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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Enhancing Scientific Reproducibility in Biomedical Research Through Transparent Reporting: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25627.
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Enhancing Scientific Reproducibility in Biomedical Research Through Transparent Reporting PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP Theresa Wizemann, Sylvia Ncha, Amanda Wagner Gee, and Carolyn Shore, Rapporteurs Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders National Cancer Policy Forum Roundtable on Genomics and Precision Health Board on Health Sciences Policy Board on Health Care Services Health and Medicine Division PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS   500 Fifth Street, NW   Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and AbbVie Inc.; Amgen Inc. (Contract No. GHCCOPS-CSARF-175837); Association of American Medical Colleges; AstraZeneca; Burroughs Wellcome Fund (Contract No. 1020264); Cell Press; Critical Path Institute; Eli Lilly and Company; FasterCures; Foundation for the National Institutes of Health; Friends of Cancer Research; GlaxoSmithKline (Contract No. 016084); Johnson & Johnson; The Lancet; Merck & Co., Inc. (Contract Nos. CMO-180308-002499 and MRL- CPO-18-2641); National Institutes of Health (Contract No. HHSN2632018000029I; Task Order Nos. HHSN26300007 and HHSN26300009): National Cancer Insti- tute, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Office of Extramural Research, Office of Science Policy; Nature Research; New England Journal of Medicine; Sanofi (Contract No. 44723099); Takeda Pharmaceuticals (Contract No. 398929); and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (Grant Nos. 5R13FD005496-04 and 5R13FD005496- 05): Center for Drug Evaluation and Research and Office of the Commissioner. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this pub- lication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25627 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Enhancing scientific reproducibility in biomedical research through transparent reporting: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25627. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institu- tion to advise the nation on issues related to science and ­ echnology. Members t are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the char- ter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was estab­ished in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of ­ ciences to l S advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, E ­ ngineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and a ­ dvice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in ­ atters of science, engineering, and medicine. m Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engi­eering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the n study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typi- cally include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opin- ions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON ENHANCING SCIENTIFIC REPRODUCIBILITY IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH THROUGH TRANSPARENT REPORTING1 HARVEY FINEBERG (Chair), Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation OTIS BRAWLEY, Johns Hopkins University BARRY COLLER, The Rockefeller University STUART HOFFMAN, Department of Veterans Affairs VERONIQUE KIERMER, PLOS BENEDICT KOLBER, Duquesne University ALEXA McCRAY, Harvard Medical School JILL MESIROV, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine MARTIN MURPHY, CEO Roundtable on Cancer RICHARD NAKAMURA, Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of Health (Retired) FRANKLIN SAYRE, Thompson Rivers University IDA SIM, University of California, San Francisco VALDA VINSON, Science Health and Medicine Division Staff CAROLYN SHORE, Director, Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation AMANDA WAGNER GEE, Program Officer SYLVIA NCHA, Associate Program Officer MELVIN JOPPY, Senior Program Assistant ANDREW M. POPE, Senior Director, Board on Health Sciences Policy Consultant THERESA WIZEMANN, Science Writer 1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speak- ers. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. v PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

FORUM ON DRUG DISCOVERY, DEVELOPMENT, AND TRANSLATION1 ROBERT M. CALIFF (Co-Chair), Duke University and Verily Life Sciences GREGORY SIMON (Co-Chair), Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute and University of Washington CHRISTOPHER P. AUSTIN, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences LINDA BRADY, National Institute of Mental Health TANISHA CARINO, Milken Institute BARRY COLLER, The Rockefeller University THOMAS CURRAN, Children’s Mercy, Kansas City RICHARD DAVEY, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases JAMES H. DOROSHOW, National Cancer Institute JEFFREY M. DRAZEN, New England Journal of Medicine STEVEN K. GALSON, Amgen Inc. CARLOS GARNER, Eli Lilly and Company JULIE L. GERBERDING, Merck & Co., Inc. LYNN HUDSON, Critical Path Institute DEBORAH HUNG, Harvard Medical School ROSS McKINNEY, JR., Association of American Medical Colleges JOSEPH P. MENETSKI, Foundation for the National Institutes of Health BERNARD H. MUNOS, Innothink Center for Research in Biomedical Innovation KELLY ROSE, Burroughs Wellcome Fund ROB SCOTT, AbbVie Inc. ANANTHA SHEKHAR, Indiana University School of Medicine ELLEN V. SIGAL, Friends of Cancer Research LANA R. SKIRBOLL, Sanofi AMIR TAMIZ, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke PAMELA TENAERTS, Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative, Duke University JOANNE WALDSTREICHER, Johnson & Johnson CARRIE WOLINETZ, Office of Science Policy, National Institutes of Health ALASTAIR WOOD, Vanderbilt University JANET WOODCOCK, U.S. Food and Drug Administration 1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s forums and round- tables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the pub- lished Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. vi PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Forum Staff CAROLYN SHORE, Forum Director AMANDA WAGNER GEE, Program Officer JENNIFER HINNERS, Program Officer SYLVIA NCHA, Associate Program Officer EESHAN KHANDEKAR, Associate Program Officer MELVIN JOPPY, Senior Program Assistant ANDREW M. POPE, Senior Director, Board on Health Sciences Policy vii PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

