie, C. Paling, M. Bennett, D. Raper, V. Raps, J. Levy, and C. Roof. ACRP Report 135: Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.17226/22119. Kwan, J. S. W., and S. J. E. Yang. Auxiliary Power Unit Noise of Boeing B737 and B747 Aircraft, 1992. http:// adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992STIA. . .9588468K. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. Northeast RCC CLIMOD 2. http://climod2.nrcc.cornell.edu/. Nordstrom, R. New Hardstand Terminal at Sea-Tac Redefines Hardstand Operations. Airport Improvement. November-December 2018. https://airportimprovement.com/article/new-hardstand-terminal-sea-tac- redefines-hardstand-operations. Philadelphia International Airport. Philadelphia International Airport Rules and Regulations Manual, Section 3: Aircraft Operations. 2012, pp. 3-1–3-18. https://www.phl.org/Documents/RulesRegs/PHLRRSec3.pdf. Port of Portland. Environmental Report 2016/17. 2017. http://cdn.portofportland.com/pdfs/POP_ENV_ report.pdf. Port of Seattle. Pre-Conditioned Air. 2017. https://www.portseattle.org/projects/pre-conditioned-air. San Diego County Regional Airport Authority, and the Attorney General of California. Memorandum of Under- standing Between the Attorney General of the State of California and the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority Regarding the San Diego International Airport Master Plan. 2008. http://ag.ca.gov/globalwarming/ pdf/San_Diego_Airport_Agreement.pdf. Scholz, D. An Optimal APU for Passenger Aircraft. Presented at 5th CEAS Air and Space Conference, Delft, Netherlands, 2015. Sikorski, E. Air-Conditioning of Parked Aircraft by Ground-Based Equipment. Presented at International Refrig- eration and Air Conditioning Conference, West Lafayette, Indiana, 2010. https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/cgi/ viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.bing.com/&httpsredir=1&article=2085&context=iracc. Southwest Airlines. 2015 Southwest Airlines One Report. 2015. http://southwestonereport.com/2015/#/report-page. Southwest Airlines. 2016 Southwest Airlines One Report. 2016. http://southwestonereport.com/2016/about-the- report/.

Bibliography 109 Southwest Airlines. 2017 Southwest Airlines One Report. 2017. http://southwestonereport.com/2017/content/ uploads/2018/06/2017_SouthwestAirlinesOneReport-1.pdf. Stantec Consulting, Ltd. Transport Canada: Alternative Systems to Reduce Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit Emissions, 2016. Tam, C. K. W., N. N. Pastouchenko, J. Mendoza, and D. Brown. Combustion Noise of Auxiliary Power Units. Presented at 11th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, Monterey, Ca., 2005. https://arc.aiaa.org/doi/ abs/10.2514/6.2005-2829. Tetra Tech EBA, Inc. Study of Best Practices and Procedures, Policies and Regulations Relating to Auxiliary Power Units (APU) and Ground Support Equipment (GSE). Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 2014. Tetra Tech EBA, Inc. Feasibility of Alternative Energy Conversion of Ground Support Equipment (GSE) at Canadian Airports. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 2016. Transport Canada. Canada’s Action Plan to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation: Section 6.3 Airport Ground Operations and Infrastructure Use. 2012. https://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/policy/acs-reduce-greenhouse- gas-aviation-menu-3007.htm#s63. United Airlines, Inc. Fuel Efficiency and Emissions Reduction. 2018. https://www.united.com/ual/en/us/fly/ company/global-citizenship/environment/fuel-efficiency-and-emissions-reduction.html. Wade, M. D. Aircraft/Auxiliary Power Units/Aerospace Ground Support Equipment Emission Factors. 2002. World Meteorological Organization. WMO Statement on the State of the Global Climate in 2018. 2018. https://library.wmo.int/doc_num.php?explnum_id=5789.

Next: Appendix A - Acronyms and Glossary »
Optimizing the Use of Electric Preconditioned Air (PCA) and Ground Power Systems for Airports Get This Book
×
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

As demand for air travel grows, airport-related emissions are increasing and airports are challenged to reduce associated environmental impacts. In response, expanded regulatory programs and global climate protection initiatives are being developed that require the aviation industry—including U.S. airports—to implement new, clean technologies and to modify operational practices to reduce emissions.

One effective option for reducing the emissions associated with aircraft auxiliary power units (APUs) and diesel-powered gate equipment is to convert to electric PCA and electric ground power systems, collectively referred to as “gate electrification systems.”

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Research Report 207: Optimizing the Use of Electric Preconditioned Air (PCA) and Ground Power Systems for Airports provides guidance in identifying and understanding factors that contribute to the use or non-use of gate electrification systems (electric preconditioned air or PCA and electric ground power systems) and ways that airports and airlines can optimize the use of the systems.

This research includes case studies at a variety of types and sizes of airports in different climates; an evaluation of how weather and climate impact utilization; the use and impact of other available ground power and PCA units; consideration of aircraft hardstand operations; and airport and airline practices for optimal equipment utilization.

The work includes additional resources: the ACRP 02-76 Ground Power and PCA Example Utilization Tracking Methodology and the Self-Assessment Checklist.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!