FORUM ON NEUROSCIENCE AND NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS FRANCES JENSEN (Co-Chair), University of Pennsylvania JOHN KRYSTAL (Co-Chair), Yale University SUSAN AMARA, Society for Neuroscience RITA BALICE-GORDON, Sanofi KATJA BROSE, Chan Zuckerberg Initiative EMERY BROWN, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts Institute of Technology DANIEL BURCH, Pharmaceutical Product Development, LLC JOSEPH BUXBAUM, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai SARAH CADDICK, Gatsby Charitable Foundation ROSA CANET-AVILES, Foundation for the National Institutes of Health MARIA CARRILLO, Alzheimer’s Association EDWARD CHANG, University of California, San Francisco TIMOTHY COETZEE, National Multiple Sclerosis Society JONATHAN COHEN, Princeton University ROBERT CONLEY, Eli Lilly and Company JAMES DESHLER, National Science Foundation BILLY DUNN, U.S. Food and Drug Administration MICHAEL EGAN, Merck Research Laboratories NITA FARAHANY, Duke University School of Law JOSHUA GORDON, National Institute of Mental Health RAQUEL GUR, University of Pennsylvania MAGALI HAAS, Cohen Veterans Bioscience RAMONA HICKS, One Mind RICHARD HODES, National Institute on Aging STUART HOFFMAN, Department of Veterans Affairs JONATHAN HORSFORD, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research YASMIN HURD, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai STEVEN HYMAN, Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Tech- nology and Harvard University MICHAEL IRIZARRY, Eisai Inc. GEORGE KOOB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism WALTER KOROSHETZ, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke STORY LANDIS, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (Emeritus) ALAN LESHNER, American Association for the Advancement of Science (Emeritus) HUSSEINI MANJI, Janssen Research & Development, LLC viii PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

CAROLINE MONTOJO, The Kavli Foundation STEVEN PAUL, Voyager Therapeutics EMILIANGELO RATTI, Takeda Pharmaceuticals International TODD SHERER, The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research DAVID SHURTLEFF, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health SANTA TUMMINIA, National Eye Institute NORA VOLKOW, National Institute on Drug Abuse ANDREW WELCHMAN, Wellcome Trust DOUG WILLIAMSON, Lundbeck STEVIN ZORN, MindImmune Therapeutics, Inc. Forum Staff CLARE STROUD, Forum Director SHEENA M. POSEY NORRIS, Program Officer PHOENIX WILSON, Senior Program Assistant ANDREW M. POPE, Senior Director, Board on Health Sciences Policy ix PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

NATIONAL CANCER POLICY FORUM EDWARD J. BENZ, JR. (Chair), Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School GARNET L. ANDERSON, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and University of Washington KENNETH ANDERSON, American Cancer Society and Jerome Lipper Multiple Myeloma Center KAREN BASEN-ENGQUIST, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center CHRIS BOSHOFF, Pfizer Inc. CATHY J. BRADLEY, Colorado School of Public Health and University of Colorado Cancer Center OTIS W. BRAWLEY, Johns Hopkins University ROBERT W. CARLSON, National Comprehensive Cancer Network GWEN DARIEN, National Patient Advocate Foundation NANCY E. DAVIDSON, Seattle Cancer Care Alliance; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center; and University of Washington GEORGE D. DEMETRI, Harvard Medical School; Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; and Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center JAMES H. DOROSHOW, National Cancer Institute NICOLE F. DOWLING, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention SCOT W. EBBINGHAUS, Merck Research Laboratories KOJO S. J. ELENITOBA-JOHNSON, University of Pennsylvania AWNY FARAJALLAH, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company STANTON L. GERSON, Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center ¯ LORI HOFFMAN HOGG, Department of Veterans Affairs LINDA HOUSE, Cancer Support Community HEDVIG HRICAK, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center ROY A. JENSEN, Association of American Cancer Institutes; The University of Kansas Cancer Center; and Kansas Masonic Cancer Research Institute LISA KENNEDY SHELDON, Oncology Nursing Society SAMIR N. KHLEIF, Georgetown University Medical Center MICHELLE M. LE BEAU, University of Chicago Medicine Comprehensive Cancer Center MIA LEVY, Rush University Cancer Center and Rush System for Health J. LEONARD LICHTENFELD, American Cancer Society NEAL J. MEROPOL, Flatiron Health MARTIN J. MURPHY, CEO Roundtable on Cancer RANDALL A. OYER, Penn Medicine Lancaster General Health RICHARD PAZDUR, U.S. Food and Drug Administration x PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

RICHARD L. SCHILSKY, American Society of Clinical Oncology DEBORAH SCHRAG, Harvard Medical School and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute LAWRENCE N. SHULMAN, University of Pennsylvania DAN THEODORESCU, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center GEORGE J. WEINER, The University of Iowa ROBERT A. WINN, Virginia Commonwealth University Forum Staff ERIN BALOGH, Senior Program Officer EMILY ZEVON, Associate Program Officer KATE HAWTHORNE, Senior Program Assistant ANNALEE GONZALES, Administrative Assistant SHARYL NASS, Director, National Cancer Policy Forum, and Director, Board on Health Care Services xi PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

ROUNDTABLE ON GENOMICS AND PRECISION HEALTH GEOFFREY GINSBURG (Co-Chair), Duke University MICHELLE PENNY (Co-Chair), Biogen NAOMI ARONSON, Blue Cross Blue Shield Association ARIS BARIS, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals KARINA BIENFAIT, Merck and Co., Inc. VENCE BONHAM, National Human Genome Research Institute ANN CASHION, National Institute of Nursing Research ROBERT DARNELL, The Rockefeller University KATHERINE DONIGAN, U.S. Food and Drug Administration W. GREGORY FEERO, Journal of the American Medical Association JESSICA GILL, National Institute of Nursing Research MARC GRODMAN, Genosity JILL M. HAGENKORD, Color Genomics EMILY HARRIS, National Cancer Institute RICHARD HODES, National Institute on Aging PRADUMAN JAIN, Vibrent Health SEKAR KATHIRESAN, Massachusetts General Hospital MUIN KHOURY, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CHARLES LEE, The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine THOMAS LEHNER, National Institute of Mental Health PATRICK LOERCH, Johnson & Johnson JAMES LU, Helix SEAN McCONNELL, American Medical Association JENNIFER MOSER, Department of Veterans Affairs ANNA PETTERSSON, Pfizer Inc. VICTORIA PRATT, Association for Molecular Pathology NADEEM SARWAR, Eisai Inc.  SHERI SCHULLY, Office of Disease Prevention, National Institutes of Health JOAN SCOTT, Health Resources and Services Administration SAM SHEKAR, Northrop Grumman Information Systems NIKOLETTA SIDIROPOULOS, University of Vermont Health Network Medical Group KATHERINE JOHANSEN TABER, Myriad Women’s Health RYAN TAFT, Illumina JACQUELYN TAYLOR, New York University SHARON TERRY, Genetic Alliance JOYCE TUNG, 23andMe JAMESON VOSS, Air Force Medical Support Agency MICHAEL WATSON, American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics xii PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

KAREN WECK, College of American Pathologists CATHERINE WICKLUND, National Society of Genetic Counselors HUNTINGTON F. WILLARD, Geisinger National Precision Health JANET WILLIAMS, American Academy of Nursing SARAH WORDSWORTH, University of Oxford Roundtable Staff SARAH BEACHY, Roundtable Director SIOBHAN ADDIE, Program Officer MEREDITH HACKMANN, Associate Program Officer MICHAEL BERRIOS, Senior Program Assistant ANDREW M. POPE, Senior Director, Board on Health Sciences Policy xiii PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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Reviewers This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by indi- viduals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical com- ments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectiv- ity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: YARIMAR CARRASQUILLO, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, National Institutes of Health ASHLEY FARLEY, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation RICHARD SEVER, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press GEETA K. SWAMY, Duke University Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by CAROLE LEE, University of Washington. She was responsible for making certain that an indepen- dent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies. xv PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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Acknowledgments Sponsorship from the National Institutes of Health’s Office of Extramural Research and Office of Science Policy, Cell Press, The Lan- cet, and Nature Research made this workshop—and the fruitful discus- sions therein—possible. Support from the many annual sponsors of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation; Forum on Neurosci- ence and Nervous System Disorders; National Cancer Policy Forum; and Roundtable on Genomics and Precision Health is crucial to support this and other work of the National Academies. The National Academies staff wish to express their gratitude to the speakers whose presentations helped inform workshop discussions on the state of transparent reporting in preclinical biomedical research; the mem- bers of the planning committee for their work in developing the work- shop agenda and shaping the discussions; and the many other National Academies staff without whom this workshop and the accounting thereof would not have been possible: Jeanay Butler, Daniel Cesnalis, Robert Day, Sadaf Faraz, Greta Gorman, Anna Camilo Javier, Bardia Massoudkhan, Bettina Seliber, Lauren Shern, and Taryn Young. xvii PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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Contents ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS xxi 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Organization of the Proceedings, 3 2 TRANSPARENCY AND TRUST 5 Overview of Reproducibility and Replicability in Science, 5 Sustaining Public Trust in Science, 11 3 APPROACHES TO CULTIVATE TRANSPARENT REPORTING IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH 17 Early Career Investigator Perspective, 19 Culture Change Organization Perspective, 22 Scientific Society Journal Editor Perspective, 25 National Institutes of Health Perspective, 28 Discussion, 30 4 LESSONS LEARNED AND BEST PRACTICES 35 Lessons from the SPIRIT Initiative, 37 The Institution’s Role in Improving ReproducibilIty, 40 Funder/Foundation Role in Influencing and Enabling Reproducibility, 43 Discussion, 47 xix PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

xx CONTENTS 5 CHECKLISTS AND GUIDELINES 53 Checklist Implementation by Life Science Journals: Toward Minimum Reporting Standards for Research, 56 Approaches to Improve Adherence to Checklists and Guidelines, 62 Discussion, 65 6 TOWARD MINIMAL REPORTING STANDARDS FOR PRECLINICAL BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH 73 What Transparent Reporting Means for Reviewers, 75 Improving Assessment of Reproducibility, 76 Culture Change for Journal Publishers, 78 Engaging Research Support Staff, 78 Librarians Driving Institutional Change, 80 Applying a Systematic Framework to Developing Mimimal Reporting Standards, 82 The Impact of Minimal Standards on Improving Methodology, 84 Discussion, 87 7 STAKEHOLDER OPPORTUNITIES FOR PROMOTING TRANSPARENT REPORTING 91 Small Group Discussion Reports, 92 Closing Statement, 100 APPENDIXES A REFERENCES 101 B BACKGROUND DISCUSSION DOCUMENT: SELECTED GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPARENT REPORTING 105 C WORKSHOP AGENDA 111 PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Acronyms and Abbreviations AlzPED Alzheimer’s Disease Preclinical Efficacy Database ARRIVE Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments CONSORT Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials COPE Committee on Publication Ethics CRO Contract Research Organization CTSA Clinical and Translational Science Awards ECNP European College of Neuropsychopharmacology EQIPD European Quality in Preclinical Data EQUATOR Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research FSU Florida State University ICMJE International Committee of Medical Journal Editors IRB Institutional Review Board MDAR materials, design, analysis, and reporting METRICS Meta-Research Innovation Center at Stanford NAS National Academy of Sciences NCCIH National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NIH) xxi PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

xxii ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS NIH National Institutes of Health (Department of Health and Human Services) NINDS National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NIH) NPQIP Nature Publishing Group Quality in Publication PCORI Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute PLOS Public Library of Science PRISMA Preferred Reproting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses PTSD posttraumatic stress disorder RCR responsible conduct of research RQR rigor, quality, and reproducibility SEPTRE SPIRIT Electronic Protocol Tool and Resource SPIRIT Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials TOP Transparency and Openness Promotion PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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Sharing knowledge is what drives scientific progress - each new advance or innovation in biomedical research builds on previous observations. However, for experimental findings to be broadly accepted as credible by the scientific community, they must be verified by other researchers. An essential step is for researchers to report their findings in a manner that is understandable to others in the scientific community and provide sufficient information for others to validate the original results and build on them. In recent years, concern has been growing over a number of studies that have failed to replicate previous results and evidence from larger meta-analyses, which have pointed to the lack of reproducibility in biomedical research.

On September 25 and 26, 2019, the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine hosted a public workshop in Washington, DC, to discuss the current state of transparency in the reporting of preclinical biomedical research and to explore opportunities for harmonizing reporting guidelines across journals and funding agencies. Convened jointly by the Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation; the Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders; the National Cancer Policy Forum; and the Roundtable on Genomics and Precision Health, the workshop primarily focused on transparent reporting in preclinical research, but also considered lessons learned and best practices from clinical research reporting. This publication summarizes the presentation and discussion of the workshop.

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